Book Eight, Part III—His Likes and Dislikes
1. *His Dislike of Poverty* -- 2. *His Dislike of the Acquisitive Instinct* -- 3. *His Joy at the Beautiful* -- 4. *His Love for the Lovely*
§ 1. His Dislike of Poverty
1. Once the Exalted One was dwelling near Shravasti in Jeta's grove, at Anathapindika's park; and there Anathapindika, the householder, came and visited him and after saluting, sat down at one side. So seated, he asked the Exalted One to explain why one should acquire riches.
2. "Since you ask me, I will explain.
3. "Take the case of [an] Ariyan disciple with riches gotten by work and zeal, gathered by the strength of the arm, earned by the sweat of the brow; justly obtained in a lawful way; he makes himself happy [and] glad, and keeps that great happiness; he makes his parents happy [and] glad, and keeps them so; so likewise his wife and children, his slaves, workfolk and men. This is the first reason for getting riches.
4. "When riches are thus gotten, he makes his friends and companions happy [and] glad, and keeps them so. This is the second reason.
5. "Again, when riches are thus gotten, ill-luck from fire and water, rajas and robbers, enemies and heirs, is warded off, and he keeps his goods in safety. This is the third reason.
6. "Then, when riches are thus gotten, he makes the five oblations--that is to say, oblations to kin, guests, pitaras, rajas, and devas. This is the fourth reason.
7. "Moreover, when riches are thus gotten, the householder institutes offerings, of lofty aim, celestial ripening to happiness, leading heavenward, for all those recluses and godly men who abstain from pride and indolence, who bear all things in patience and humility, each mastering self, each calming self, each perfecting self. This is the fifth reason for getting rich."
8. Anathapindika well understood that the Blessed Lord did not comfort the poor by praising their poverty, nor did he sublimate poverty as a happy state for man to live in.
§ 2. His Dislike of the Acquisitive Instinct
1. The Exalted One was once staying in the town of Kammassadamma, in the country of [the] Kurus.
2. The venerable Ananda came to where the Exalted One was, bowed in salutation before him, and took a seat on one side.
3. And so seated he said, "Marvellous is this law of causation which has been taught by the Blessed One! It is so deep. To me it seems as clear as clear can be."
4. "Say not so, Ananda, say not so! Deep is this doctrine of events arising from causes. It is through not understanding this doctrine, through not penetrating it, that this generation has become a tangled skein, a matted ball of thread, unable to overpass the way of woe.
5. "I have said that craving is the cause of grasping. Where there is no craving of any sort or kind whatever by anyone for anything, would there be any arising of grasping?"
6. "There would not, Lord."
7. "Craving gives rise to pursuit of gain.
8. "Pursuit of gain gives rise to desire and passion.
9. "Desire and passion give rise to tenacity.
10. Tenacity gives rise to possession.
11. "Possession gives rise to avarice and more possession.
12. "Possessions lead to keeping watch and ward over possessions.
13. "Many a bad and wicked state of things arise[s] from keeping watch and ward over possession; such as blows and wounds, strife, quarrelling, slander, and lies.
14. "This is the chain of causation, Ananda. If there was no craving, would there arise pursuit of gain? If there was no pursuit of gain, would there arise passion? If there was no passion, would there arise tenacity? If there would be no tenacity, would there arise the love for private possessions? If there would be no possession, would there arise avarice for more possession?"
15. "There would not, Lord."
16. "If there would not be the love of private possession, would there not be peace?"
17. "There would be, Lord."
18. "I recognise the earth as earth. But I have no craving for it," said the Lord.
19. Therefore it is, say I, that by extirpating all cravings, by not lusting after them, but by destroying and abandoning and renouncing them all, that I acquired enlightenment.
20. "Seek to be partakers, brethren, not of the world's goods but of my doctrines. For craving brings about attachment, and attachment enslaves the mind."
21. In these words did the Blessed Lord explain to Ananda and the brethren the evils of the acquisitive instinct.
§ 3. His Joy at the Beautiful
1. The Buddha was so fond of the beautiful that he might well bear an alias and be called Buddha, the Lover of the Beautiful.
2. So he preached to his followers: "Be in the company of the lovely."
3. Addressing the bhikkhus, he said:
4. "Monks, I know not of any other single thing of such power to cause the arising of good states if not yet arisen, or the waning of evil states already arisen, as friendship with the lovely.
5. "In one who is a friend of what is lovely, good states not arisen do arise and evil states already arisen wane. Evil states and devotion to evil states wanes, lack of devotion to good states disappears, good states and devotion thereto arise; lack of devotion to evil states increases.
6. "Monks, I know not of any other single thing of such power to prevent the arising of the limbs of wisdom, if not yet arisen, or, if they have already arisen, to prevent their reaching fulfilment by cultivation thereof, as unsystematic attention.
7. "In him who practices unsystematic attention, monks, the limbs of wisdom if not yet arisen, arise not, and if arisen they reach not fulfilment by cultivation thereof.
8. "Of slight account, monks, is the loss of such things as relatives. Miserable indeed among losses is the loss of wisdom.
9. "Of slight account, monks, is the increase of such things as relatives. Chief of all the increases is that of wisdom.
10. "Wherefore I say, monks, ye should train yourselves thus: 'We will increase in wisdom.' You must train yourselves to win that.
11. "Of slight account, monks, is the increase of such things as wealth. Chief of all the increases is that of wisdom. Wherefore I say, monks, thus, must ye train yourselves. 'We will increase in wisdom.' You must train yourselves to win that.
12. "Of slight account, monks, is the loss of such things as reputation. Miserable indeed is the loss of wisdom."
§ 4. His Love for the Lovely
1. Once the Exalted One was staying among the Sakyans at Sakkara, a Sakyan township.
2. Then the venerable Ananda came to the Exalted One, saluted him and sat down at one side. So seated, the venerable Ananda said this:
3. "The half of the holy life, Lord, is friendship with what is lovely, association with what is lovely, intimacy with what is lovely!"
4. "Say not so, Ananda! Say not so, Ananda! It is the whole, not the half, of the holy life--this friendship, this association, this intimacy with what is lovely.
5. "Of a monk who is a friend, an associate, an intimate of what is lovely we may expect this: that he will develop the Ariyan eightfold way, that he will make much of the Ariyan eightfold way.
6. "And how, Ananda, does such a monk develop and make much of the Ariyan eightfold way?
7. "Herein, Ananda, he cultivates the right view, which is based on detachment, on dispassion, on cessation, which ends in self-surrender. He cultivates the right aim, which is so based and concerned; likewise right speech, right action, right living, right effort, right mindfulness, and right concentration, which ends in self-surrender.
8. "That, Ananda, is how a monk who is a friend, an associate, anintimate of what is lovely, cultivates and makes much of the Ariyan eightfold way.
9. "This is the method, Ananda, by which you are to understand how the whole of this holy life consists in friendship, in association, in intimacy, with what is lovely.
10. "Indeed, Ananda, beings liable to decay, liable to death, liable to grief, woe, lamentation, and despair, are liberated therefrom because of their friendship with what is lovely.
11. "It is by this method, Ananda, that you are to understand how the whole of this holy life consists in friendship, in association, in intimacy with what is lovely."
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