Bīrūnī, Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad, Alberuni's India (v. 2)

(London :  Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co.,  1910.)



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In this regard the manners and customs of the Hindus
resemble those of the Christians, for they are, like those
of the latter, based on the principles of virtue and
abstinence from wickedness, such as never to kill
under any circumstance whatsoever, to give to him who
has stripped you of your coat also your shirt, to offer
to him who has beaten your cheek the other cheek
also, to bless your enemy and to pray for him. Upon
my life, this is a noble philosophy; but the people of
this world are not all philosophers. Most of them are
ignorant and erring, who cannot be kept on the straight
road save by the sword and the whip. And, indeed,
ever since Constantine the Victorious became a Chris¬
tian, both sword and whip have ever been employed,
for without them it would be impossible to rule.

India has developed in a similar way.    For the Hin- TueBrah-
dus relate that originally the affairs of government and naify t"he
war were in the hands of the Brahmans, but the country nation?
became disorganised, since they ruled according to the
philosophic principles  of their religious codes, which
proved impossible when opposed to the mischievous
and perverse elements of the populace.    They were even
near losing also the administration of their religious
affairs.    Therefore they humiliated themselves before
the lord of their religion.    AVhereupon Brahman   in- Pago 281.
trusted them exclusively with the functions which they
now have, whilst he intrusted the Kshatriyas with the

VOL. II.                                                                                   L
  Page 161