BRITISH RULE (1858-1947)

After the Rebellion of 1857, the British government assumed direct rule over India, replacing the Company; in 1877, Victoria became "Queen-Empress" as well
"Viceroys" now ruled India, wielding power on behalf of the sovereign
The sea traffic between England and India steadily increased, and now there was a (partially) *"overland route"* too 
British colonial life became even more complex over time-- and always full of travel
All this was made possible, just as in the Company days, by huge staffs of servants
Simla, a refuge from the heat of the plains, became the summer capital of the Raj, and other "hill stations" developed as well
Banking and other commercial activities grew steadily more Anglicized
Old technologies were improved, and new ones introduced, with much fanfare
No new technology had a larger impact than the railway (1850's onward)
The postal service was highly organized, well-staffed, and often remarkably efficient
Police forces, a novelty in England as well, began to be organized; magistrates held court in all sorts of settings
Indian art, design, culture, and botanical wonders were studied; museums were created
Famines were all too common in India during the later 1800's; famine-relief efforts, though sometimes heroic, often turned out to be greatly inadequate
Pomp and circumstance were maintained during imperially-sponsored tours, especially the visit of the Prince of Wales in 1875-76
And why not a spot of big-game hunting?
By the 1880s, Indian soldiers were serving the Empire not only in India, but abroad as well; they had elaborate uniforms, and regimental traditions to go with them

Military and political expansion into the "near abroad" began with repeated expeditions to the tribal northeast, and into Burma

In 1911, King George and Queen Mary visited India, and in Delhi they offered a classic Mughal-style "jharoka darshan" ("balcony viewing") along with fine darbar scenes
Bombay's great landmark, the "Gateway of India," was conceived to commemorate this visit
During World War I Indian troops were in European trenches, fighting together with British troops; World War II was to be a more complex case
The monument at the site of General Dyer's bloody Jalianwala Bagh massacre of unarmed protesters, Amritsar 1919
Also in 1919 the India Gate in New Delhi was first conceived, as a monument to the Indian soldiers who had died in World War I and the Afghan Wars
The India Gate was part of a new imperial administrative area that came to be known, for its architect, as *"Lutyens' Delhi"*

The endgame approaches: Indian troops in World War II

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