L.J. Comrie


Leslie J. Comrie, Ph.D, (18931950): astronomer and pioneer in
mechanical computation, born in Pukekohe, New Zealand, and educated at
Auckland University College, University College London, and Cambridge
University, where he received a Ph.D. in
astronomy [3]. Photo: 1932, from
the Comrie obituary in Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal
Society of London.
Like his American contemporary, Columbia University Astronomy Professor Wallace Eckert, Comrie was a pioneer in the
application of punchedcard machinery to astronomical calculations and the
production of astronomical and mathematical tables: the first scientific use
of these machines, which had been designed purely for business use.
Comrie pioneered the teaching of numerical analysis in 192325 at Swarthmore
College and Northwestern University in the USA, and then joined His
Majesty's Nautical Almanac Office in Greenwich. England, in 1926  the same
year Eckert joined Columbia's Astronomy faculty. Comrie was Superintendent
of the Almanac Office from 1930 to 1936 (where, when Comrie arrived in 1925,
"the Nautical Almanac was computed by retired Cornish clergymen
with long white beards, using dogeared 7figure logarithm tables"
[Tee 1989]); Eckert was Director of the US Naval Observatory's Nautical
Almanac Office from 1940 to 1945.

Comrie was the first to turn punchedcard equipment to scientific use:
computation of astronomical tables by the method of finite differences, as
envisioned by Babbage 100 years earlier for his
Difference Engine, but not
practical until the appearance of reliable calculating machines.
Differencing was used because the
early
punchedcard machines were capable only
of addition and subtraction; not division, multiplication, exponentiation,
roots, trigonometric functions, etc. Comrie had already been using this
method for many years with handoperated desktop calculators; an excellent
review and history of differencing and its application to various types of
calculating machines is given in Comrie's 1928 BrunsvigaDupla article
(publication list below).
Comrie's April, 1928, article On the Construction of Tables by
Interpolation describes at length a laborious and errorprone
procedure for interpolating numeric table values by desktop calculator
(right) and then, in the last few pages, describes how to do the same
thing using punched cards, a tabulating machine, a duplicating punch, and a
sorter with far greater speed, but then goes on to conclude that since
Hollerith equipment is so expensive, it is rarely practical  as is often
the case with new technology. Nevertheless, as he says in his 1946 MTAC
article:


Photo: [103].
CLICK to enlarge.

The first scientific application of the Hollerith—in 1928—was
to the summation of harmonic terms, or, in other words, Fourier synthesis. In
this way the principal terms in the motion of the Moon from 1935 to 2000 were
computed. The ordinates of the various harmonics to be compounded were taken
from E.W. Brown's Tables of the Moon, and punched on to half a
million cards. These were brought together in everdiffering groups; because
the periods of the different harmonics are incommensurable, no card ever had
the same partners twice, although it may have been used 20 times in the 65
years covered. Something like 100 million figures were added in groups and
group totals printed in the course of seven months. I showed this to Brown in
the summer of 1928; he had done a great deal of this synthesis himself by
hand, and I shall ever remember his ecstasies of rapture as he saw his figures
being added at the rate of 20 or 30 a second. I think I am right in saying
that the enthusiasm with which he described the process on his return first
stimulated W.J. Eckert, the leading American pioneer of these machines for
scientific calculation.
In his May, 1932, article, The Application of the Hollerith Tabulating
Machine to Brown's Tables of the Moon, Comrie describes his
punchedcard methods in far greater detail, with paragraphs given over the
function and operation of each component  card, punch, sorter, tabulator,
printer  plus plates showing each. In this
article, for the first time, we have a description of "programming":
Automatic Control.—This feature is of the utmost importance in
the present application. When the cards corresponding to any one date have
been added, the feeding must cease while the total is being printed, the
counters must be cleared and then the feeding must be resumed. This sequence
is performed automatically, without any attention whatsoever on the part of the
operator. (Comrie goes on to describe how the tabulator plugboard has
been wired to "compare" a key field on a pair of cards and handle the sums
and reset the counters when they differ.)
Further on he says:
A Hollerith installation was used in H.M. Nautical Almanac Office in 1929;
actually punching was started six months before the arrival of the sorter and
tabulator, as it was necessary to punch 20,000,000 holes in half a million
cards. ... The sorter and tabulator, which may only be hired, cost about
£2 a day. The cost of doing by hand what was done on the machines has
been estimated at £6000; this estimate probably errs on the low side.
The cost with the machines was certainly less than £1500.
Thus in the four years since his 1928 article, punchedcard computation had
become cost effective. In the following years (as can be seen from his
publication list, below) Comrie became strong advocate of the punchedcard
method. Like Eckert, he was preoccupied with saving steps, particularly
errorprone and timeconsuming ones like copying the results of one
calculation to the input of the next. Comrie, unlike Eckert, was happy to use
latermodel desktop calculators (rather than the more expensive punchedcard
machines) when they acquired the ability to store results in registers. Of
course this was purely a matter of finance; Comrie did not have Thomas
J. Watson as a patron, eager to shower him with expensive equipment at no
cost!
Comrie was also a strong proponent of using standard, "offtheshelf",
unmodified hardware (calculators or punchedcard equipment), rather
than modified, oneofakind, or specialpurpose machines because he
wanted the methods he developed to be useful to others. Eckert, on the other
hand, was constantly prodding IBM to modify its designs and to produce
special oneoff machines for his lab, and IBM was happy to comply. Comrie
expressed his feelings in 1946 (same MTAC article), the age of
ENIAC, BINAC, EDVAC, EDSAC, ORDVAC, MANIAC, et al.:
The adaptation age has overlapped the beginning of another—namely that
of the construction of special machines. I have sometimes felt
that physicists and engineers are too prone to ask themselves "What physical,
mechanical or electrical analogue can I find to the equation I have to solve?"
and rush to the drawing board and lathe before enquiring whether any of the
many machines that can be purchased over the counter will not do the job.
...
What would not be right in India, where subsistence requirements may almost be
measured in handfuls of rice, can easily be justified if computers cost $2000
to $3000 a year plus supervision, administration and costly accommodation. In
other words look at what has been provided by and for the industry
before you leap to the adventure of a special design.
Eckert was of the opposite persuasion and, through his close contacts with
IBM, relentlessly drove modifications and improvements to existing machines to
adapt them to scientific use. In 193334 he took Comrie's method to the next
level by designing a calculation control switch for
the machines in his laboratory, thus automating complex series of calculations
with a minimum of card handling: this was the first realization of
automatic sequencing (the aim of Babbage's Analytical Engine), and a
giant step towards modern computing, a step built upon the foundation laid
by Comrie.


Comrie and Eckert corresponded for decades and collaborated on many
projects [88]. Shortly after the War,
Comrie visited Watson Lab.
L.J. Comrie was elected Fellow of the Royal Society shortly before his death in
1950. A lunar crater (23.3N 112.7W) and an asteroid bear his name, as does
a computer lab at his alma mater, the University of Auckland (left).

Garry Tee of the Department of Mathematics of the University of Auckland
adds, "Immediately after the end of World War 2, LJC went to the USA for 3
months, examining developments in computing technology. (The fact that he
was able then to get transport so promptly proves that he had very
influential friends). He presided at a conference at M.I.T. where some of
the wartime computing developments in the UK and USA were described. He gave
to Howard Aiken a copy of Charles Babbage's fascinating memoir
Passages From The Life Of A Philosopher (London, 1864),
inscribed 'From one admirer of Babbage, to another'. But when LJC examined
the Harvard Mark 1, he asked where the ifstatement was! Aiken gulped and
blushed: it was nearly a year later before Aiken got hardware for the
ifstatement working! The Harvard Mark 1 was thereby converted from a very
large calculator, to a very very small computer.
"Herb Grosch invited LJC to attend the 1945 Fall
Meeting of the USA Institute of Navigation. I have posted to you some of my
papers about LJC, with a copy of the photograph which Herb gave to me of the
conference banquet in the Hotel New Yorker on October 26 1945, with LJC
seated alongside Herb:"
Photo courtesy of Garry Tee. Click to enlarge.
Comrie and Grosch are near the right edge of the photo, towards the top.
Grosch is the one with the goatee; Comrie is to his right. In Grosch's
words: "I can identify ten by name, several more by generalities. Around
Comrie are [Grosch's wife] Dorothy, goatee, LJC, [Gerald] Clemence, Ralph
Haupt (coauthor of [Eckert's] c[ard]o[operated]typewriter paper [77]), another [Naval Observatory] guy. Third
from left on the dais is Sam Herrick. Moonface near camera is Charles
Smiley of Brown, editor of Sky and Telescope. There are
Hahvahds, some in uniform. No [Fred] Whipple. No Dorrit Hoffleit. Famous
Cdr. Weems is on dais also."
Also see:
References:
 Croarken, M.J., "L.J. Comrie and the origins of the Scientific Computing
Service", IEEE Annals of the History of Computing,
Vol.21 No.4 (1999), pp.7071.
 Croarken, M.J., "L.J. Comrie, A forgotten figure in the history of
numerical calculation", Mathematics Today,
Vol.36 No.4 (Aug 2001), pp.114118.
 Croarken, Mary, "Computing in Britain During World War II",
IEEE History of Technology Summer Meeting (6 July 2002).
 Grier, David Alan, "The Rise and Fall of the Committee on Mathematical
Tables and Other Aids to Computation",
IEEE Annals of the History of Computing (AprilJune 2001).
 Grier, David Alan, "The Human Computer and the Birth of the Information
Age", Philosophical Society of Washington: Joseph Henry Lecture (11 May 2001).
 Grosch, Herbert R.J., Computer: Bit Slices
from a Life, Third Edition, 2003 (in manuscript). First edition
published by Third Millenium Books, Novato CA
(1991) [57].
 Sadler, D. H., "Comrie, Leslie John", in Gillispie, Charles Couston (Ed.)
Dictionary of Scientific Biography, Charles Scribner's Sons, NY
(197080).
 Tee, Garry J., "Two New Zealand Mathematicians",
History of Mathematics: Proceedings of the First Australian
Conference, Monash University, Clayton VIC (1980).
 Tee, Garry J., "New Zealand and the Pioneers of Early Computing",
New Zealand Journal of Computing, Vol.1 No.2 (Dec 1989).
 Wilkes, Maurice, "Babbage's Expectations for his Engines", IEEE
Annals of the History of Computing, Vol.13 (1991), pp.141145.
 "Computing Expert Dr. L. J. Comrie back from United States", New
Zealand News (London), January 1, 1946. Reports that LJC presided at
the conference of British and American experts on scientific computing
machines, held at MIT.
 "Noted Mathematician returns to New Zealand after long absence",
New Zealand Free Lance, January 7, 1948. Tells that, on the
ship from Sydney to Wellington, Comrie met Dr. Stuart Barton Babbage, a
greatgreat grandson of Charles Babbage, born in Auckland, who was then the
Anglican Dean of Sydney. (Still flourishing in 2002.)
 "From Pukehohe to the Nautical Almanac", New Zealand
Listener, January 16, 1948.
 Massey, H.S.W., Obituary Notices of Fellows of the Royal
Society, Vol.8 (1953), pp.97107 (many of the publications listed
below are cited here). Obituary articles about Comrie
were also published in many scientific journals and in many newspapers. Two
particularly interesting newspaper obituaries: "Death of Dr. L. J. Comrie",
The Blackheath Local Record, December 30 1950; and
"Dr. L. J. Comrie, A computer of genius", The Times, January 5,
1951.
 Eames, Charles and Ray, A Computer Perspective:
Background to the Computer Age, Harvard University Press.
First Edition 1973; Second Edition
1990 [103].
Publications Related to Computing:
 Comrie, L.J., Handbook, British Astronomical Association
(1922). Astronomical tables; the precursor to the British Nautical Almanac.
 Comrie, L.J., "The Application of Calculating Machines to Astronomical
Computing", Popular Astronomy, Vol.33 (1925), 14. Comrie's
lecture at the American Astronomical Society annual meeting, Washington
DC, 31 December 1924, reporting that multiplication and division could be done
by machines more quickly than with logarithms, and announcing his intention
to abolish logarithms for multiplication and division.
 Comrie, L.J., "Logarithmic and trigonometrical tables", Mon.
Not. Roy. Astr. Soc., Vol.85 (1925), p.386.
 Comrie, L.J.,
"A method of extending an nfigure table to n+1 figures",
Journal of the British Astronomical Association, Vol.36 (1926),
pp.248252 (plus several reviews on pages 200204, 258259, 262264 & 339341).
 Comrie, L.J.,
"Computing by calculating machines", The Accountant's Journal
(May 1927), 45, 42.
 Comrie, L.J., "Some computational problems arising in
eclipses", Mon. Not. Roy. Astr. Soc., Vol.87 (1927), p.487.
 Comrie, L.J.,
"On the Application of the BrunsvigaDupla Calculating Machine to Double
Summation with Finite Differences",
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (MNRAS),
Vol.88, pp.447459 (1928).
 Comrie, L.J., "On the Construction of Tables by Interpolation",
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society,
Vol.88, pp.518521 (1928).
 Comrie, L.J., Recent Developments in Calculating Machines,
Office Machinery Users' Association Transactions (19271928).
Critique and comparison of various calculating and tabulating machines that
were commercially available at the time, including Burroughs and Hollerith
models.
 Comrie, L.J., "Professional work in Departments of State", His
Majesty's Nautical Almanac Office, State Service (June 1928), 6 pages.
 Comrie, L.J., "Tables for Interpolation to Tenths and Fifths by the
End Figure Process", Nautical Almanac for 1931, HM Stationery
Office, London (1929), pp.828835.
 Comrie, L.J., "Mathematical tables", Brit. Astr. Soc.
Handbook (1929), p.38.
 Comrie, L.J., "Errata in the Napier Tercentenary Memorial Handbook and
in the Encyclopaedia Britannica", Observatory, Vol.52 (1929),
p.324.
 Comrie, L.J., "German Calculating Machine Enterprise", Transactions
of the Office Machinery Users' Association (192930), 4 pages.
 Comrie, L.J. "The Hollerith and Powers Tabulating Machines",
Transactions of the Office Machinery Users' Association,
pp.2537 (192930) (updated and elarged version published for private
circulation in 1933. 48 pages).
Donald Knuth cites this article in Volume 3 of the
Art of Computer Programming: Sorting and Searching (1973)
as the source of the radix sort.
 L.J. Comrie., Barlow's Tables of Squares, Cubes, Square
Roots, Cube Roots and Reciprocals of all Integer Numbers up to
10,000, (3rd edition), Spon, London (1930).
 Comrie, L.J. & L. M. MilneThomson, Standard Fourfigure
Mathematical Tables, Macmillan, London (1931).
 Comrie, L.J., "Note on Mr. Chappell's method of seconddifference
integration", Mon. Not. Roy. Astr. Soc., Vol.91 (1931), p.819.
 Comrie, L.J., "Tables for interpolation to tenths and fifths
by the endfigure process", Nautical Almanac, Appendix (1931).
 Comrie, L.J., "The Nautical Almanac Office Burroughs Machine",
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol.92, No.6,
pp.523541 (1932).
 Comrie, L.J., "The application of the Hollerith Tabulating Machine to
Brown's Tables of the Moon", Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical
Society, Vol.92, No.7, pp.694707 (1932).
 Comrie, L.J., and Dr. Harold Jeffreys, "A smoothing device
applied to the new seismological tables", Monthly Notices of the Royal
Astronomical Society, Geophysical Supplement, (January 1932), Vol.3
No.1, 1013.
 Comrie, L.J., "Mathematical Tables", Mon. Not. Roy. Astr.
Soc., Vol.92 (1932), p.339.
 Comrie, L.J., "Modern Babbage Machines", Bulletin of The Office
Machinery Users' Association, London (1933), 29 pages. Comrie
reported his discovery that the National Accounting Machine Company had
inadvertently manufactured a Babbage Difference Engine.
 Comrie, L.J., "Computing the Nautical Almanac", Nautical
Magazine (July 1933), pp.3348.
 Comrie, L.J., "The computation of total solar eclipses", Monthly
Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol.93, No.3 (January
1933), pp.175181.
 Comrie, L.J., "Adding machines", and "Calculating machines", in
Hutchinson's Technical and Scientific Encyclopaedia (1934).
 Comrie, L.J., "Mechanical Computing", in Clark's Plane and
Geodetic Surveying (2nd edition), Vol.2, Appendix, Constable,
London (1934).
 Comrie, L.J., "Inverse interpolation. Scientific applications of the
National Accounting Machine", J. Roy. Stat. Soc., Vol.3
(1936), p.87.
 Comrie, L.J., "Interpolation and Allied Tables". H.M. Stationery Office,
London (1936). Reprinted from the Nautical Almanac for 1937, pp.786940.
Several reprints, with a new edition in 1956.
 Comrie, L.J. et al., "The application of Hollerith equipment to an
agricultural investigation", Journal of the Royal Statistical Society
Supplement, 4(2), 210224 (1937). A major advance in applications
of the punchedcard multiplier.
 Comrie, L.J., "Scientific Computing Service", Offered by L. J. Comrie, 131
Maze Hill, Blackheath (1937). 8 pages.
 Comrie, L.J., "Air navigation", Nautical Magazine
(August 1937), 4 pages.
 Comrie, L.J., "The application of the Brunsviga Twin 13Z calculating
machine to the Hartmann formula for the reduction of prismatic spectrograms",
Observatory 60 (1937), p.70.
 Comrie, L.J., "Dr J. R. Airey", Nature 140 (November 6,
1937), 796. Obituary article.
 Comrie, L.J., "Scientific Computing Service Limited, a Description of its
Activities, Equipment and Staff", London (1938), 16 pages.
 Comrie, L.J., "The Geocentric Direction Cosines of Seismological
Observatories", British Association for the Advancement of Science,
London (1938), 8+14 pages.
 Comrie, L.J., "On the application of the Brunsviga Twin 13Z calculating
machine to artillery survey", Scientific Computing Service Ltd. (1938).
 Comrie, L.J., "Calculating machines", Appendix 3 to L. R. Connor's
Statistics in Theory and Practice, London, Pitman (1938),
pp.349371.
 Comrie, L.J., Hughes's Tables for Sea and Air Navigation,
Henry Hughes & Son Ltd, London (1938).
 Comrie, L.J., "Tables of tan^{1}x
and log(1+x^{2})
to assist in the calculation of the ordinates of a Pearson Type IV
curve", Tracts for Computers, no.23, p.18, Cambridge University
Press, Cambridge (1938).
 Comrie, L.J., "On the Application of the Brunsviga Twin 13Z Calculating
Machine to Survey Problems", Scientific computing Service, London
(1940), 18 pages.
 Comrie, L.J., "Review of W. J. Eckert, 'Punched Card Methods in
Scientific Computation'", Nature 147 (February 1, 1941), p.131.
 Comrie, L.J., "The use of calculating machines in ray
tracing", Proc. Phys. Soc., Vol.52 (1940), p.246.
 Comrie, L.J., "The correction of epicentres by least squares",
Mon. Not. Roy. Astr. Soc., Vol.5 (1940), Geophysical
Supplement, p.27.
 Comrie, L.J., "On the calculation of correlation coefficients with modern
calculating machines", Journal of the American Statistical
Association (September 1941), Vol.36, p.429.
 Thompson, Catherine M., E. S. Pearson, L. J. Comrie & H .O. Hartley,
"Tables of Percentage Points of the Incomplete BetaFunction",
Biometrika, Vol.32 No.2 (October 1941), pp.151181.
 Comrie, L.J. and H. O. Hartley, "A table of Lagrangian coefficients for
harmonic interpolation in certain tables of percentage points",
Biometrika Vol.32 No.2 (October 1941), pp.183186.
 Comrie, L.J. (editor), Barlow's Tables of Squares, Cubes, Square
Roots, Cube Roots and Reciprocals of all Integer Numbers up to
12,500, 4th Edition, Spon, London (1941).
 Comrie, L.J., "George Lawson, M.A.", Proc. Edinburgh
Math. Soc. (2) 6, (1941). pp.261262. Obituary article.
 Comrie, L.J., "Eightfigure natural tables for every second of arc",
Empire Surv., Rev 8 (1943), p.42.
 Comrie, L.J., "The Twin Marchant Calculating Machine and its Application
to Survey Problems", Scientific Computing Service Limited,
London, 2nd printing (1943), 40 pages.
 Comrie, L.J., "Recent Progress in Scientific Computing", Journal of
Scientific Instruments, Vol.21, No.8 (Aug 1944), pp.129135 (also
letters and further commentary in the Dec 1944 issue, pp.218219).
 Comrie, L.J., "Careers for Girls", The Mathematical Gazette
(July 1944), p.90.
 Comrie, L.J., Review of R. M. Page's "14,000 Gear Ratios", MTAC Vol.1 No.8
(October 1944), 326329; and V.1 No.11 (July 1945), 430.
 Comrie, L.J., "Mechanical Computing", in Clark's Plane and
Geodetic Surveying, (3rd edition), Vol.2, Appendix, Constable,
London (1944).
 Comrie, L.J., "The Twin Marchant Calculating Machine and its Application
to Survey Problems", Scientific computing Service Limited, London, 3rd
printing (1945), 40 pages,
 Comrie, L.J., "Errata in Jahnke & Emde's Tables of
FUnctions", Math. Tab. Wash., Vol.1 (1945), p.391.
 Comrie, L.J., "Babbage's Dream Comes True", Nature, Vol.159
(1946), pp.567568 (a review of the Harvard/IBM ASCC).
 Comrie, L.J., The Application of Commercial Calculating Machines to
Scientific Computation", Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to
Computation (MTAC), Vol.2 No.16, pp.149159 (1946).
 Comrie, L.J., "Scientific Computing Service Limited, a Description of
its Activities, Equipment and Staff", London (1946), 24 pages.
 Comrie, L.J. "Calculatingpast, present, and future," Future, the
Magazine of Industry, Government, Science, Arts, No.1 (1947), "Overseas
Issue," p.6169.
 Comrie, L.J., Chambers's FourFigure Mathematical Tables,
W. & R. Chambers, Edinburgh & London (1947).
 L.J. Comrie., Barlow's Tables of Squares, etc. of Integral
Numbers up to 12,500 (4th edition), Spon, London (1947).
 Comrie, L.J. Mathematics in War, Auckland Radio Station 1YA
Broadcast, 7:00pm, 5 April 1948, recorded on two 78rpm vinyl platters held
at the Royal Society London Library.
NOW ONLINE
at the Royal Society of New Zealand.
 Comrie, L.J. Chambers's SixFigure Mathematical Tables,
W&R Chambers, London & Edinburgh (Vol.1: 1948; Vol.2: 1949).
Logarithmic and Trigonometric tables; this work was in print for almost 30
years.
 Comrie, L.J., Chambers's Shorter SixFigure Mathematical
Tables, W. & R. Chambers, Edinburgh & London (1950).
 Comrie, L.J., "Scientific Computing Service Limited, a Description of
its Activities, Equipment and Staff", London (1950), 23 pages.
 Bickley, W. G.; Comrie, L. J.; Miller, J. C. P.; Sadler, D. H. and
Thompson, A. J., "Bessel functions. Part II. Functions of positive integer
order", British Association for the Advancement of Science,
Mathematical Tables, Vol.X. University Press, Cambridge (1952).
 Fletcher, A.; Miller, J. C. P.; Rosenhead, L. & Comrie, L.J.
An index of mathematical tables (2 volumes), Second edition,
published for Scientific Computing Service Ltd., London, by
AddisonWesley Publishing Co., Inc., Reading, Mass (1962).
Publications Related to Astronomy:
 Comrie, L.J., "Occultation of a star by Saturn", J. Brit.
Astr. Assn., Vol.30 (1920), p.215.
 Comrie, L.J., "Occultation of a star by Jupiter", J. Brit.
Astr. Assn., Vol.30 (1920), p.215.
 Comrie, L.J., "Phenomena of Saturn's satellites", J. Brit.
Astr. Assn., Vol.30 (1920), p.292.
 Comrie, L.J. & M. Levin, "Eclipse of Rhea by the shadow of Saturn",
Mon. Not. Roy. Astr. Soc., Vol.81 (1921), p.486.
 Comrie, L.J., "New Zealand observations during the lunar eclipse of
1921, April 21", Mon. Not. Roy. Astr. Soc., Vol.82 (1921),
p.303.
 Comrie, L.J., "Stars and occultations during lunar eclipses in 1921",
Mon. Not. Roy. Astr. Soc., Vol.82 (1921), p.304
 Comrie, L.J., "Phenomena of Saturn's satellites", J. Brit.
Astr. Assn., Vol.31 (1921), pp. 83, 118, 160, 172.
 Comrie, L.J., "Occultation of a star by Venus", J. Brit. Astr.
Assn., Vol.31 (1921), p.302.
 Comrie, L.J., "Occultation of a star by Mars", J. Brit. Astr.
Assn., Vol.31 (1921), p.332.
 Comrie, L.J., "Path of Uranus in 1922", J.
Brit. Astr. Assn., Vol.32 (1922), p.182.
 Comrie, L.J., "Planetary occultations", J.
Brit. Astr. Assn., Vol.34 (1924), p.238.
 Comrie, L.J., "The use of a standard equinox in astronomy",
Mon. Not. Roy. Astr. Soc., Vol.86 (1926), p.618.
 Comrie, L.J., "The total solar eclipse of 1940, October 1",
Mon. Not. Roy. Astr. Soc., Vol.93 (1932), p.181.
Onsite PDF Documents:
 Croarken, M.,
"New Zealand Newspaper Articles about
L.J. Comrie".
 Rollo, Lindsay,
"The Typography of Tables: A note on
L.J. Comrie",
KOTARE New Zealand
Notes & Queries, School of English, Film, and Theatre, Victoria
University of Wellington, New Zealand, Volume Four, Number One, June 2001.
 Rollo, Lindsay,
"A
Benevolent Astronomer  Further Notes on L.J. Comrie",
KOTARE, Volume Five, Number One, 2004. Also available
locally in PDF format.
 Rollo, Lindsay,
"Notes supporting documents about Leslie John
Comrie".
 Rollo, Lindsay, "Holdings of
Howard C. Smith".
Offsite Links (Good as of 19 March 2004):
Grateful thanks to Garry Tee of the Mathematics Department of the University
of Auckland for his many contributions to this page, and to Lindsay Rollo
of Wellington, NZ.
Most recent update:
Sun Apr 27 09:47:17 2008
Frank da Cruz / fdc@columbia.edu /
Columbia University Computing History