== SITEMAP for INDIAN ROUTES ==
(showing the "scrapbook pages" within the site itself)

*INDIAN ROUTES index page*

*the Honor Roll of image sources*

pre-
500's
499-
400
399-
300
299-
200
199-
100
99-
00
0
00-
99
100-
199
200-
299
300-
399
400-
499
500-
599
600-
699
700-
799
800-
899
900-
999
1000-
1099
1100-
1199
1200-
1299
1300-
1399
1400-
1499
1500-
1599
1600-
1699
1700-
1799
1800-
1899
1900-
1999
 
pre-
500
BCE

==Plate tectonics
==the Himalayas
==Cave paintings-- *CAVE PAINTINGS*
==Mesopotamia
==the Indus Valley Civilization-- *The INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION*
==the Indo-European language family
==the Mitanni people
==the gathas of the Zend Avesta
==the Vedas-- *The VEDAS*
==the Upanishads-- *The UPANISHADS*
==The earliest coins appear-- *Maha-janapada coins*
==Persia rules Gandhara and Sind-- *GANDHARA*
==Darius explores the Indus
==Indus Sind Hind Hindu Hindavi India
==Mahavira and Jainism
499-
400
BCE

==The Buddha is born-- *The BUDDHA*
==the Buddha's teaching
==Herodotus
==The giant gold-digging ants
==the Buddha's death
399-
300
BCE

==Alexander the Great--*Alexander*
==Gandhara
==Chandragupta Maurya
==Chandragupta defeats Seleukos
==Megasthenes visits Pataliputra
==Kautilya's Arthashastra
==Panini
299-
200
BCE

==Ashoka Maurya-- *ASHOKA*
==Ashoka's famous pillars
==The first written records in South Asia 
==the Barabar cave-temples -- *Barabar*
==the Greco-Bactrian kings-- *Greco-Bactrian coins*
==the Mahabharata-- *The MAHABHARATA*
==the Ramayana-- *The RAMAYANA*
199-
100
BCE

==Demetrios and the "Indo-Greek kingdom"-- *Indo-Greek coins*
==Menander/Milinda-- *Menander's coins*
==the Shunga dynasty-- *the Shunga dynasty*
==the Kushan dynasty in Gandhara
==the Pillar of Heliodorus
==Sanchi-- *SANCHI*
==an unknown goddess-- *Unknown goddess*
99-
00
BCE

==Bhaja-- *Bhaja*
==Bharhut
==Ajanta-- *AJANTA*
==Augustus Caesar reflects
==Strabo too speaks
==the Parthians
==the Indo-Scythian Shakas-- *Shaka coins*
==Mahayana Buddhism
00-
99
CE

==the Kushan dynasty kings-- *Kushan coins*
==Gondophares and the Indo-Parthian kingdom-- *Gondophares's coins*
==Strabo's India
==Saint Thomas in India-- *Saint Thomas*
==Karle-- *KARLE*
==the Periplus
==Pliny dies with Pompeii
==Tamil begins to develop
==An unknown Nagini
==Dharmanandi dedicates a Bodhisattva
==The Jains split
==Patanjali
100-
199

==Ptolemy sees India
==Nalanda-- *Nalanda*
==Nagarjuna
==Amaravati
==Kanheri-- *KANHERI*
==the Bhagavad Gita-- *The GITA*
==Kanishka and his inscriptions-- *Kanishka*
==Kanishka's Buddhist coins
=="Gandharan" Kushan art in full flower-- *"GANDHARAN" KUSHAN ART*
==The earliest Buddhist manuscripts
==Trajan weeps as he turns back
==Nahapana
==Huvishka-- *Huvishka's coins*
==Rudradaman's Sanskrit
==Arrian's Anabasis
==Pausanias
==the Laws of Manu
200-
299

==A Buddhist stupa at Mohenjo-daro
==Takht-e Bahi-- *Takht-e Bahi*
==Vasudeva I-- *Vasudeva's coins* -- *Late Kushan coins*
=="Apollonius of Tyana"
==Nagarjunakonda
300-
399

==Bamian and its huge Buddhas-- *Bamian*
==Fa-Hsien
==The Gupta dynasty-- *Early Gupta coins*
==the early Puranas
==Kalidasa
400-
499

==Udaigiri-- *Udaigiri*
==the Hunas attack the Guptas-- *Late Gupta coins* -- *Huna coins*
==Paintings at Ajanta
==Sarnath-- *SARNATH*
==Deogarh-- *DEOGARH*
==The great gods evolve-- *The PANTHEON*
500-
599

==Indian Ocean trading communities -- *TRADE BY RIVER AND SEA*
==the Hunas
==the Bhakti movement begins in the South
==Elephanta-- *ELEPHANTA*
==Badami-- *BADAMI*
600-
699

==Goddess-worship
==Harshavardhana
==Harsha and Tai-Tsung
==Barlaam and Joasaaph
==The first coins of Muslim rulers
==Hsuan Tsang
==Mamallapuram-- *MAMALLAPURAM*
==Aihole
==Ellora-- *ELLORA*
==Tamil literature
700-
799

==Muhammad bin Qasim in Sind-- *Muhammad bin Qasim*
=="Arabic" numerals--and much more
==the Salt Range temples
==Kashmir under Lalitaditya
==Osian-- *OSIAN*
==Kailashnath Temple at Ellora-- *KAILASHNATH*
==Bhubaneshwar and Puri-- *BHUBANESHWAR*
==Dynasties constantly rising and falling
==Shankaracharya-- *Shankaracharya*
800-
899

==The Parsis appear
==The Palas patronize Buddhism
==The Rajputs make their presence felt
==The Muslim world expands
==Bilhana
900-
999

==Mansur al-Hallaj passes through Sind
==Delhi emerges
==Khajuraho is begun-- *KHAJURAHO*
==Subuktigin rules in Ghazni-- *Subuktigin*
==the Bhagavata Purana is completed
==the Chola dynasty
==Abhinavagupta
1000-
1099

==The Brihadishvara Temple, Thanjavur-- *SOUTHERN TEMPLES*
==The Kandariya Mahadeva Temple at Khajuraho-- *KANDARIYA*
==Mahmud Ghaznavi-- *The GHAZNAVIDS*
==Mahmud's numerous raids
==Rajendra I Chola's military conquests
==al-Biruni's "Tarikh al-Hind"
==Jain temples-- *JAIN TEMPLES*
==Hazrat Data Ganj Bakhsh in Lahore, and "Kashf al-Majhub"
==the Silk Road-- *CAMELS*
1100-
1199

==Miniature paintings
==Angkor Wat
==Ramanuja
==Jayadeva's "Gita Govinda"
==the Jagannath temple, Puri-- *JAGANNATH*
==the Lingayats appear
==Muhammad Ghuri's military successes
==Qutb ud-Din Aibak occupies Delhi
==Hazrat Mu'in ud-Din Chishti-- *AJMER and the DARGAH of Hazrat MU'IN UD-DIN*
==Adhai Din ka Jhompra, Ajmer-- *Adhai Din ka Jhompra*
1200-
1299

==Qutb ud-Din Aibak and the Qubbat ul-Islam Mosque-- *The early DELHI SULTANATE and the SEVEN CITIES of DELHI*
==the Qutb Minar, symbol of Delhi-- *The QUTB MINAR complex*
==the Mongols sweep down from the north
==Sultana Raziya
==the Mongols sack Lahore
==Baba Farid
==Hazrat Nizamuddin Auliya-- *The DARGAH of Hazrat NIZAMUDDIN*; *SUFISM*
==the Sun Temple at Konarak-- *Konarak*
==Amir Khusrau
==Trade routes
==Namdev and Jnandev
==Marco Polo stops by
1300-
1399

==Tamil in Sri Lanka
==More trouble from the Mongols
=='Ala ud-Din Khilji-- *The DELHI SULTANATE and the SEVEN CITIES of DELHI in the 1300's*
==More cities of Delhi
==Daulatabad: Delhi in the Deccan?-- *DAULATABAD*
==Muhammad Shah's bronze coin experiment
==Ibn Battuta visits
==The Bahmanids form a new kingdom in the Deccan-- *Gulbarga*
==Vijayanagar dazzles visitors-- *HAMPI*
==Jain painting-- *JAIN ART*
==Lal Ded
==Sir John Mandeville
==Muslims in Bengal
==Timur sacks Delhi
1400-
1499

==The Delhi Sultanate in decline-- *The late DELHI SULTANATE and the SEVEN CITIES of DELHI*
==Mandu-- *MANDU*
==Ahmedabad-- *AHMEDABAD* -- *JAUNPUR*
==Jodhpur and other Rajput forts-- *RAJPUT FORTS*
==the Muslim world has adjusted
==the Bhakti movement sweeps the North-- *BHAKTI*
==Kabir-- *Kabir*
==Guru Nanak
==Surdas and Krishna-bhakti-- *KRISHNA-BHAKTI*
==Chaitanya and Bengali Vaishnavism
==the Hatha-Yoga-Pradipika-- *YOGA*
==the Bahmanids break apart-- *BIDAR*
==Vasco da Gama arrives-- *VASCO DA GAMA*
1500-
1599

==the Deccani Sultanates flourish-- *GOLCONDA* -- *BIJAPUR*
==the Portuguese in Goa-- *The PORTUGUESE in GOA*
==Munster's Cosmographia
==Mirabai
==Babur and the "Babur Namah"-- *BABUR*
==Humayun-- *HUMAYUN*
==Sher Shah Suri
==Bombay is seized-- *BOMBAY*
==Manjhan's "Madhumalati"
==Gulbadan composes
==Humayun returns, conquers, dies
==Sidi Ali Reis composes
==Luis de Camoens composes
==Akbar-- *AKBAR* -- *the LAHORE FORT*
==Vijayanagar is sacked
==Fatahpur Sikri-- *FATAHPUR SIKRI*
==Tulsidas and the "Ramcharitmanas"
==Keshavdas at Orchha-- *ORCHHA*
==the Golden Temple-- *The GOLDEN TEMPLE and Sikhism*
==Deccani miniature painting
==Abu'l-Fazl's chronicles
==Mughal power in Bengal
1600-
1699

==the British East India Company
==Mughal influence in Bengal
==Jahangir-- *JAHANGIR*
==Sir Thomas Roe-- *Sir Thomas Roe*
==Shah Jahan-- *SHAH JAHAN*
==the Taj Mahal and the Agra Fort-- *The TAJ MAHAL* -- *The AGRA FORT*
==Fort St. George-- *MADRAS*
==Sir Thomas Browne
==Shahjahanabad-- *SHAHJAHANABAD* and the *RED FORT*
==Dara Shikoh
==Aurangzeb-- *AURANGZEB*
==Francois Bernier
==Tavernier's travels
==Aurangzeb and "the communalization of history"
==Sarmad
==Shivaji and the Marathas-- *THE MARATHAS*
==Rajasthani painting develops
==Goddess worship and tantra-- *TANTRA*
==the French, in Pondicherry and elsewhere-- *The FRENCH*
==Guru Gobind Singh
==Calcutta is founded-- *CALCUTTA*
1700-
1799

==After Aurangzeb-- *LATER MUGHALS*
==Local rulers and trading networks-- *LOCAL RULERS* -- *TRADING NETWORKS* -- *THE MALABAR COAST* -- *THE COROMANDEL COAST*
==Bernard Picart-- *Picart* -- *EUROPEAN COLLECTIONS OF KNOWLEDGE*
==Punjabi poetry
==the Navabs of Avadh-- *AVADH and the Navabs in the 1700's* -- *SHI'A ISLAM*
==Mir and the Urdu ghazal
==the Nizams of Hyderabad-- *HYDERABAD and the Nizams*
==Jaipur and the Jantar Mantars-- *JAIPUR and the JANTAR MANTARS*
==Baji Rao sacks the Delhi suburbs
==Nadir Shah sacks Delhi
==Ahmad Shah Abdali sacks Delhi repeatedly
==Clive and the Battle of Plassey-- *COMPANY RULE*
==Dean Mahomed
==the first Resident in Avadh
==Col. Polier and his letters-- *Col. Polier*
==Claude Martin and his schools-- *Claude Martin*
==Sir William Jones-- *Sir William Jones*
==Ghulam Qadir sacks Delhi
==Tipu Sultan-- *TIPU SULTAN*
==James Achilles Kirkpatrick
==Francois Balthasar Solvyns-- *Solvyns*
1800-
1899

==Fort William College
==Ranjit Singh-- *RANJIT SINGH'S KINGDOM*
==Raja Ram Mohun Roy
==Macaulay's "Minute on Education"
==Mirza Asadullah Khan "Ghalib"-- *GHALIB*
==Bahadur Shah "Zafar"
==the First Anglo-Afghan War-- *THE NORTHWEST FRONTIER*
==Kashmir is sold-- *KASHMIR*
==Princess Gouramma of Coorg converts-- *Coorg princess*
==Avadh is seized
==the Rebellion of 1857-- *The REBELLION OF 1857*
==England as imperial power-- *BRITISH RULE* -- *The PRINCES* -- *AVADH and the Navabs in the 1800's*
==Deoband is founded
==the Arya Samaj is founded
==Sri Ramakrishna
=="Kashidarpana"-- *VARANASI* -- *PERSPECTIVES ON HINDUISM*
==Toru Dutt
==Victoria becomes Empress
==Aligarh M.A.O. College is founded-- *ALIGARH M.A.O. COLLEGE* -- *STYLES OF EDUCATION*
==Madame Blavatsky visits
==Azad and Hali
==the Indian National Congress is founded-- *The INDEPENDENCE MOVEMENT*
==Rudyard Kipling-- *Kipling*
==New voices begin to be heard-- *WOMEN'S SPACES* -- *DAILY LIFE -- DRAWINGS*
1900-
1999

==Annie Besant
==Sister Nivedita
==Rabindranath Tagore
==Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi-- *GANDHI*
==Sarojini Naidu
==Abdul Ghaffar Khan-- *Abdul Ghaffar Khan*
==Dr. B. R. Ambedkar-- *Dr. B. R. AMBEDKAR*
==Paramahansa Yogananda
==Sir Muhammad Iqbal-- *IQBAL (and beyond)*
==Independence and Partition-- *PARTITION and INDEPENDENCE*
==Nirad Chaudhuri
==Jawaharlal Nehru
==Abul Kalam Azad-- *Abul Kalam Azad*
==Bangladesh is born
==Nek Chand's rock garden in Chandigarh
==The Babri Masjid is destroyed
==Visions of South Asia-- *DRAWINGS*; *PHOTOGRAPHS*; *FANTASIES*
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