Greenhouse Gases

Atmospheric Greenhouse Gas Abundances

Carbon Dioxide (CO2)

Long-Term Annual Means with IPCC Scenarios

Figure in PDF. Figure with IPCC 2013 comparisons in PDF. Data: CO2 (Data through 2021, Last updated 2022/04/08)

Recent Mauna Loa CO2

Figure in PDF (Data through May 2022, Last updated 2022/06/08)
Data Source: Dr. Ed Dlugokencky , NOAA/GML (https://gml.noaa.gov/ccgg/trends/data.html) and Dr. Ralph Keeling, Scripps Institution of Oceanography (scrippsco2.ucsd.edu/)

Recent Global CO2

Figure in PDF (Data through March 2022, Last updated 2022/06/07)

ERL (2013) Fig. 2 and PLOS ONE (2013) Fig. 6 Update

Annnual change of CO2 (globally since 1980 and at Mauna Loa before that) compared with the annual increase of the global mean surface temperature and Nino 3.4 temperature data. Figure in PDF (Data through March 2022, Last updated 2022/06/08)

"Burden" (2017) Fig. 6 Update

Left: Annnual change of CO2. Right: Correlation between the annual change of CO2 (using only global mean data) and annual change of the global mean surface temperature. Figure in PDF (Data through August 2021, Last updated 2021/11/16)

CO2 Emissions and Airborne Fraction

PDF, another version in PDF (last updated 2021/08/18)

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Methane (CH4)

Long-Term Annual Means with IPCC Scenarios

Figure in PDF. Figure with IPCC 2007 and 2013 comparisons in PDF. Data: CH4 (Data through 2021, Last updated 2022/06/09)

Recent Global CH4

Figure in PDF (Data through February 2022, Last updated 2022/06/07)

Data Source: Ed Dlugokencky, NOAA/GML (https://gml.noaa.gov/ccgg/trends_ch4//)

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Nitrous Oxide (N2O)

Long-Term Annual Means with IPCC Scenarios

Figure in PDF. Figure with IPCC 2007 and 2013 comparisons in PDF. Data: N2O (Data through 2021, Last updated 2022/06/09)

Recent Global N2O

Figure in PDF (Data through February 2022, Last updated 2022/06/07)
Data Source: 1978-2000, NOAA/GMD Halocarbon Network. 2001-2021, Ed Dlugokencky, NOAA/GML (gml.noaa.gov/ccgg/trends_n2o)

QBO (m/s) at 10 hPa (2020/12/09)

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Other Trace Gases


mixing ratios: 1900-1990 (2016/07/02), 1992-2020 (2021/12/21), 2015-2100 (2018/03/26).

Figure in PDF. (Last modifies 2021/12/21)
forcings: 1900-1990 (2016/07/09), 1992-2020 (2021//12/21) 2015-2100 (2016/07/04).

Recent Forcing and Its Growtha

Figure in PDF (Data through 2020, Last updated 2021/12/22)

Data source: NOAA ESRL HATS Total_Cl_Br, NOAA GMD HATS SF6 pages.

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Forcing by Doubling Gases

CO2: 4.04 W/m2 (278 => 556 ppm),
CH4: 0.56 W/m2 (722 => 1444 ppb),
N2O: 0.87 W/m2 (270 => 540 ppb)

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Greenhouse Gas Forcing Compared with Future Scenarios

Figure also available in PDF. Data through 2020. (Last modified: 2021/05/07)

Digital data for Scenarios A, B and C. The original figure is Fig. 2 in Hansen, Fung, Lacis, et al. 1988, "Global Climate Changes as Forecast by Goddard Institute for Space Studies Three-Dimensional Model", JGR 93, 9341-9364.

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Greenhouse Gas Forcing Growth Rates

The curves are 5-year running means with 3-year mean for 2020 and annual mean for 2021.
Figure also available in PDF. (Last modified: 2021/06/09). The original figure is Fig. 4 in Hansen and Sato 2004, "Greenhouse gas growth rates" PNAS 101, 16109-16114.

The RCP2.6 scenario aims to limit the increase of the global mean temperature to 2oC.