Bīrūnī, Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad, Alberuni's India (v. 2)

(London :  Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co.,  1910.)



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162                           ALBERUNTS INDIA.

duties of ruling and fighting. Ever since the Brahmans
live by asking and begging, and the penal code is exer¬
cised under the control of the kings, not under that of
the scholars.

Law of            The law about murder is this : If the murderer is a

Brahman, and the murdered person a member of another
caste, he is only bound to do expiation consisting of
fasting, prayers, and almsgiving.

If the murdered person is a Brahman, the Brahman
murderer has to answer for it in a future life ; for he is
not allowed to do expiation, because expiation wipes off
the sin from the sinner, whilst nothing can wipe off any
of the mortal crimes from a Brahman, of which the
greatest are: the murder of a Brahman, called vajra-
brahmahatyd ; further, the killing of a cow, the drink¬
ing of wine, whoredom, especially with the wife of one's
own father and teacher. However, the kings do not
for any of these crimes kill a Brahman or Kshatriya,
but they confiscate his property and banish him from
their country.

If a man of a caste under those of the Brahman and
Kshatriya kills a man of the same caste, he has to
do expiation, but besides the kings inflict upon him a
punishment in order to establish an example.

Lawoftheft. The law of theft directs that the punishment of the
thief should be in accordance with the value of the stolen
object. Accordingly, sometimes apunishment of extreme
or of middling severity is necessary, sometimes a course
of correction and imposing a payment, sometimes only
exposing to public shame and ridicule. If the object is
very great, the kings blind a Brahman and mutilate him,
cutting off his left hand and right foot, or the right hand
and left foot, whilst they mutilate a Kshatriya without
blinding him, and kill thieves of the other castes.

Punishment     An adultcress is driven out of the house of the hus-

aduiteress.   band and banished.

I have repeatedly been told that when Hindu slaves
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