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the cosmetic companies in to do it. A friend of mine, a good friend of mine and a good friend of Sam Levenson, Harry Starfield, taught Spanish in the high schools, and that was the beginning. The neighborhoods were changing, and the neighborhood drugstore was servicing an area that now had Hispanics. Therefore, it was important, someone said to me, “Could we train people to speak Spanish?” And so Harry did an unusual thing. He spent an enormous amount of time for nothing, really, and developed a twelve-session course in “drugstore Spanish.” In other words, to teach Spanish using a specific vocabulary. Then he figured out like a grammar, and it was mimeographed. Members would come and want to buy the notes. We must have run about a dozen classes. Harry, after a while, couldn't teach them all, so he began to train other people. I remember he trained a Span iard who had come to this country from the Spanish Civil War, he was an official of the Spanish Government, and he was teaching Spanish, to teach him how to teach this kind of thing. So that was very important. Then we had, I think I mentioned, the Teen Time program, Teen Time at 1199. We had a lot of these things going on.

I remember there was a famous case, the Riveras. It was like a social work kind of thing. He was a clerk in a drugstore, Francisco Rivera, and he lived in a slum, and there was a fire. Two of his kids were burned to death, and his whole family, everything was thrown on the streets. So we ran an affair, raised money for him, and got him an apartment. I remember big stories in El Diario, in the Post, and Bill Leonard, who then was doing “This is New York” on CBS Radio, did a thing about the Rivera tragedy and how this union -- so that the union's name was meaningful in many, many ways. In addition, the union got very good conditions, very good conditions. It was a good union. It organized about seventy, eighty percent of the retail drugstores, and these were very small stores. It could do this kind of stuff. Publications. We were the biggest winner in the labor press competition, the labor press awards. We were the biggest winner. Every time, we would walk off with four or five awards. Stanley Glaubach was designing the magazine. We would have rank and file pharmacists who could do--during the McCarthy period, we were doing articles on this issue, running articles from the Ed Murrow show on McCarthy. I remember we did a feature on “Harvest of Shame” when he did that. We were doing, in a broad way, very slick stuff, programming and activities and information on this kind of thing.


Let's see if it's time to flip this over. Maybe we'll keep going.


We also did another kind of thing. We set up a camp scholarship program, one of the early ones. We raised money from

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