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Yes. She felt, very strongly and rightly, that the workers
weren't getting a fair shake, and that the ILGWU was going to be the
instrument by which this injustice could be righted-- until she
found out that they could be perpetrators of injustice, and racial
injustice. Then she became bitter.
Going back to the Garvey movement for an instant, do you recall
if your mother habbored any hopes for going to Africa herself at
No! No. She was also very practical. She saw this as, I think,
primarily a psychological boost, a basis for pride and assertion,
on the part of blacks, that they did not have to accept inferior status.
But in terms of -- she was quite contented to stay right here, and see
her children go through college, and --
Can you recall anything more about her reaction to feelings against
West Indian blacks, here in Harlem?
Now, tell me, why did you ask that question?
I think that I'm trying to get at some of the history of the conflict
between native-born blacks and West Indian blacks, which came as a
surprise to me, as a white, when I started covering the streets of Harlem.
Which was when?
I can tell you, my first real visit to Harlem was the Saturday
before the 1958 primary, that -- when Adam Powell was challenged
for re-nomination. And it was after that, with my meetings, mostly
with Ray Jones (J. Raymond Jones) -- but then, as I got
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