A depiction of ascetics from 'Asia: the first part... The Vast Empire of the Great Mogol and Other Parts of India...' by John Ogilby,
London, 1673; and *another view*

Source: ebay, Mar. 2013

*A depiction of "Benjian Saints" by Johannes Nieuhof, from Churchill's 'Voyages and Travels', London, 1703*

Source: ebay, Jan. 2011

"Two Giogi, or Iogues, with long hair and a long beard, and a Verleas of the Indies," by Pieter van der Aa, from  'La Galerie Agreable du Monde (...).Tome premier des Indes Orientales.', published by P. van der Aa, Leyden, c. 1725; also: *"Rude et volontaire chatiment que s'imposent les Fakirs pour amende, dans les Indes"*; also: *"Figure de Bramines, avec des chaines de fer"*

Source: ebay, Feb. 2012

Four views of "Bramin" ascetics by Picart, c.1727

Source: ebay, May 2012

*Four views by Zacharie Chatelain, from 'Atlas Historique...', Amsterdam, 1732*

Plate 5: 'Yxora ...' (The idol Yxora or Vedan / Bed / Beth of the Brahmans, an idol with 4 heads, 4 hands and 2 feet. The hands are typically holding 4 books to teach on law and religion.) Plate 6: 'Parsis...' (Three parsis guarding the fire in the temple.) Plate 7: 'Jougis ...' (Yogi Religion, a sekt of the Brahman's and their servants. They are motionless in the pose they chose. Their belt indicates their rank.) Plate 8: (Two Yogi's.)

Source: ebay, Feb. 2011


A view from *PREVOST*, c.1752

Source: ebay, Aug. 2005

Several kinds of "Saniassy," in a print from 1809

Source: ebay, May 2009

"Indische Fakire," by Friedrich and Carl Bertuch, Vienna, c.1815 (with modern hand coloring)

Source: ebay, Feb. 2005

*"Fachiri devoti," by Giulio Ferrario, from 'Il costume antico e moderno', Florence, 1824*

Source: ebay, July 2010

*"Fakir and acolyte," a watercolor, Patna, 1824*; also *"Holy man"*

Source: ebay, Mar. 2013

*"The Sunyasees," by William Taylor of the Bengal Civil Service, 1842*

Source: ebay, Nov. 2003

*A Company School gouache painting, 1800's, of mendicants by a waterside temple*

Source: ebay, Apr. 2006

*"A Hindoo Fakeer," by Emily Eden, 1844* (BL); [*Eden 1844*]

*A German print, 1850, showing many Hindu images, but especially ascetics performing austerities*

Source: ebay, Nov. 2007

*"Portrait of a Devotee Who had been Standing Eight Years, Day and Night", published in Boston, 1855*

Source: ebay, Aug. 2015

*"Yogee penances in India," from Harper's Weekly, 1858*

Source: ebay, Nov. 2010

*"Hindoo fakir," a chromolithograph by William Simpson, 1867* (BL); [*Simpson 1867*]

*"Bairagees, Hindoo devotees, Delhi," from 'The People of India', published from 1868 to the early 1870's by W. H. Allen, for the India Office*; also *"Tun Sookh Doss Bairagi, Hindoo religious mendicant, Allahabad"*

Source: ebay, Jan. 2008

*"Fakir with relics in Baroda," by A. de Neuville, from 'Le Tour du Monde', 1870*; *"Hindoo beggar," an engraving, 1878*

Source: ebay, Dec. 2008

*"Bhopal: Jogees" (engaged in self-laceration) from 'India and its Native Princes' by Louis Rousselet, 1878*

Source: ebay, Apr. 2009

*"Religious mendicant," from an English book, 1880*

Source: ebay, Nov. 2013

"The Chowk, Fyzabad," a photo from c. the 1880's

Source: ebay, Jan. 2012

The proverbial bed of nails, a photo c.1900; *another such view, c.1880's*; *another such ascetic, c.1880's*

Source: ebay, Mar. 2009

*"Fakeers," a photograph by Bourne and Shepherd, early 1870's* (BL); [*Bourne 1870's*]

*Faqirs engaged in self-laceration, an engraving by A Rixens, from 'Le Tour du Monde', 1873*

Source: ebay, Oct. 2008

*"Fakirs, Bombay," a photo by Taurines, c.1880's*; *a group of ascetics, by Taurines, c.1890*

Source: ebay, Sept. 2007

A photo by T. A. Rust, c.1880's, of an ascetic who constantly keeps his arms extended upward; *a photo by Rust of an ascetic with a harness that enables him to remain standing all the time*

Source: ebay, Mar. 2008

*An ascetic with a metal grid welded around his neck so that he can never lie down; photo, late 1800's*; *another such view*

Source: ebay, Sept. 2008

*A bairagi loaded with chains, late 1800's*

Source: ebay, June 2009

Austerities with the traditional "five fires" (four of cow-dung and one the sun), in a gelatin photo, c.1890's

Source: ebay, May 2005

*"Indian Fakir carrying a large circlet of iron around his neck," from 'Peoples of the World' by Robert Brown, 1892*; also *"Jogees wounding themselves"*

Source: ebay, Dec. 2009

A group of ascetics gathered for a portrait; a photo from the 1890's

Source: http://www.indiamike.com/photopost/showphoto.php/photo/9054/ppuser/9096
(downloaded Mar. 2006)

*An even more formal studio photograph, made in 1898*

Source: ebay, Feb. 2007

*"Hermit at Gem Lake doing penance--exposed to mid-day sun and intense fires--Mt. Abu, India. Copyright 1903 by Underwood & Underwood."* (Ames Library)

*"Hindu Fakirs, India," a stereoscopic view by Griffith & Griffith, c.1900*

Source: ebay, Oct. 2007

*"Hindu devotee doing penance on a bed of spikes near the shrine of Kali, Calcutta"; a stereo view, c.1900*

Source: ebay, Dec. 2007

*"A Hindu fakir enduring pain and torture" (on a bed of nails); a stereoscopic photo by R. Y. Young, 1901*

Source: ebay, Apr. 2007

A group of ascetics, Bombay, c.1920's; *an ascetic on a bed of nails, Calcutta, c.1920's*

Source: ebay, June 2007

*An ascetic on a bed of nails, Banaras; a photo by A. H. Smith, from 'Peoples of All Nations', J. A. Hammerton, c.1922*

Source: ebay, Dec. 2006

*Extreme tapasya, from a soldier's photo album, Calcutta, c.1926*

Source: ebay, Sept. 2009

*Two ascetics on beds of nails" and *two ascetics*, from 'India: Land of the Black Pagoda' by Lowell Thomas, 1930

Source: ebay, Aug. 2008

An ascetic in front of his cell at Bhubaneshwar, a photogravure from Martin Hurlimann, 'India', 1928; also: *"Pushkar: a Sadhu with the Shiva trident"*; also, *"A mendicant monk blessing pilgrims, Allahabad"*; also: *A sadhu, Benares*; also: *A mendicant monk and street singer, Bangalore*

Source: ebay, May 2006

From "India: Land of the Black Pagoda," by Lowell Thomas, 1930

Source: ebay, Oct. 2008

*"A Religious Ascetic," from Customs of the World, ed. by Walter Hutchinson, London, 1931*

Source: ebay, Mar. 2006

Needles are inserted into the skin; a photo from the 1940's

Source: ebay, Jan. 2009

*An ascetic with his full traveling equipment; a photo by a soldier, World War II*

Source: ebay, Jan. 2010

*The "five fires" penance on a large scale at Ujjain, a photo by Ashvin Gatha, 1960's*

Source: ebay, Mar. 2009

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