Source: Abu'l-Fazl 'Allami, A'IN-I AKBARI (3 vols.). Vol. 1 trans. H. Blochmann, 1927. Vol. 1, pp. 61-64. Ed. *ZDJ*

Book 1, Chapter 24: Recipes for Dishes

There are many dishes, but the description is difficult.   I shall give some particulars. Cooked victuals may be arranged under three heads, first, such in which no meat is used, called nowadays sufiyana; secondly, such in which meat and rice, etc., are used; thirdly, meats with spices. I shall give ten recipes of each kind.

1. Zard birinj: 10s of rice; 5s of sugarcandy; 3.5 s of ghi; raisins, almonds, and pistachios, .5 s. of salt; 1/8 s of fresh ginger; 1.5 dams saffron, 2.5 misqals of cinnamon. This will make four ordinary dishes. Some make this dish with fewer spices, and even without any; and instead of with meat and sweets, they prepare it also with meat and salt.
2. Khushka: 10s. rice; .5s salt; but it is made in different ways. This will likewise give four dishes. One maund of Dewzirai paddy yields 25s. of rice, of which 17 sers make a full pot; jinjin rice yields 22 sers.
3. Khichri: Rice, mung dal (split peas), and ghi 5s. of each; 1/3 s. of salt; this gives seven dishes.
4. Shirbirinj: 10 s. milk; 1 s. rice; 1 s. sugarcandy; 1 d. salt; this gives five full dishes.
5. Thuli: 10 s. of wheat, ground, of which one-third will be lost; half of that quantity of ghi; 10 misqals of pepper; 4 m. cinnamon; 3.5 m. cloves and cardamoms; 1/3 s. salt; some add milk and sweetmeats; this gives four dishes.
6. Chikhi: 10 s. of wheat-flour, made into a paste, and washed till it is reduced to 2 s. of fine wheat-flour, made into a paste, and washed till it is reduced to 2 s. of fine paste.  This is mixed with spices, and dressed with various kinds of meat. 1 s. ghi; 1 s. onions; saffron, cardmums, and cloves ½ d. of each; cinnamon, round pepper, and coriander seed, 1 d. of each; fresh ginger, salt 3d. of each; this gives two dishes; some add lime juice.
7. Badinjan (eggplant): 10 s.; 1.5 s. ghi 3.75 s. onions; .25 s. ginger and lime juice; pepper and coriander seed, 5 m. of each; cloves, cardamoms, and assafoetida and coriander each .5 m. This gives six dishes.
8. Pahit: For ten sers of deal of vetches (or gram, or skinned lentils, etc.) take 2.5 s. ghi; .5 s. of salt and fresh ginger; 2 m cuminseed; 1.5 m. assafoetida: this yields 15 dishes.  It is mostly eaten with Khushka.
9. Sag: It is made of spinach, and other greens, and is one of the most pleasant dishes. 10 s spinach, fennel, etc. 1.5 ghi; 1 s. onions; .5 s. fresh ginger; 5.5 m. of pepper; .5 m.  of cardamoms and cloves; this gives six dishes.
10. Halwa: Flour, sugarcandy, ghi, 10 s. of each, which will give fifteen dishes; it is eaten in various ways.

There are also various kinds of sugared fruits, and drinks, which I cannot here describe.

1. Qabuli: 10 s. rice; 7 s. meat; 3.5 s. ghi; 1 s. gram skinned; 2 s. onions; .5 salt; .25 s. fresh ginger; cinnamon, round pepper, cuminseed, of each 1 d.; cardamoms and cloves, .5 d. of each; some add almonds and rasins; this gives five dishes.
2. Duzdbiryan. 10 s. rice, 3.5 s. ghi: 10 s. meat; .5 s. salt: this gives five dishes.
3. Qima (pounded or minced meat) Palao Rice and meat as in the preceding; 4 s. ghi; 1 s. peeled gram, 2 s. onions; .5 s. salt; .25 s. fresh ginger, and pepper; cuminseed, cardamoms and cloves, 1 d. of each : this gives five dishes.
4. Shulla: 10 s. meat, 3.5 s. rice; 2 s. ghi; 1 s. gram; 2 s. onions; .5 s. salt; .25 s fresh ginger; 2 d. garlic, and round pepper, cinnamon, cardamoms, cloves, 1 d.  of each: this gives six dishes.
5. Bughra: 10 s. meat; 3 s. flour;  .5 s. ghi; 1 s. gram; 1.5 s. vinegar; 1 s. sugarcandy; onions, carrots, beets, turnips, spinach, fennel, ginger, .25 s. of each; saffron, cloves, cardamoms, cuminseed, 1 d. of each; 2 d. cinnamon; 8 m. round peeper this gives twelve dishes.
6. Qima Shurba: 10 s. meat; 1 s. rice; 1 s. ghi; .5 s.  gram and the rest as in the Shulla: this gives ten full dishes.
7. Harisa: 10 s. meat; 5 s. crushed wheat; 2 s. ghi; .5 s. salt; 2 d. cinnamon this gives five dishes.
8. Kashk: 10 s. meat; 5 s. crushed wheat; 3 s. ghi; 1 s. gram; .25 s salt; 1.5 s. onions; .5 s. ginger; 1 d. cinnamon; saffron, cloves, cardamoms, cuminseed, 2 m. of each: this gives five dishes.
9. Halim: The meat, wheat, gram, spices, and saffron, as in the preceding; 1 s. ghi; turnips, carrots, spinach, fennel, .25 s. of each: this gives then dishes.
10. Qutab, which the people of Hind call sanbusa: This is made in several ways. 10 s. meat; 4 s. fine flour; 2 s. ghi; 1 s. onions; .25 s. fresh ginger; .5 s. salt; 2 d. pepper and coriander seed; cardamoms, cuminseed, cloves, 1 d. of each; .25 s. of summaq. This can be cooked in twenty different ways, and gives four full dishes.

1. Biryan. For a whole Dashmondi sheep, take 2 s. salt; 1 s. ghi; 2 m. saffron, cloves, pepper, cuminseed: it is made in various ways.
2. Yakhni (gravy): for 10 s. meat, take 1 s. onions, and .5 s. salt.
3. Yulma: A sheep is scalded in water till all the wool comes off; it is then prepared like yakhni, or any other way; but a lamb, or a kid, is more preferable.
4. Kabab is of various kinds. 10 s. meat; .5 s. ghi; salt, fresh ginger, onions, .25 s. of each.
5. Musamman: They take all the bones out of a fowl through the neck, the fowl remaining whole; .5 s. minced meat; .5 s. ghi; 5 eggs; .25 s. onions; 10 m. coriander; 10 m. fresh ginger; 5 m. salt; 3 m. round pepper; .5 m. saffron. It is prepared as the preceding.
6. Dupiyaza: 10 s. meat that is middling fat; 2 s. ghi; 2 s. onions; .25 s. salt; 1/8 s. fresh pepper; cuminseed, coriander seed, cardamoms, cloves, 1 d. of each; 2 d. pepper: this will give five dishes.
7. Mutanjana sheep: 10 s. meat that is middling in fat; 2 s ghi; .5 s. gram; .25s. ginger; 1 d. cuminseed; round pepper, cloves, cardamoms, coriander seed, 2  d. of each; this will give seven dishes full.  It is also made of fowl and fish.
8. Dampukht: 10 s. meat; 2 s. ghi; 1 s. onions; 11 m. fresh ginger; 10 m. pepper; 2 d. cloves; 2 d. cardamoms.
9. Qaliyy: 10 s. meat; 2 s. ghi; 1 s. onions; 2 d. pepper; cloves, cardamoms, 1 d. each; 1/8 s. salt: this will give eight dishes. In preparing qaliya, the meat is minced and the gravy rather thick, in opposition to the mutanjana. Here in Hind they prepare it in various ways.
10. Malghuba: 10 s. meat; 10 s. curds; 1 s. ghi; 1 s. onions; .25 s ginger; 5 d. cloves: this will give ten dishes.

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