*"Mother India" was the title of a controversial book about caste oppression and other social evils by Catherine Mayo (Bombay, 1928)*

A few illustrations from the book: *The Untouchable*; *Hindu Mother and Child*; *The Goat-slayers*

Source: ebay, Apr. 2007

"Hind Devi", in a print from the 1920's-30's; *another print from the same period*

Source: ebay, Jan. 2016

"Bharat Mata," a print from the 1940's

Source: ebay, June 2006

*"Mahatma Gandhi in the Lap of Bharat Mata," a print from the 1940's*

Source: ebay, June 2006

*"Shri Bharatmata," a print from the 1940's*

Source: ebay, Apr. 2006

"Message of love": a serene Bharat Mata inclusively interpreted, with room for everybody (Ravi Verma Press, Trivandrum, 1930's)

Source: ebay, Mar. 2005

*A Bharat Mata with an Indian flag instead of a map; 1950's?*

Source: ebay, Aug. 2009

*"Mother India" (1957) also became the title of a film about the sufferings of a village mother*

Source: ebay, Dec. 2005

"MOTHER INDIA-- Cast: Nargis, Raj Kumar, Sunil Dutt, Rajendra Kumar. Producer/Director: Mehboob Khan. Music: Naushad. Year: 1957. 'Mother India' is an epic saga of the sufferings of an Indian peasant woman that would become one of the most important cinematic tributes to Indian womanhood. Abandoned by her husband, Radha raises her three sons and fends off the landlord's advances and extortions on her own. One son dies; another matures into a dutiful son, but the third—Birju—grows up a wayward rebel. Radha has to make the ultimate sacrifice, in honour of her village, by shooting Birju down."

*M. F. Husain's depiction of the theme also suggests her suffering-- but behind the Himalayas, the sun is rising*

Source: http://photos1.blogger.com/blogger/1909/761/1600/23.jpg
(downloaded May 2006)

A Bharat Mata from the 1970's, with no Muslims included

Source: ebay, Aug. 2006

The goddess wears a necklace containing the heads of some of her devoted sons

Source: ebay, Apr. 2013

*A Bharat Mata without a map, but holding a trishul and flag instead*

Source: ebay, Oct. 2009

"Bharat Mata" (labeled in Hindi above the image), as installed in Daulatabad Fort

Source: http://www.indiamike.com/photopost/showphoto.php/photo/6235/sort/1/cat/all/page/6
(downloaded Feb. 2005)

The VHP's version

Source: http://www.vhp.org/news/gallery/aahvaan2%20copy.jpg
(downloaded May 2006)

"The Death of Satyam Shivam Sundaram," showing the grief of "Mother India" over Gandhi; a modern water-color

Source: http://www.exoticindia.com/product/WC81/
(downloaded June 2006)

*The interior of the Bharat Mata temple, Banaras, features a gigantic map*

Source: http://joel.toonywood.org/photos/voyage-inde-2005/grand/048.jpg
(downloaded May 2006)

A modern flashing version of Bharat Mata, with a lion who links her to Durga; *a non-flashing version*

Source: http://www.angelfire.com/ca/VinitBudhiraja/bmata.html
(downloaded May 2006)

*Bharat Mata is dressed in the design of the Indian flag; bazaar art, c.2007*

Source: ebay, Sept. 2007

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