The IBM 402 accounting (tabulating) machine, 1948, was an "improved and
modernized successor to the 405 accounting machine
the choice of type number notwithstanding" [4
]. The 400 series of machines was used to
read standard 80-column IBM cards
of 80 to 150 cards per minute, depending on options), accumulate sums (of
positive and/or negative numbers), subtotals, and balances, and to print
reports on its integrated printer, all under control of
instructions wired into its control panel
specified which card columns to accumulate in which counters and how to
format the report. The 402 rented for $290 per month in 1955.
The 402 series, like the 405 before it
used a typebar print mechanism, in which each column (up to 88, depending on
model and options) has its own type bar. Long type bars (on the left in
this photo) contain letters and digits; short ones contain only digits (each
kind of type bar also includes one or two symbols such as ampersand or
asterisk). Type bars shoot up and down independently, positioning the
desired character for impact printing. The arrangement of typebars suggests
the most common application for these machines: spreadsheet-like columns of
numbers, with alphabetic labels for each row on the left.
You can see typebars in action (but on a 405 rather
than a 402) in the 1943 film, Air Force, and in
film, Wing and
a Prayer. Typebars were used until the 407
(1949), which was equipped with faster type wheels.
The IBM 403 was identical to the 402 except it could print up to three lines
from one card instead of only one. Both used the same control panel, and
were smaller cousins of IBM's flagship 407. The IBM
417 and 419 were 402s without alphabetic printing, allowing operation at 150
lines per minute. The 412 was a 402 souped up as a component of the CPC; the 418 was a faster 412 (150 cpm vs 100 cpm).
Any of these models could be connected to a Type 513,
514, 517, 519, or 523 Summary Punch, allowing
totals accumulated by the accounting machine to be punched to cards for
|Type 403 Accounting Machine with Type 514 Summary Punch
|Type 403 Accounting Machine with Type 519 Summary Punch
- IBM Accounting Machine Types 402, 403, and 419: Principles of
International Business Machines: Eleventh Revision, Form 22-5654-11
(Copyright 1949, 1951, 1952, 1953).
- The IBM Card-Programmed Electronic Calculator Model A1 Using Machine
Types 412-418, 605, and 941: Principles of Operation,
International Business Machines: Third Edition, Form 22-8696-3 (1954).