Notes on Compilation Procedures and Result
One of the problems we encountered in the initial phases of this project
was the question of when people began writing about bushido, using that
word in particular to describe what had previously gone by a variety
of names. As a first step in answering that question, we compiled
a brief chronology of bushido-related Japanese language works.
The chronology is divided into two sections: one addressing works related
to bushido published before Meiji, and a second that lists bushido-related
works published during the Meiji period.
The publication dates and even authors of many of
the pre-Meiji texts remain unclear. In these cases titles have
been included without authors, and the letters PDUEhave been used
to denote publication date unknown.Enbsp; Titles using the word shidô"
instead of bushidô" are marked with asterisks (*) throughout.
A number of the pre-Meiji texts were republished in the Meiji period.
They have been listed under both sections.
Information for the chronology came primarily from
two computer-based search engines: the Meiji Microfilm index (available
at Columbia Universitys Starr East Asian Library) and the Kokusho
sômokuroku (available online but requires Japanese input
capabilities). The information below generally reflects the results
of keyword searches for bushidô" shidô." Unfortunately
this search was largely limited to the titles of works and was also
limited by the types of sources included in the Meiji Microfilm and
the Kokusho sômokuroku. In that sense this chronology
is far from comprehensive and is sure to have missed works that discuss
bushido but did not have that word in the title.
Nevertheless, in the case of the Kokusho sômokuroku,
the keyword search produced a total of 19 titles (only 9 of which contain
the word bushido), but another search for budô" resulted in 86
hits (for reasons of space those titles have been omitted here).
Indeed using the available dates and titles, it becomes clear that texts
using bushidô" in the title appear only after the beginning of
the Tokugawa period and that the frequency increased during the mid
to late Meiji period.
There are a number of other interesting trends that
merit a quick note. Of particular interest to those interested
in the Akô Incident is the number of works related to that event.
Akôgishi (1909) for example, includes the word bushidô"
in a subtitle, suggesting that the Akô rônin are
paragons of bushido. Several other works deal with individual
rônin or the incident and contain similar subtitles.
One might also take note of a small bushido boomE
that occurs right around the time of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5).
A second and perhaps more sustained interest in bushido appears to begin
around the time that Nitobe Inazôs English language work on bushido
first appeared as a Japanese translation. Nitobes work may have
played a prominent role in this interest, but there were surely other
factors that merit further exploration.
Bushido Before Meiji
Existing kakun are relatively few in number, but the time frame
they represent stretches from Kamakura (before
in some instances) to the late Tokugawa period. Consult the previous
section on kakun
for more specific
information on samurai housecodes. A few collections of kakun
were compiled and republished in Meiji:
1905 *Shônen Shidô no Kun (buke jidai) by Kubo Tenzui
1906 Bushidô Kakunshû
by Arima Yûsei and Akiyama
PDU *Shidô bukô no sho
PDU *Shidô kakun
PDU *Shidô kaidan
PDU *Shidô kokoroe sho
by Hôjô Chikuhô
PDU *Shidô yôgi
by Matsumoto Kodô
PDU *Takatsuki-han shidôchû
PDU Bushidô konryû
PDU Inpan no bushidô
PDU Bushidô nichiyôshû
PDU Bushidô hihanki
PDU Bushidô yôkanshô
by Ishida Ittei
PDU Bushidô yorozu hishû
PDU Takedaryû goshiki
hata no ben onajiku bushidô shimon dengi
1617 Bushidô kôsha sho
also known as Tôryû gunkôsha sho by Ogasawara
Shôzô (aka Ogasawara Sakuun)
circa 1643 Gorin no sho by Miyamoto Musashi
Gorin no sho does not appear in the Meiji microfilm, but two works
related to Musashi and the school of
kendô associated with him were printed in the Meiji period:
1909 Nitô Ichiryû Kendô Hiyô by Miyamoto
1909 Miyamoto Musashi
by Miyamoto Musashi Iseki Kenshôkai
1656 Bukyô yôroku by Yamaga
PDU *Shidô by Yamaga
was republished in 1910.
1684 Kokon bushidô ezukushi by Hishikawa
1716 Hagakure by Yamamoto Tsunetomo
A republication of Hagakure
appeared in 1906.
circa 1730 Budôshoshinshû by Daidôji Yûzan
1837-1850 *Shidô yôron by Saitô Masakata
(aka Saitô Setsudô)
The Meiji (Re)Invention of Bushido
PDU Zen to bushidô by Shaku Goan
1897 Bushidô ichime himitsu bukuro
by Kuroiwa Ruikô (Translation)
1898 Bushidô ichime himitsu bukuro
Kuroiwa Ruikô (Translation)
1899 Bushido: The Soul of Japan by Nitobe
Inazo (English Language)
Nihon bushidô by Mikami Reiji
by Inoue Tetsujirô
Bushidô no josei
by Kawasaki Yasutani
by Adachi Ritsuen
1902 Suparuta [Sparta] no bushidô
by Nakanishi Soematsu
Bushidô by Yamaoka Tesshô
Bushidô (seishin kôwa) by Satô Ganei
1903 Jindô no seisai Ebushidô no
shinzui by Hasuike Bonji
*Igirisu shidô monogatari by Katô Yoneji (Translation)
1904 Nihon bushidô no shinzui by Dai
Nihon Bushidô Kenkyûkai
Nihon bushidôron by Kawaguchi Akiji
1905 Kokon bushidô shitan by Kubo
*Shônen shidô no kun (buke jidai) by Kubo Tenzui
Bushidô sôsho by Inoue Tetsujirô and Arima Yûsei
Bushidô sôron (gendai taika) by Akiyama Goan
Bushidô hyakuwa by Kawamura Fusô
1906 Tosa no bushidô by Aki Kiyoka
Bushidô kakunshû by Arima Yûsei and Akiyama
Hagakure by Yamamoto Tsunetomo, Nakamura Yuichi hen
1907 Nijû seiki no bushidô by
Nihon bushidôshi by Ninagawa Tatsuo
1908 Onna bushidô by Kumata Shujirô
Shônen bushidô by Kunata Ashijô
Shin bushidô by Yamakata Kôkô
Bushidô by Nitobe Inazô (Translation into Japanese)
Bushidôkun by Tomoda Gô
Bushidô jitsuwa (shinpen) by Oka Mitsuyoshi
1909 Akôgishi (Nihon bushidô)
by Shinryûsai Teisui
Gunjin bushidôron by Tôgô Yoshitarô
Seiyô bushidô by Maeda Chôta (Translation)
Nihon bushidô by Shigeno Yasueki
Nihon bushidôron by Machi Tokuji
Bushidô bitan by Ikebe Gijô
1910 Giretsu hyakketsu (bushidô kosui)
by Tôchûken Kumôemon
Araki Mataemon (Nihon bushidô no gonge) by Tamada Gyokushûsai
Bushidô kagami by Takahashi Shizuko
Bushidô to katei by Ôhata Yutaka
Bushidô no uta by Mokuzan Kyôzen
Yamazakura (bushidô no seika) by Tsuji Gonsaku
*Shidô by Yamaga Sokô
1911 Bushidô meimeiden by Miyoshiya
Horibe Yasubei (bushidô seika) by Sekka Sanjin
Yamanaka Shikanosuke (bushidô no seika) by Sekka Sanjin
Kokkei bushidô (rakugo kôdan) by Yamazaki Gyôsaburô
Kore issen no uta (bushidô shishi) by Matsuoka Kanzan
Shônen bushidô by Taniguchi Masanori
Sumô to bushidô by Kitagawa Hakuai
Bushidô kunwa (seishin shûyô) by Yoshimaru Kazumasa
Bushidô kenbu by Miyamoto Takeshi
Bushidô no seika (seishin shûyô) by Watanabe
Bushidô hyakuwa by Hara Keikichi
1912 Akôgishiden (bushidô tenkei)
by Kobayshi Ôri
Inôe Daikurô (bushidô seika) by Sekka Sanjin
Ôishi Kuranosuke (bushidô gonge) by Sekka Sanjin
Toda Shinpachirô (bushidô seika) by Sekka Sanjin
Gishi meimeiden (bushidô kosui) by Tôkyô Naniwabushi
Kore issen no uta (bushidô shishi) by Mizuno Kôtoku
Kore wa Genroku jûyonnen (bushidô seika) by Kyôyama
*Shidô no hyôgen (shûyô jitsuwa) by
in America (1900 E1912): A Basic Bibliography, compiled by Nicola Burt
Nitobes English text, Bushido: the Soul of
Japan, was first published in the United States in 1900. Described
as a code similar to Western chivalry, Nitobe used bushidô
to explain Japanese morality to the West. However, it was not
until the outbreak of the Russo-Japanese War in 1904 that the work received
attention in American periodical literature. From 1904, reviews
and analyses appeared in a number of magazines and newspapers, and in
one full length text, James Scherers What is Japanese Morality?
Scherer and other missionaries and Christian converts acknowledged
the loyalty that existed in bushidô as presented by Nitobe,
and used it as a reason for continued missionary work in Japan.
The loyalty of bushidô would provide a strong base for
Christian teachings, although bushidô itself was not a
religion, and its morality was lacking in Christian understanding.
Those writing on the Russo-Japanese War used bushidô to
explain the success of the Japanese military, also emphasizing the morality
and loyalty that could be found in the code. Thus, bushidô
was initially presented to American audiences through Christianity and
For a few years after the war, mention of bushidô declined,
surfacing only occasionally to explain an act related to Japan, or as
a code to enhance the commercial status of Japan. It was not until
the suicides of General Nogi and his wife on September 13,1912, that
bushidô featured prominently in the press, this time to
explain a potentially abhorrent act to an American audience. Having
prior knowledge of the code, journalists and others drew on it to mediate
the suicides to their readers. Several articles provided a history
of the origins of bushidô in Japan, making the act of the
Nogis part of a traditional Japanese past. In this way, American
condemnation was mitigated through attempts at understanding the suicides
in the context of bushidô and samurai tradition.
The accessibility of Nitobes text contributed significantly to American
understanding of bushidô, and its influence emerges in
many of the works that referenced bushidô. Because
bushidô also became more prevalent in Japanese texts, it
is likely that these combined with Nitobes version to create the American
understanding of bushidô in the early twentieth century.
Bushidô proved to be a useful concept to facilitate American
understanding of various Japanese acts, and one that could be invoked
in matters not only pertaining to military success. It was the
emphasis in bushidô on loyalty and morality and the comparison
to chivalry, all concepts understood by American audiences, that permitted
this mediation to occur, and that have probably shaped subsequent understanding
of bushidô in the United States.
Nitobe Inazô and Bushidô:
The Works of Inazo Nitobe. 5 Vols. Tokyo:
University of Tokyo Press, 1972.
Bushidô Reviews and Analyses:
Bushido' among the Japanese: the Relation between
Chivalry and Suicide among the Japanese." Missionary Review of the
World Vol. XVIII (old series XXVIII), no.7 (July 1905): 528-529.
Bushido, the Japanese Ethical Code.EThe Literary
Digest (March 26, 1904): 448-9.
Bushido, the Japanese Ethical Code.ELiving
Age (April 9, 1904): 115-121.
Bushido: the Ethical Code of Japan.ECurrent
Literature Vol. XXXIX, no. 3 (September 1905): 294-5.
Christianitys Present Opportunity in Japan.EMissionary
Review of the World Vol. XVIII (old series XXVIII), no. 4 (April
Dr. Griffis on Bushido. New York Times
(May 20, 1905): BR329.
Japanese Knight-Errantry.ENew York Times
(April 1, 1905): BR201.
Japanese Thought.ENew York Times (September
2, 1905): BR573.
Notes.EThe Dial (Charles Scribners Sons:
New York City, August 1, 1905): 71.
Scherer, James A.B. What is Japanese Morality?
Philadelphia: The Sunday School Times Co., 1906.
The Religions of Japan.EThe Missionary Review
of the World Vol. XVIII (old series XXVIII), no.7 (July 1905): 530-4.
Bushidô and the Russo-Japanese War:
BushidoEand Business.ENew York Times
(July 23, 1905): 6,1.
Griffis, William Elliot. How Japan in War Time
Observes International Law.ENew York Times (June 19, 1904):
Japan and Ourselves.ENew York Times (May
2, 1906): 8.
Japans Most Deadly Menace.EHarpers Weekly
(New York and London: Harper and Brothers, July 10, 1909): 17.
Nogi and Stoessel.ENew York Times (May
26, 1906): 10.
The Soul of a Nation. New York Times
(October 27, 1904): 1.
Why Japans Ruler Worshipped at Ise.ENew York
Times (December 4, 1905): 7.
Will be Friends or Foes.ENew York Times
(June 29, 1906): 8.
The Suicide of General Nogi:
A Japanese Denunciation of Nogi.EThe Literary
Digest (November 2, 1912): 780.
American Opinion of the Nogi Suicide.EThe
Literary Digest (September 28, 1912): 504-5.
General Nogis End.EThe Literary Digest
(September 28, 1912): 527-31.
Hara-Kiri a Samurai Custom.ENew York Times
(September 14, 1912): 3.
Judging Nogis Suicide.EThe Literary Digest
(October 19, 1912): 674.
Kennan, George. The Death of General Nogi.EThe
Outlook (October 5, 1912): 255-9.
Last of the Samurai.ENew York Times (March
30, 1913): BR179.
Nogi a Spartan, Trained for War.ENew York
Times (September 14, 1912): 3.
Noguchi, Yone. On the Suicide of Gen. Nogi.EThe
Nation Vol. 95, no. 2468 (October 17, 1912): 352-3.
Tong, H. K. Where Suicide Is a Virtue.EThe
Independent Vol. 73 (October 17, 1912): 899-901.
When Nogi Paused in War for a July 4th
Banquet.ENew York Times (September 22, 1912): SM1.
Human BulletsE A Revealing Book.ENew York
Times (October 19, 1907): BR650.
Kawakami, Kiyoshi K. A Japanese on Japan.ENew
York Times (July 21, 1906): BR457.
Knox to Japanese on Our Friendship.ENew York
Times (November 4, 1909): 18.
Kokichi. Dr. Inazo Nitobe.EThe Independent Vol. 71 (October
5, 1911): 746-9.
Yone. The Truth About Intellectual Japan.EThe Independent Vol.
71 (October 19, 1911): 864-7.
Russia and Japan To-Day.ENew York Times
(October 23, 1910): LI 12.
A Brief Selection of Japanese Materials:
BushidôE100 nen, hirogeta yûkô.E
Asahi shinbun (yûkan), (July 31, 2000): hyûman, 8.
Matsukuma Toshiko. Nitobe Inazô. Tokyo:
Mizusu Shobô, 1969.
Nitobe Inazô. Bushidô. Trans.
Sakurai Ôson. Tokyo: Teimi Shuppansha, 1908, 1909 printing.
Nitobe Inazô Zenshû. Tokyo:
Kyôbunkan, 1969. 16 volumes.
Secondary English Language Sources:
Howes, John F. ed. Nitobe Inazô: Japans
Bridge Across the Pacific. Boulder, San Francisco, Oxford: Westview
E-resources: ProQuest Historical Newspapers: This can be accessed through
the Columbia University Libraries homepage. The New York Times
is archived from 1857, and articles are full-text searchable.
Articles can also be printed from the site.
Guthrie, Anna Lorraine, ed. ReadersEGuide to Periodical Literature
(Cumulated). Volume I (1900-1904); Volume II (1905-1909); Volume
III (1910-1914). Minneapolis: The H. W. Wilson Company, 1905; 1910;
Mott, Frank Luther. A History of American Magazines. Cambridge,
Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of Harvard University, 1967.