Premchand's Presidential address to the newly-founded
All-India Progressive Writers' Association
Lucknow, April 1936
(six months before his death)


*on the textual sources for this speech*

*the Urdu version*
from Mazamin-e Premchand, ed. Qamar Rais (Aligarh: University Publishers, 1960)

*the Hindi version*
from Premchand, Sahitya ka Uddeshya (Allahabad: Hans Prakashan, 1967)

*an English translation by Hans Raj Rahbar*
from Premchand, His Life and Work (Delhi: Atma Ram & Sons, 1957)

a transcription of the first seven pages of the Urdu text
(also viewable in Devanagari)
with an English translation by FWP

*Part One* == Our language has developed a literature

*Part Two* == The best definition of literature

*Part Three* == Our literary taste is quickly changing

*Part Four* == How the modern author writes

*"The Shroud" index page* -- *FWP's main page*