When an SQL query is compiled, a number of optimization techniques can be used to determine the most efficient access plan for that query. Using more optimization techniques results in:
For this reason, you may wish to limit the number of techniques applied to optimizing your query by setting the optimization class. This can be particularly useful if you have:
You may select from any of the query optimization classes described below, although class 0 and class 9 should be used only in special circumstances. Class 5 is the default. Classes 0, 1, and 2 use the Greedy join enumeration algorithm; for complex queries this algorithm considers far fewer alternative plans, and incurs significantly less compilation time, than classes 3 and above. Classes 3 and above use the Dynamic Programming join enumeration algorithm; this algorithm considers far more alternative plans, and can incur significantly more compilation time, than classes 0, 1, and 2 as the number of tables increases.
This class should only be used in special circumstances requiring the lowest possible query compilation overhead. An application consisting entirely of very simple dynamic SQL statements which access well-indexed tables is a good example of where query optimization class 0 is appropriate.
Optimization class 1 is quite similar to class 0 except that Merge Scan joins and table scans are also available.
Optimization class 2 is quite similar to class 5 except that it uses Greedy join enumeration rather than Dynamic Programming. This class has the most optimization of all the optimization classes that use the Greedy join enumeration algorithm, which considers fewer alternatives for complex queries, and therefore consumes less compilation time than classes 3 and above. It is therefore recommended for very complex queries in a decision support or on-line analytic processing (OLAP) environment. In such cases, there is a good chance the same query is executed infrequently, so that its access plan is unlikely to remain in the cache until the next occurence of the query.
This class is suitable for a broad range of applications. Using this class gives the optimizer a better chance of selecting an excellent access plan for queries with four or more joins. However, the optimizer might fail to consider a better plan which would be chosen with the default query optimization class.
When the optimizer detects that the additional resources and processing time are not warranted for complex dynamic SQL queries, optimization is reduced. The extent or size of the reduction is dependent on the machine size and the number of predicates.
When the query optimizer reduces the amount of query optimization performed, it continues to apply all the query rewrite rules that would normally be applied. However, it does use the greedy join enumeration method and reduces the number of access plan combinations that are considered.
Query optimization class 5 is an excellent choice for a mixed environment consisting of both transactions and complex queries. This optimization class has been designed to apply the most valuable query transformations and other query optimization techniques in an efficient manner.
This class can greatly expand the number of possible access plans that are considered by the optimizer. This class should be used to determine whether more comprehensive optimization can generate a better access plan for very complex and very long-running queries using large tables. Explain and performance measurements should be used to verify that a better plan has been found.
The way to request a specific query optimization class depends on whether you are using static or dynamic SQL.
SET CURRENT QUERY OPTIMIZATION = 1
To ensure that a dynamic SQL statement always uses the same optimization class, you may want to include this SET statement in your application program. For more information, refer to the SQL Reference.
If the CURRENT QUERY OPTIMIZATION register has not been set, dynamic statements will be bound using the default query optimization class. The default value for both dynamic and static SQL is determined by value of the configurable database parameter DFT_QUERYOPT. Class 5 is the default query optimization class unless you have changed the default. (For more information on this parameter, see "Default Query Optimization Class (dft_queryopt)".) The default values for the bind option and the special register are taken from the DFT_QUERYOPT configuration parameter.
Most statements will be adequately optimized using a reasonable amount of resources with the default query optimization class. The query compilation time and resource consumption, at a given optimization class, is primarily influenced by the complexity of the query, particularly the number of joins and subqueries. However, compilation time and resource usage are also affected by the amount of optimization performed for the various optimization classes. For any optimization class, you can expect to see a greater difference in query compilation time and resource consumption for a very complex query than for a simple one.
The following may help you select which optimization class to use:
Note that query optimization classes 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 are all suitable for general purpose use.
Only if you require further reductions in query compilation time and you know the kind of SQL (for example, extremely simple statements) that will be executed should you consider class 0. This SQL will tend to have the following characteristics:
Online transaction processing (OLTP) transactions are good examples of this kind of SQL.
Complex queries may require different amounts of optimization to select the best access plan. You may wish to consider using higher optimization classes for queries exhibiting the following characteristics:
Decision support queries or month-end reporting queries against fully normalized databases are good examples of complex queries where at least the default query optimization class should be used.
Another reason to use higher query optimization classes is SQL which was produced by a query generator. Many query generators create SQL which is not efficient. Poorly written queries, including those produced by a query generator, may require additional optimization to make it possible to select a good access plan. Using query optimization class 2 and higher can improve poorly written SQL queries.
The use of static or dynamic SQL, and whether the same dynamic SQL is repeatedly executed are also important considerations. For static SQL, the query compilation time and resources are expended just once and the resulting plan can be used many times. In general, static SQL should always use the default query optimization class. Dynamic statements are bound and executed at run time; therefore, you should consider whether the overhead of additional optimization for dynamic statements improves your overall performance. However, if the same dynamic SQL statement is executed repeatedly, the selected access plan will be cached. For the purposes of selecting a query optimization class, the statement can be treated like a static SQL statement.
(Refer to the Embedded SQL Programming Guide for information on when to use static and dynamic SQL.)
If you think you have a query that could benefit from additional optimization, but you are not sure, or you are concerned about compilation time and resource usage, you may want to perform some benchmark testing. This testing can help you quantify the benefits obtained from different optimization classes. See Chapter 19. "Benchmark Testing" for general techniques and the specific use of the db2batch tool. When designing and running your benchmark test, consider whether the SQL statements in your application are static or dynamic:
compile time + sum of execution times for all iterations -------------------------------------------------------- number of iterations
where, the number of iterations represents the number of times that you expect that the SQL statement will be executed each time it is compiled.
|Note:||Following the initial compilation, dynamic SQL statements are recompiled when a change to the environment requires the statement to be recompiled. Once cached, a SQL statement does not need to be compiled again since subsequent PREPARE statements will re-use the cached statement assuming the environment does not change. (See "Catalog Cache Size (catalogcache_sz)" and "Package Cache Size (pckcachesz)" for information about a cache that can improve performance when working with dynamic SQL statements.)|
|Note:||While you may also be interested in the compile time of static SQL, the total (compile and run) time for the statement is difficult to use in any meaningful context. Comparing the total time does not recognize the fact that a static SQL statement can be run many times for each time it is bound and that it is generally not bound during run time.|
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