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Global Temperature — More Figures

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Summary Figures


Monthly (thin lines) and 12-month running mean (thick lines or filled colors in case of Nino 3.4 Index) global land-ocean temperature anomaly, global land and sea surface temperature, and El Nino index. All have a base period 1951-1980. Figure also available in PDF. The monthly mean temperature anomaly data are available over land (data) and over ocean (data). (Data through December 2023. last updated 2024/01/12, now with GHCN v4 and ERSST v5.)
For Nino 3.4 SST see El Nino/La Nina page (last modified 2023/12/04) for data source and more information.

Land+Ocean with 1880-1920 base period. (2024/01/13)
New Monthly mean ocean temperature with 1880-1920 base period. (2024/02/08)

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Monthly Analysis

Comparison of temperature of the last eleven years. (Updated on 2024/02/08, now with GHCN v4 and ERSST v5)

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Global-mean monthly-mean surface temperature anomalies with the base period 1951-1980. V denotes the major volcanic eruptions, and m and M denote the years of the minima and maxima of sunspot number cycles, respectively. See a NOAA/NGDC page. (Updated on 2024/02/08) , now with GHCN v4 and ERSST v5.)

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Changes in Seasonal Resolution

Seasonal mean surface temperature anomaly for 2016 and 2020. (Updated on 2021/03/12, now with GHCN v4 and ERSST v5)

Seasonal mean surface temperature anomaly for 2022 and 2023. (Updated on 2023/12/14, now with GHCN v4 and ERSST v5)

Surface temperature changes for 1900-2019, 1950-2019 and 2000-2019 based on linear trends for four seasons separately. (Updated on 2020/01/14, now with GHCN v4 and ERSST v5)

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Annual Analysis

(Updated on 2019/07/16)

Annual mean surface temperature anomaly since 1996. Since 1880 (140 years) the top 5 warmest years fall in 2015-2022 and top 10 warmest years fall in 2010-2022. Now with GHCN v4 and ERSST v5. Updated on 2023/12/14)

Annual mean surface temperature changes based on linear trends. Figure also available in PDF (Updated on 2024/01/12 with GHCN v4 and ERSST v5)

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Decadal Anomalies

Figure also available in PDF. (Updated on 2023/01/12, with GHCN v4 and ERSST v5)
Annual and decadal mean global-mean temperature relative to 1880-1920 mean

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Regional Changes

Zonal Means

Zonal mean, (a) 60-month and (b-d) 12-month running mean temperature changes in five zones: Arctic (90.0 - 64.2°N), N. Mid-Latitudes (64.2 - 23.6°N), Tropical (23.6°S), S. Mid-Latitudes (23.6 - 64.2°S), and Antarctic (64.2 - 90.0°S).
Figures in PDF: (a)-(d) and (e). (Data through January 2024 used. Updated on 2024/02/08, now with GHCN v4 & ERSST v5)

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Updates of figures in Hansen, et al. Global temperature change, 2006, PNAS.

Figure 2 in PDF (Updated 2020/01/21)
Extended to 2062 Data from Dr. Gavin Schmidt (Updated 2021/01/22)

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Figure 3 in PDF. Data provided by Dr. Reto Ruedy of NASA/GISS. (Updated 2020/11/24)

Figure 7 in PDF. (Updated 2020/11/24)

Figure 9 in PDF. Data provided by Dr. Reto Ruedy of NASA/GISS. (Updated 2020/11/30)

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(Updated on 2024/02/08, now with GHCN version 4 and ERSST v5)

January 20 - February 18 2024 mean temperature relative to 1991-2020 means. Data source: NOAA weekly ENSO 30+ presentation pages.

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We take the 1880-1920 global mean temperature as our best estimate for the pre-industrial value. However, the spatial coverage of stations is not good for that period (no Antarctica data, e.g.), so for the global maps we use 1951-1980 as the base period. Some other groups keep advancing their 30-year base period each decade, so that it is now 1991-2020. The above maps show the temperature change between these periods.

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Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Temperature

NASA/GISS writes on their web page (https://data.giss.nasa.gov/gistemp/), "March 11, 2020: Dr. Joel Susskind from NASA/GSFC and his team created Surface Temperature Anomaly estimates from Remote Sensed data (Susskind et al. 2019). These estimates are completely independent from the data used by the GISS analysis." See Comparison of Versions 6 and 7 page.

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Daily Global Temperature Anomaly by Japanese 55-year Reanalysis

In PDF: 2023, 2024

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Today's Weather Maps by Climate Reanalyzer (University of Maine)

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All above data source: NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York, NY, except several NOAA data sets mentioned above. (See data.giss.nasa.gov/gistemp for details and data.)
Note: The Byrd Station data in central West Antarctica were replaced by Bromwich et al's data. (since 2013/03/21)

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