The Kermit Project |
612 West 115th Street, New York NY 10025 USA • firstname.lastname@example.org
The Kermit Project at Columbia University is cancelled effective 1 July 2011The Columbia University Kermit Project website is frozen effective 1 October 2011, but remains available as a public resource. A new Kermit Project website has been established outside of Columbia at www.kermitproject.org for the continued development of C-Kermit, E-Kermit, and Kermit 95.New Kermit Project website New Kermit Script Library
The command and script language of C-Kermit and Kermit 95 is described in Using C-Kermit, 2nd Edition, as supplemented by the C-Kermit 7.0 Supplement, the C-Kermit 8.0 Supplement, and the C-Kermit 9.0 Supplement. You can also get overviews and tutorials HERE for Kermit in general and HERE for Kermit 95 in particular.
This page offers a brief introduction to Kermit scripting, and a library of sample Kermit scripts, listed below. Those marked with (*) are "kerbang" scripts which, in UNIX, can be used exactly like shell scripts if you give them execute permission:
chmod +x scriptname
Command-line arguments are accepted in the expected manner, e.g.:
autotelnet xyz.com myuserid
This makes the command-line arguments available to the script in the variables \%0 (script name), \%1 (first argument), \%2 (second argument), etc.
The first line of each kerbang script looks like:
(but without the indentation). This indicates the pathname of the C-Kermit executable that is to execute the script; change this line as needed. The trailing plus sign is required if command-line arguments are to be passed to the script (and doesn't hurt if they are not). The "kerbang" feature requires C-Kermit 7.0 or later. For more about kerbang scripts, see the C-Kermit 7.0 Supplement Section on this topic.
WARNING: The script file must be in Unix text format for the Kerbang mechanism to work. That is, lines must be terminated and separated only by linefeed, not carriage return and linefeed (as would happen, for example, if you uploaded the file from Windows in binary mode rather than text mode). If the Kerbang line ends with CR and LF, the Unix shell will think the CR is part of the filename if no '+' is included, and will fail to find "a valid interpreter" (i.e. Kermit) for the script. If a + sign is included, the CR might prevent Kermit from recognizing it. These are characteristics of the Unix shell, and apply to shell scripts, Perl scripts, and any other kind of script that uses the "shebang" convention for invoking the appropriate interpreter. To strip carriage returns use the following Unix shell commands:
tr -d '\015' < scriptfilename > newfilename mv newfilename scriptfilename
On non-UNIX platforms, these scripts are executed by:
- Giving a TAKE filename command to Kermit. In C-Kermit 7.0 and later, the filename can be followed by arguments, which are assigned to the variables \%1, \%2, ..., \%9.
- Including the script filename as the first command-line argument to the Kermit program, followed by a plus sign, followed by the arguments. In VMS and Windows, the plus sign seems to cause trouble with the shell, so in that case you can substitute an equal sign, but put it after the script file name instead of before it:kermit script.ksc = arg1 arg2 arg3 ... VMS k95 script.ksc = arg1 arg2 arg3 ... Windows
This assigns arg1 to \%1, arg2 to \%2, and so on.
- In Windows 95/98/ME/NT/2000/XP, by filetype association (when the script filename has the suffix ".ksc"), but in this case Windows does not provide a mechanism to pass arguments to the script.
Outside of UNIX, the "kerbang" line has no effect, since it is a comment to Kermit. In VMS, any references to "environment variables" can be satisfied by logical names or DCL symbols.
These scripts are for illustrative purposes only and carry no warranty, express or implied.
The Kermit scripting language is a programming language similar to Perl, but with different syntax (because the Kermit language predates Perl and many other scripting languages). The Kermit language is portable across UNIX (Linux, AIX, HP-UX, Solaris, FreeBSD, IRIX, SINIX, QNX, SCO, Tru64, and every other known UNIX variation), VMS, Stratus VOS, Data General AOS/VS, Windows 95/98/ME/NT/2000/XP, OS/2, Plan 9, OS-9/68000, the Commodore Amiga, and other platforms, and works uniformly on serial connections (direct or dialed) and network connections (clear text or secure). Thus learning the language is a good investment of your time since it can be applied to almost any communications problem. The Kermit script language is documented in the book Using C-Kermit, but of course many improvements have been made since the book was published, which are explained in the updates for Version 7.0 and Version 8.0, and illustrated by sample scripts listed below.
The Kermit scripting language is easy to learn if you already use Kermit, since it is the same as Kermit's command language. A Kermit script program is simply a series of Kermit commands collected into a file or a macro. To execute the script, you tell Kermit to TAKE the file or DO the macro. Or in UNIX you can also execute it as if it was a shell script, as described at the top of this page. In either case you can pass parameters to the script in the command that invokes it.
When using Kermit "manually", i.e. interacting with the host directly, you typically make a connection (SSH, TELNET, DIAL, etc), and then interact with the other computer directly, switching back and forth between the Kermit command screen and the terminal screen. The command to switch from the command screen to the terminal screen is CONNECT (C is a sufficient abbreviation). Returning from the terminal screen to the command screen requires a special "escape sequence" such as Ctrl-\C, Ctrl-]C, or Alt-x (Alt-x is used in Kermit 95 and MS-DOS Kermit). Note that Kermit's TELNET command is a shortcut for SET HOST followed by CONNECT; that is, TELNET includes an implied CONNECT command.
When automating a session, you do not switch back and forth between "screens"; you do not CONNECT or escape back. In a script, everything is done in command mode. There is no terminal screen in a script. Instead of CONNECT (or TELNET, or RLOGIN, or SSH), use the following commands, which tell Kermit to do what you would do "by hand":
- SET HOST [ switches ] hostname-or-address [ switches ]
- Open a network connection but remain in command mode, i.e. without entering the Terminal screen or CONNECT mode. Use this instead of TELNET, CONNECT, SSH, or other command that would enter the terminal screen. Synonym: OPEN HOST (which might be more evocative of the action performed).
For serial or modem connections, use:
- SET MODEM TYPE [ name-of-modem or NONE ]
- SET LINE device-name
- SET SPEED interface-speed
- [ DIAL phone-number ]
- Open a direct or dialed serial connection but remain in command mode. Note that when the DIAL command is executed from a command file or macro, it does not automatically enter CONNECT mode.
Kermit's DIAL command places the call by sending the appropriate commands to the modem, normally AT commands, and reading the responses. The SET MODEM TYPE command, which must be given prior to the DIAL command, tells Kermit which kind of modem it is so it knows the specific command set to use. In C-Kermit and Kermit 95, it is normally not necessary to script the dialog with the modem; all that is already built into Kermit. For more information, see the manual or type HELP DIAL, HELP SET DIAL, and HELP SET MODEM.
If, however, you have a need to script such a dialog – e.g. to send alphanumeric pages or SMS messages – you can do so. The trick is that before executing the first INPUT or OUTPUT command (explained below), you must tell Kermit to SET CARRIER-WATCH OFF. Example:
SET MODEM TYPE NONE SET LINE /dev/ttyS0 IF FAIL EXIT 1 "Device not available" SET SPEED 57600 SET FLOW-CONTROL RTS/CTS SET CARRIER-WATCH OFF OUTPUT AT\13 INPUT 3 OK
Type HELP SET CARRIER-WATCH for a brief explanation.
Once the connection is open, use the following commands to simulate what you would do interactively:
- INPUT timeout string
- Wait up to timeout seconds for the given string to arrive from the other computer. If it arrives, this command succeeds; otherwise the command fails. Example: INPUT 10 login: The INPUT command can accept not only simple strings but also patterns. An alternative form, MINPUT, accepts a list of match strings and/or patterns.
- SET INPUT ECHO ON
- Normally you don't see scripted dialogs on your screen. Use this command to let you see the what Kermit and the host are saying to each other. This doesn't affect the operation of the script, only what you can see.
- IF FAILURE command
- If the preceding command (SET HOST, INPUT, or any other command) failed, execute the given command.
Example: IF FAIL EXIT 1 "No login prompt". The command can be a list of commands enclosed in braces, and the IF statement can also have an ELSE part, which can also be a single command or a list of commands.
- IF SUCCESS command
- If the preceding command succeeded, execute the given command.
- STOP [ number [ string ] ]
- Stop the script and return to the Kermit prompt. The number is a success code: 0 for success, nonzero for failure; the command that invoked the current command file (TAKE) or macro (DO or "implied DO") can be tested for success or failure based on this code. If a message is given, it is printed.
- END [ number [ string ] ]
- Like STOP, but pops the command stack just one level instead of all the way back to the top. Use this for returning early from a macro or command file to its caller. Synonym: POP.
- EXIT [ number [ string ] ]
- Stop the script and exit from Kermit. The number is Kermit's exit status code, normally 0 for success, nonzero for failure. If a message is given, it is printed.
- OUTPUT string
- Send the given string to the other computer. Control characters may be included in the string using \ddd notation (where the d's are digits, and ddd represents the numeric code for the control character.
Example: OUTPUT olga\13
- LINEOUT string
- (C-Kermit 7.0 and later; Kermit 95 1.1.20 and later) Since it is so common to output a line with a carriage return on the end, this command does it for you, so you don't have to remember to include \13 on the end. lineout foo is equivalent to output foo\13.
INPUT takes the place of your eyes, OUTPUT takes the place of your fingers, and IF takes the place of your brain.
The rest is regular programming: FOR, WHILE, SWITCH, GOTO, variables, arrays, functions, block structure, nesting, scoping, and the rest, listed HERE and documented in the manual (just as any other programming language is documented in its own manual).
Here is a very simple example of making a Telnet connection to UNIX and logging in:
set host foo.bar.baz.com ; Make the connection if fail stop 1 Connection failed ; Check that it was made input 20 login: ; Wait 20 seconds for login: prompt if fail stop 1 No login prompt ; Check that it came output myuserid\13 ; or "lineout myuserid" input 5 Password: ; Wait 5 seconds for Password: prompt if fail stop 1 No Password prompt ; Check that it came output mypassword\13 ; or "lineout mypassword"
This illustrates how your actions in the terminal screen are simulated by INPUT (eyes), OUTPUT (fingers), and IF (brain). It can be elaborated to any desired degree: to use variables instead of constants for host, username, or password; to prompt for the password so you don't have to store it in a file; to attempt some sort of recovery action if a command fails instead of just stopping, and so on. And of course you can add more steps -- have it transfer a file, send email, whatever you want.
The syntax of the Kermit programming language should be familiar to anyone who uses other scripting languages such as the UNIX shell. It is a string substitution language, therefore an "escape character" (backslash) is used to indicate string substitution. Since many kinds of items can be substituted, the backslash is followed by a second character to indicate which kind of substitution is to be made: a scalar variable, an array element, a function result, a special character, and so forth. Examples:
\%a A scalar user-defined variable, evaluated recursively
\m(name) A scalar user-defined variable, evaluated one level deep
\v(name) A built-in variable (such as \v(time), "show var" for a list)
\&a An array element, evaluated recursively
\fname(args) A function invocation ("show func" for a list, "help func xxx" for details of function xxx)
\x0F A character whose code is the given hexadecimal number (00-ff)
\123 A character whose code is the given decimal number (0-255)
\\ A literal backslash.
This should give you an idea how to read the scripts in the library, and how to write a simple script or adapt one of them to your needs. For a brief description of a particular Kermit command or function, use Kermit's HELP command. For a description of a built-in function, type "help function xxx" at the prompt, where xxx is the function name. For a thorough treatment, please consult the manual.
- Do not put a CONNECT command in a script unless you really want to suspend execution of the script and turn manual control over to the user. And remember that the CONNECT command can work only if the job has a controlling terminal; it can't work in a batch or cron job where there is no terminal.
- You can't put text for the host "in-line". Kermit reads commands from the script, not text for the host. To send text to the host, use the OUTPUT or TRANSMIT command.
- TELNET host is a shortcut for SET HOST host, IF SUCCESS CONNECT. Since TELNET includes an implied CONNECT command, don't put a TELNET command in your script unless you really want to suspend execution of the script and turn manual control over to the user. Similarly for SSH and RLOGIN. In a script, use SET HOST instead, with the appropriate switches (if necessary) to indicate the connection type. HELP SET HOST for details.
- For more examples, look through the library below, and also see the C-Kermit case studies. Also see the C-Kermit FAQ, "Why Doesn't My Script Work?".
THE KERMIT SCRIPT LIBRARYNote: As of 8 December 2010, script links are HTTP rather than FTP.
A production script for configuring HP Blade servers through their Integrated Lights Out (iLO) interface.
A suite of scripts for getting reports out of a Rolm CBX. C-Kermit 8.0 or later or Kermit 95 2.1 or later.
Kermit builds a sitemap for a website based on a simple control file that you create, telling what files and images you want included. Google Image Sitemap Extensions are supported. If your control file contains text encoded in ISO 8859-1 or other commonly used character sets, Kermit converts it to UTF-8, which is required in sitemaps. Documented HERE. Requires C-Kermit 9.0.
Reads a Tab-Separated Record (TSV) web log for a bilingual Spanish-English website, extracts the Google searches, normalizes character set and capitalization of the search strings as far as possible, and prints the top 20 searches, along with their counts. Documented HERE. Requires C-Kermit 9.0.
Reads an Amazon Associate orders report (downloaded in TSV format) and lists the products according to the number of orders for each, or the number of clicks on each, as desired. Requires C-Kermit 9.0.
A simple script for checking the #if/#ifdef/#ifndef..#endif structure in a C source code file.
Macro to compare two numbers of any length, integer or floating-point, signed or unsigned, even if they are longer than the underlying machine's word size. Requires C-Kermit 8.0 or later or K95 2.0 or later.
Macros to convert signed decimal number strings to hexadecimal two's complement format and vice versa. Does its own string arithmetic so is not limited by machine word size or memory model. As written can handle integers of up to 128 bits. Obviously, this one runs slower than twoscomplementv1, which uses machine arithmetic. Requires C-Kermit 8.0 or later or K95 2.0 or later. (The twoscomplementv2 script converted only in one direction, this version includes both directions.)
A script to convert signed decimal number strings to two's complement format and display them in hexadecimal. Uses machine arithmetic so the results are limited by the underlying word size and memory model (e.g. 32 bits). Requires C-Kermit 8.0 or later or K95 2.0 or later.
CGI script for processing a Web form (in this case a survey).
Creates a Web index from the Kermit FTP site, thousands of files turned into clickable links. Requires C-Kermit 9.0 or later.
Makes a website from a collection of JPG images. For explanation and documentation, CLICK HERE. Requires C-Kermit 9.0 or later.
- pop.ksc A fully elaborated production script for fetching one's mail from a POP3 server over a connection secured by SSL. For explanation and documentation, CLICK HERE. Requires C-Kermit 9.0 or later.
- mailcheck A wrapper for the pop.ksc script, which collects your password one time, and then checks for new mail every 5 minutes (or other selected interval) and fetches it if there is any.
The standard C-Kermit 8.0 initialization file. Includes definitions for the services directory with automatic login macros for various platforms and communication methods.
Sample C-Kermit customization file. C-Kermit 6.0 or later required.
Macro implementation of the (missing) REMOTE MESSAGE command for C-Kermit 8.0 and Kermit 95 2.0 or later.
Sets up a "by-sound" keyboard for Cyrillic letters to be used with Russian Keyboard Mode in Kermit 95. This allows "touch typing" of Cyrillic by people who have QWERTY keyboards (Cyrillic letters are matched with Roman letters that have the "same sound", more or less). The normal Russian Keyboard Mode uses the standard Cyrillic keyboard layout, which is unfamiliar to QWERTY typists. Any version of Kermit 95 back to about 1.1.8 can use this key map.
Kermit 95 key map required for access to the Arkansas state Medicare claims facility.
Converts a plain-text file to HTML. Handles paragraphs and single-level numbered and bullet lists. Works best with block-style text. Kermit 95 2.0 (or later) or C-Kermit 8.0 (or later) is required.
- Introduction to FTP Scripting
How to automate FTP sessions with C-Kermit 8.0 and Kermit 95 2.0 or later.
Makes a secure FTP connection to IBM InfoExchange. A secure version of Kermit 95 2.0 (or later) or C-Kermit 8.0 (or later) is required.
PUTs (uploads) a single file in text ("ASCII") mode. For use with Kermit 95 2.1.3, which has a bug that inhibits proper end-of-line conversion when uploading text files to Unix servers.
Multiple Rename: Shows how to rename a list of files on an FTP server. Requires Kermit 95 2.0 (or later) or C-Kermit 8.0 (or later).
- ftpdirectory (*)
How to get a directory listing from an FTP server that shows the full timestamp for every file. Requires Kermit 95 2.0 or C-Kermit 8.0 (or later).
Shows how to send a file to an FTP server with a guaranteed unique name, even if the server does not support STOU. Requires Kermit 95 2.0 (or later) or C-Kermit 8.0 (or later).
Daily download of new RPMs from Red Hat Linux Rawhide server. Kermit 95 2.0 (or later) or C-Kermit 8.0 (or later).
Uses FTP to synchronize a local directory with a remote server directory. Downloads new files and files that have changed, skips files that didn't change, deletes local files that don't have counterparts on the server. Works across platforms (Windows or Unix client; Unix, VMS, Windows, or most any other server); text-binary mode switching handled automatically. Kermit 95 2.0 (or later) or C-Kermit 8.0 (or later).
Uses FTP to synchronize a remote server directory tree with a local directory tree. Local directory tree is duplicated on the server. Uploads new files and files that have changed, skips files that didn't change. Works across platforms via automatic text-binary mode switching. Kermit 95 2.0 (or later) or C-Kermit 8.0 (or later).
A simple one-step WHOIS, a front end to the regular whois utility to look up any domain in one step rather than two.
How to present a command-oriented interface to users accessing Kermit directly from outside: dialup (ANSWER), Internet (SET HOST *), or even with Kermit running as a service under inetd. In these situations there is no terminal driver, so Kermit must handle echoing and editing itself, as well as parsing commands and executing them. This example implements a simple "BBS" where the user can get file listings and download files. Works with any recent version of C-Kermit or Kermit 95.
- skermit (*)
Client for a C-Kermit file transfer and management SSH Subsystem: a more powerful, friendlier, scriptable alternative to SFTP. CLICK HERE for documentation. C-Kermit 8.0.201 or K95 2.0 (or later) required.
- autossh (*)
Conducts an automated SSH session. C-Kermit 8.0 or K95 2.0 or later required.
- autotelnet (*)
Makes an automated Telnet connection. C-Kermit 7.0 or K95 1.1.19 or later required.
- autotelnet6 (*)
Makes an automated Telnet connection. Same as "autotelnet" but does not use any new features of C-Kermit 7.0. C-Kermit 6.0 or K95 1.1.13 or later required.
- portlog (Intrusion Detection)
Harmlessly absorbs and logs attacks on TCP Port 80, such as Code Red and Nimda. Resets itself every hour, at which time it also (a) uploads the hour's log to a selected FTP site; (b) e-mails a summary to a selected address. It can listen on TCP Port 80 or any other desired TCP port. Works nicely on Port 80 with Code Red, Code Red II, and Nimda. Requires: C-Kermit 8.0.
- pop3 (*)
Retrieves e-mail from a POP3 server. C-Kermit 7.0 required. By Mark Sapiro. Also see the newer secure POP3 script.
Edits a remote file using your local computer's editor. C-Kermit 7.0 or K95 1.1.19 required.
- iksget (*)
Gets a file or files from an Internet Kermit Server. C-Kermit 7.0 required. No scripts needed in C-Kermit 8.0 or K95 2.x, which support kermit:// URLs on the command line (FTP, HTTP, and Telnet URLs too).
- iksdpy (*)
The Internet Kermit Service Daemon realtime display monitor. C-Kermit 7.0 or K95 2.0 or later required.
- timestamp (*)
Adds timestamps to Telnet-based system log display. C-Kermit 7.0 or K95 1.1.19 required. Note: C-Kermit 8.0 and Kermit 95 2.0 and later have a built-in option for timestamped session logs.
- linksys (*)
Used with a Linksys Ethernet Cable/DSL Router to retrieve the IP address for use with Kerberos 5 authentication when Network Address Translation (NAT) is enabled. C-Kermit 8.0 required.
Logs data coming into a serial port. Handy for logging PBX call records, messages on control ports of routers, etc. Requires C-Kermit 8.0.211.
Logs incoming data on any kind of connection (assumes a connection is open). An elaboration of the logport script that automatically rotates the log file every day a midnight. Should work with any recent version of K95 or C-Kermit.
This is the basic automatic dialing and logging in script. Sets up modem and communication parameters, dials, optionally negotiates through a terminal server, and then logs in to a Unix host. Should work with any version of C-Kermit or Kermit 95.
- getline (*)
Given a list of serial devices usable for dialing out, finds and assigns the first free one. C-Kermit 7.0 or K95 1.1.19 or later required.
Given a list of TCP/IP modem-pool servers, gathers a census of in-use and free ports by sending "finger" commands to them and accumulating the results, both per-server and per-phone-number, as well as cumulative. Runs in UNIX. C-Kermit 8.0 required.
Given a list of modem pool phone numbers, makes repeated calls to each one and logs the results of each call (BUSY, CONNECT 48000, etc) by date and time in a format suitable for statistical analysis. Runs in UNIX, Windows 95/98/ME/NT/2000/XP, or VMS. C-Kermit 7.0 or K95 1.1.19 or later required.
- modemtest2 (*)
Given a list of modem pool phone numbers, makes repeated calls to each one; logs into a specified host, transfers files back and forth, and keeps a logfile of connection and performance statistics. Runs in UNIX, Windows 9x/ME/NT/2000/XP, or VMS. C-Kermit 8.0 or Kermit 95 2.0 or later required. CLICK HERE for an earlier version that works with C-Kermit 7.0 and K95 1.1.19.
- dialout (*)
Puts up a form for the user to fill out to select modem type, port, speed, and phone number, and then dials upon user command. C-Kermit 7.0 or K95 1.1.19 or later required. Note: This is also a screen-formatting script.
A dialing script that selects the most appropriate long-distance provider by time of day, and that also cycles through providers upon busy signals (in case the provider itself is busy, rather than the destination number). For use with SET DIAL MACRO. By Peter Eichhorn, Assyst GmbH, München. C-Kermit 7.0 or K95 1.1.19 required.
- numpage (*)
Script for beepers or numeric pagers. C-Kermit 7.0 or K95 1.1.19 or later required.
- alphapage (*)
TAP/IXO alphanumeric paging script (UPDATED March 2003). C-Kermit 8.0 or K95 2.0 or later required.
TAP/IXO alphanumeric paging script that can be used by C-Kermit 6.0 or K95 1.1.13 or later.
- malphapage (*)
The TAP/IXO alphanumeric paging script modified by R.M. Almeria to send a series of pages, rather than just one. C-Kermit 8.0 or K95 2.0 or later required.
- More about pagers
- bottom (*)
A simple one-line script that uses C-Kermit to put the cursor on the bottom line of your screen. C-Kermit 7.0 or K95 1.1.19 required.
- menu (*)
Skeleton of a menu application. C-Kermit 7.0 or K95 1.1.19 required.
- Also see the dialout script, which uses screen-drawing techniques.
In Kermit 95, scripts can interact with the terminal emulator to retrieve strings from specified locations on the terminal screen, similar to HLLAPI. In this script, screen forms are parsed to select and retrieve images from a database on the host computer. By Max Evarts. K95 1.1.17 or later required.
Capture a text file from a VMS host without Kermit file transfer protocol.
- deliver (*)
A script that delivers the specified file or files to their destination, even if the connection is broken in mid-transfer. C-Kermit 6.0 or K95 1.1.8 or later required.
- synchronize (*)
A script that synchronizes directory trees on two Internet hosts over a Telnet connection. Only the files that are newer on the source than at the destination are transferred. Directories are created automatically as needed at the destination. Files that disappeared from the source are deleted at the destination. Any mixture of text and binary files can be handled. The two hosts need not have the same operating system or file system. The destination host is contacted and logged in to automatically (so this is also an Internet script); thus the entire operation can run unattended. C-Kermit 7.0 or K95 1.1.19 required.
Concatenates all the files in the current directory into one big file. Useful (e.g.) after downloading a bunch of EDI transaction files that need to be combined so the computer can process them all at once.
- rgrep (*)
Answers the frequently asked question: "Where is recursive grep?" Searches through files in a directory tree whose names match the given pattern and prints all lines in all files that match the given pattern. C-Kermit 7.0 or K95 1.1.19 required. Note: In C-Kermit 8.0, a script is no longer needed since GREP (including a recursive option) is a built-in command.
- rename (*)
A one-line analog to the UNIX shell "for i in *; do blah; done" loop. C-Kermit 7.0 or K95 1.1.19 required. This functionality is built in to C-Kermit as of version 8.0.211; CLICK HERE for documentation of the much-expanded RENAME command.
- changetype (*)
Elaboration of rename to general-purpose file-type changing script; old and new filetypes and file list are given as command-line arguments, e.g. "changetype hlp txt *" renames *.hlp files to *.txt. C-Kermit 7.0 or K95 1.1.19 required. This functionality, too, is built in to C-Kermit as of version 8.0.211; CLICK HERE for details.
- delete (*)
Answers the Frequently Asked Question "How do I delete files more than n days old?". C-Kermit 7.0 or K95 1.1.19 required.
- review (*)
Review files interactively. Everything you ever wanted in a text-mode file browser. C-Kermit 7.0 or K95 1.1.19 required.
Rotates connection logs on a monthly basis. C-Kermit 7.0 or K95 1.1.19 required.
- cleandups (*)
A rather complex file-management application (used, in fact, to manage the update and installation of C-Kermit 7.0 Beta-test binaries on our ftp server). C-Kermit 7.0 required.
- install (*)
Moves new C-Kermit Beta-test binaries from a staging area to the ftp site, deleting corresponding binaries from previous Beta tests as it goes, so as not to fill up the ftp server disk. C-Kermit 7.0 required.
- merge (*)
Merges any number of presorted files together into a single output file. Illustrates C-Kermit's file i/o package operating on multiple files at once. C-Kermit 7.0 required.
- ftplog (*)
Analyzes a file-transfer log in wu-ftpd format, which is also created by C-Kermit's SET TRANSACTION-LOG FTP format. Lists the five most popular files and also prints a histogram of file count per number of accesses. Illustrates associative arrays. C-Kermit 7.0 required.
- statistics (*)
Given a file in which each line contains a pair of numbers, X and Y, computes and prints the maximum, minimum, mean, variance, and standard deviation of the X's and Y's, and the correlation coefficient of X and Y. The numbers in the file may (but need not) have decimal points and fractional parts. Illustrates the floating-point arithmetic functions introduced in C-Kermit 7.0.
- xstats (*)
Like statistics, except implemented (much more simply) using C-Kermit 8.0 S-Expressions.
- easter (*)
Calculates the date of Easter for any year between 1900 and 2099 using S-Expressions. Requires C-Kermit 7.0 or later or K95 1.1.20 or later.
- easter2 (*)
Same as the previous one except this uses a new feature in C-Kermit 8.0.212 that forces integer arithmetic, which is required in this type of calculation.
- calendar (*)
Like Unix 'cal' - prints a calendar for any month in any year between 1859 and 9999. Requires C-Kermit 8.0 or later or K95 2.0 or later.
How to delete files that are older than a given age, in the client/server setting.
(And other creative programming techniques.) This section by Dat Thuc Nguyen.
Rule-based programming in Kermit: Animal Taxonomy. Requires C-Kermit 8.0 or Kermit 95 2.0 or later, plus the rule-engine module.
Rule-based programming in Kermit. Requires C-Kermit 8.0 or Kermit 95 2.0 or later.
Demonstration of "rulebase". Requires C-Kermit 8.0 or Kermit 95 2.0 or later.
Prolog-like declarative logic programming in Kermit. Requires C-Kermit 8.0 or Kermit 95 2.0 or later.
Patterns and predicates. Requires C-Kermit 8.0 or Kermit 95 2.0 or later.
Simulation of an Ice Cream Store: Customer arrivals, customer orders, customer departures, all programmed as objects. Requires the class macro defined HERE and C-Kermit 8.0 or Kermit 95 2.0 or later.
The Dining Philosophers Problem: semaphore, process, timer and concurrency. Requires the class macro defined HERE and C-Kermit 8.0 or Kermit 95 2.0 or later.
The Dining Philosophers Problem, with wine!
- permute (*)
Recursive string permutation. C-Kermit 8.0 or Kermit 95 2.0 or later required.
Find the shortest path through a network. Illustrates S-Expressions and functions. C-Kermit 8.0 or Kermit 95 2.0 or later required.
Recursive and iterative Fibonacci functions. Illustrates S-Expressions and functions. C-Kermit 8.0 or Kermit 95 2.0 or later required.
How many ways to change a dollar? Illustrates S-Expressions and functions. C-Kermit 8.0 or Kermit 95 2.0 or later required.
The 8 Queens problem. Illustrates arrays, S-Expressions, compound Boolean expressions. C-Kermit 8.0 or Kermit 95 2.0 or later required.
Income tax calculation. Illustrates S-Expressions, floating-point arithmetic. C-Kermit 8.0 required.
Towers of Hanoi. Illustrates S-Expressions, recursion. C-Kermit 8.0 required.
A faster version of Towers of Hanoi. Illustrates how to speed up recursive functions. C-Kermit 8.0 required.
Hosts object-oriented programming in C-Kermit 8.0, it uses some S-Expression features. C-Kermit 8.0 required.
An application demo that uses the same example that most Smalltalk dialects use as an introduction to object oriented programming. To run this demo:C-Kermit> take class C-Kermit> take account
C-Kermit 8.0 required.
Short-circuit execution of macros in series (a) while all of them succeed, (b) until one of them succeeds. C-Kermit 7.0 or K95 1.1.19 required.
This small package defines a series of LISP-like arithmetic operators for C-Kermit and Kermit 95. C-Kermit 7.0 or K95 1.1.19 required (obsoleted by the built-in LISP syntax of C-Kermit 8.0).
The matrix is an essential element in many computing areas. C-Kermit and Kermit 95 can do matrix operations easily. This script creates two matrices, A and B, then computes their sum: matrix C.
"SWITCH Considered Harmful"
Object-oriented programming in C-Kermit and Kermit 95. Fun with dogs and cats.
Complex numbers are not a built-in type of many programming languages. Here OOP comes to rescue with the user-defined type. This script defines a complex number class in C-Kermit, offering the familiar C++ interface. C-Kermit 7.0 required.
- wordcount (*)
Word frequency counting is the Excel of scripting languages such as awk and Perl. With OOP, C-Kermit also handles the task comfortably. This script defines and uses the class Words to count the occurrences of unique words of a plain-text text file. The class Words shields implementation details and promotes reuse, the flagship of OOP. C-Kermit 7.0 required.
No object-oriented programming language leaves home without inheritance. This script displays inheritance in C-Kermit and Kermit 95.
Multiple inheritance enriches software design. Not all OOP languages have it: C++ does; Java and Smalltalk don't. This script implements multiple inheritance in C-Kermit. The famous animal class found in many C++ and Smalltalk references is used to present the subject.
The container is a key concept in object-oriented programming. Smalltalk, C++, etc. have standard libraries of containers. This script defines the class 'bag' in C-Kermit/Kermit 95. Bag offers a rich usage interface.
A rudimentary string class based on the Smalltalk model.
We use semaphores to coordinate computing tasks, share resources, etc. This script defines semaphore classes in both the Smalltalk and C++ styles. C-Kermit 6.0 / K95 1.1.17 required.
In the patterns community, the singleton is a class that can have only one instance. All objects instantiated from that class refer to the one and only singleton! The singleton is very useful where there is only one resource available and various user-defined functions access that resource under different references. The singleton class ensures that one and only one object can be instantiated from it, though under different names.
The finite state machine is a useful concept in many applications. This script suggests a framework for a state machine.
- demo (*)
An interactive "torture test" for C-Kermit's script language. C-Kermit 7.0 or K95 1.1.19 required.
- iftest (*)
Exerciser for compound Boolean expressions. C-Kermit 7.0 or K95 1.1.19 required.
- functions (*)
Function exerciser. C-Kermit 7.0 or K95 1.1.19 required.
- localarray (*)
Local array exerciser. C-Kermit 7.0 or K95 1.1.19 required.
Exerciser for date-time formats and arithmetic. C-Kermit 8.0.206 or K95 2.1 required.
Exerciser for S-Expressions and floating-point arithmetic. C-Kermit 8.0 or K95 2.0 required.
- MS-DOS Kermit script library
- Kermit script portability reference
- Kermit script library (top)
- Kermit home page
- C-Kermit manual
- C-Kermit 7.0 Update Notes
- C-Kermit 8.0 Update Notes
- Kermit 95
- EMACS Kermit Mode
- Case Studies
C-Kermit/K95 Script Library / The Kermit Project" / Columbia University