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Frances PerkinsFrances Perkins
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words “direct action.” They were using direct action to seize the government and to make over Russia. Of course, we didn't follow in any great detail in this country what happened in Russia. I should have to go and read a book on it to know what really happened.

However, what one does remember and recall is that there were great rows inside these unions. You began to get name-calling. You began to get even the orderly processes of the unions upset. When they were going to deal with the employers with regard to wages, hours, or some improvement in sanitary conditions, there would be a row in the union. It would affect the collective bargaining, would affect the front and face they put up when they came to deal with their employers, because behind the scenes they were fighting among themselves. Whoever the people were who were representing the Bolshevik group, we'll say, would be angry if they weren't represented on the bargaining committee. In those locals where the Bolshevik thinkers were more numerous than the others the Menshevik outfit would be put out. So it affected their dealings. There is always politics in any union, as to who will hold office, run committees, and so on, but the politics at this time in those unions became very intense and





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