Frankfurt, the cathedral area in ruins after Allied bombings March 31, 1945,
U.S. Army photo. The area shown is about 2.5km SSE of the high school. The
USAAF bombed during daylight so they could see what they were doing, unlike
the British who bombed at night and didn't care who or what they hit. At
first the US bombers tried to hit only military targets. But towards the
end of the war numerous cities including Frankfurt were virtually wiped out
by the USAAF as well as the RAF. The Americans, however, always advocates
of "precision bombing", managed to avoid hitting the Dom, the Bahnhof, and
the I.G. Farben building
the interior of the Dom was entirely burned out because of the surrounding
fires; it was reconstructed in the 1950s. The Dom was where the Holy
Roman Emperors were elected, 1356-1792, and where they were crowned
[See leaflet dropped on Frankfurt by RAF]
Unlike London and Berlin, Frankfurt did not have a subway to shelter in, but
it did have a network of virtually indestructible above-ground bomb shelters
as well as at least one bunker hospital. Also, numerous buildings had
reinforced basement shelters (ausgebaute Schutzkeller), often connected by
makeshift tunnels for alternative escape routes. The death toll from the
bombing in Frankfurt was 5,500 out of a population of about 550,000,
a much lower death rate than in cities such as Hamburg, Dresden, Kassel,
and Darmstadt where there were firestorms.
- Donald L. Miller,
of the Air, Simon & Schuster (2006).
- Davis, Richard G.,
the European Axis Powers - A Historical Digest of the Combined Bomber
Offensive 1939-1945, Air University Press, Maxwell Air Force Base,
Alabama, April 2006, 652 pages. Covers the Allied bombing offensive in
detail, including all the raids on Frankfurt.
in Air Raid Shelters - 'Bunker Hospitals': Frankfurt am Main,
Offenbach am Main, Mannheim am Neckar, US Naval Forces, Germany,
Technical Section (Medical), 1945, 60 pages (the first six are blank). The
first section describes a 488-bed bunker hospital in Frankfurt in great
detail, complete with photographs, but does not seem to mention exactly
where it was, or if it was the only one of its kind (but see ):
of Frankfurt am Main in World War II, Wikipedia (accessed
10 September 2019).
of Frankfurt, Wikipedia (accessed 10 September 2019).
Wikipedia (accessed 10 September 2019).
- Bunker in
Frankfurt am Main, bkffm.siemavisuart.de/bunker/bkfra.html, accessed
25 February 2020. Thanks to Klaus Peter Laatz for referring me to this site.
- Armin Schmid, Frankfurt
im Feuersturm, Verlag Frankfurter Bücher (1965).
A thorough and detailed account of the
bombing of Frankfurt as well as the deportation of its Jews, with many
- Martin Nicolaus,
of Frankfurt (1945-1953).
- Hans Jürgen Massaquoi,
Destined to Witness, Harper Perennial (1999), p.142 (about the
air-raid shelter construction program).