Updating the Climate Science
What Path is the Real World Following?
Makiko Sato & James Hansen
Climate Science, Awareness and Solutions (CSAS)
Columbia University Earth Institute
475 Riverside Drive (Room 401-O)
New York, NY 10115
Our aim is to help people understand global climate change and how the factors that
drive climate are changing.
We start with climate diagnostics people are usually most interested in climate change itself.
But cause-and-effect analysis requires also data on climate forcings (which drive climate change)
and feedbacks (which amplify or diminish climate change).
Future climate depends on how climate forcings change human-made greenhouse
gases, especially carbon dioxide, and forcings that are not yet well measured, especially aerosols.
The speed and degree of climate change also will depend upon how fast amplifying feedbacks,
such as Arctic sea ice, the large ice sheets, and methane hydrates come into play.
Table of Contents
Critical Climate Diagnostics and Feedbacks
Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions and Energy Use
Books by James Hansen
"Storms of My Grandchildren"
Efficacy of Climate Forcings (2005)
- "Efficacy of Climate Forcings"
- Equation & Table
Target Atmospheric CO2 (2008)
- "Target Atmospheric CO2: Where Should Humanity Aim?"
The Open Atmospheric Journal, 2008, 2 217-231.
- Some Figures and Data Sets
Energy Imbalance (2011)
- "Earth's energy imbalance and implications
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11 13421-13449.
- Some Figures
Perceptions and Dice (2012 and 2013)
- "Perceptions of climate change" PNAS 2012 109 (37) E2415-E2423.
Author Summary and Full Text published ahead of print August 6, 2012.
- Some updated figures (last modified 2023/09/20)
- Press Release (2012/08/06), Science Briefs" (2012/08) and Discussions (2012/08/11)
- Animation in Press Release
- "It's Not Your Imagination. Summers Are Getting Hotter." by Nadja Popovich and Adam Pearce published in New York Times on 2017/07/28.
- "It's Not Your Imagination. Summers Are Getting Hotter." by Nadja Popovich and Adam Pearce published in New York Times on 2023/10/07.
Climate Sensitivity, ... (2013)
- "Climate Sensitivity, Sea Level and Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide"
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A 371 20120294.
Assessing "Dangerous Climate Change" (2013)
Ice Melt, Sea Level Rise and Superstorms (2016)
Climate Change and Responsibilities (2016)
Regional Climate Change and National Responsibilities Environ. Res. Lett. 11 (2016) 034009 (9 pp.), published on 2016/03/02.
- Figures only
- Popular science summary (2016/03/01)
- Updated summary (2020/07/06)
- One page summary (2020/07/06)
- Video abstract is available from the paper site given above.
Young People's Burden (2017)
- Young People's Burden: Requirement of Negative CO2 Emissions
Earth Syst. Dynam. 8, 577-616, Discussion posted 2016/10/04 and Final paper published on 2017/07/18.
- Appendix Tables
- Video Discussions: Video 1, Video 2, Video 3.
- Figure updates
Japan and Germany after "Fukushima" (2019)
- Implications of energy and CO2 emission changes in Japan and Germany after the Fukushima accident Energy Policy 132, 647-653, published 2019/06/15.
- Popular science summary, see also here
- Article in the New Yorker or in PDF, published 2019/12/22.
Global Warming in the Pipeline
- Global warming in the pipeline Oxford Open Climate Change, Volume 3, Issue 1, 2023, kgad008, published 2023/11/02.
- Figures Published
- Data to be on Zenodo (2023/10/08)
- Response Functions Cited in Manuscript
- Media Reports
- New York Times
- Washington Post
List of Publications