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groups, but the printers were organized.
Sam Fleisher had a factory in which they made vici
kid. It was not a plastic as we know it today, but it was
in the nature of that. It was a patented process for patent
leather. Ordinary patent leather cracked, but this wouldn't.
It was very good. The Fleishers became very rich from that.
Sam Fleisher had had the idea - I don't know where he got it -
that trade unions were good. He was encouraging the formation
of a trade union in his factory. It was a little paternalistic,
but many good things start that way. That was one of the first
non-craft unions. He certainly hadn't thought it out in terms
of the vertical and horizontal union, or the industrial union
versus the craft union. It was just that his factory might
be organized and that they might elect somebody to speak for
them and have a shop committee. He had the ideas developed
in the best of the English factories - the Rowntree and
Cadbury factories where those old Quakers had permitted the
organization and had almost from the first dealt with their
employees in a kind of collective way.
There were two or three such projects as that going
on in Philadelphia. In the printer's union I became acquainted
with a couple of the young printers who were very intelligent
men and were studying at the University of Pennsylvania, Mr.
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