Columbia University Pupin Hall

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Columbia University's Pupin Physics Laboratory, completed in 1927. The Rutherford Observatory (on top) is the site of Professer Wallace Eckert's Astronomical Laboratory, in which he constructed the first device to perform general scientific calculations automatically in 1933-34. In 1937 Dr. Eckert's lab was to become the Thomas J. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau, jointly sponsored by IBM, the American Astronomical Society, and Columbia, and would remain in operation until the mid-1950s.

Rutherford observatory has been in continuous operation since Pupin was constructed, but in 2009 a new "Northwest Corner Building" was erected next to it, six floors higher than the roof of Pupin and blocking a significant portion of its field of view, and (when it opens) no doubt also putting out a considerable amount of light, obscuring the remaining open sky. The Astronomy Department, which still exists, is seeking a new home for the instruments. HERE is a link to a Spectator article on the subject, 1 October 2009, for as long as it lasts.

Pupin Hall is also where Enrico Fermi, Leo Szilard, and other physicists began work on developing a self-sustaining neutron chain reaction in 1939, in the basement (five levels below the entrance shown above; until about 1970 when the new gym was built, the lower four floors were exposed and Pupin was fronted by grass and trees). When Fermi's work moved to the University of Chicago after Pearl Harbor (so it would be safer from attack from the sea), it was called the Manhattan Project because of where it had begun, and it kept its name when it moved later to Los Alamos, New Mexico.

Professor Eckert's Astronomical Computing Bureau stayed behind in Pupin to perform war-related computations, such as ballistic trajectories, while Professor Eckert himself directed the US Nautical Almanac office of the US Naval Observatory for the duration of the war. Uranium separation and heavy water production research were carried on in the basement of Pupin, where to this day radioactive equipment such as the cyclotron's 3-ton cobalt-steel electromagnet remains stored in a locked area (other parts were moved to the Smithsonian Institution in 1965 when the cyclotron was shut down). The uranium separation work (development of the gaseous diffusion technique) of Columbia's Special Alloy Materials (SAM) Laboratories expanded to the Nash Building on West 133rd Street, where radiation detection techniques and instruments were also developed by Columbia physicists C.S. Wu, Bill Havens, and James Rainwater. Meanwhile, the Columbia Radiation Lab occupied Pupin floors 10-12, connected via Professor I.I. Rabi with the MIT Radiation Lab and the development of radar for the War [99].

In early 1945, Professor Eckert's newly established Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, temporarily housed on Pupin's tenth floor, was given the task of performing temperature-pressure (shockwave) calculations for Los Alamos during the final months of A-bomb design and construction. From Herb Grosch's Computer: Bit Slices from a Life [57]:

By this time Eckert and I knew that the unit of temperature in my calculations was a million degrees Kelvin, and so on. We kept the equations I was working with, and my translation into computable form (approved, with a warning, by the great Johnnie [von Neumann] on his first visit), and the starting values, in the big safe. What Marjorie [Herrick] and [machine room operator] Cliff and the others saw was a long shelf of 28 IBM plugboards, which when cycled through the various machines produced a messy and unlabelled printout from the 405 tabulator. While I bundled this up and mailed it with my own hands, registered, to von Neumann - later, to [Roy] Marshak - at the anonymous Santa Fe box number, the machine room team began to repeat the cycle. We did two a day; each predicted the temperature and pressure up to the (moving) shock wave after one more time step - a millisecond. Allowing for the fact that we did not work Sundays, that was 50,400,000 times as slow as the real atomic explosion! A Cray 2 today [1991] would be ten million times faster - and give you Saturday off besides! ... The listings I mailed to Los Alamos had no hand-written labels, but matched a labelled master copy that had been carried back by Feynman: primitive but exceedingly effective security. ... Then it was August 6, and the radio and the newspapers told us about Hiroshima. We knew what we had been working on, and that tens of thousands of Japanese civilians had been incinerated. Before the moral pressures could mount, events swept us away. The war in the Pacific ended, the war in Europe ended. All our perspectives lengthened overnight - from a few months "to the end of the war," to the long reaches of peace.

The US DOE Facilities Covered by the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act of 2000 lists the Columbia buildings where atom-bomb work was done during World War II:

80 - Columbia University
Also Known As: Pupin Hall
Also Known As: Havemeyer Hall
Also Known As: Nash Building
Also Known As: Prentis Hall
Also Known As: Schermerhorn Hall
State: New York Location: New York City
Time Period: AWE 1939-1940s; DOE 1985 (remediation)
Facility Type: Atomic Weapons Employer Department of Energy

Facility Description: Columbia University began its nuclear research in 1939 by studying nuclear chain reactions. In 1940, the university was contracted by the National Research Defense Committee for additional research in areas including isotope separation, gas centrifuge for uranium separation work, and the nuclear chain reaction. Four of the university's building including, Pupin, Schermerhorn, Havemeyer, and Nash, were known to have housed the research experiments.

Note: the website where this document was found in May 2003 has disappeared. Variations on it can be found elsewhere but they do not include the details listed above -- such is the Web. Oops, now it popped up in another place -- let's see how long this link lasts (not long, it was gone as October 1, 2009).

The Nash building is on the east side of Broadway at West 133rd Street, and was rented by Columbia during World War II. For more about Columbia University in World War II, see the 1939-1945 sections of the Columbia University Computing History.

Also see:

Link: Pupin Basement (Columbia Spectator article, 1 Nov 2006) (sorry, this link is defunct too).

Photo: Frank da Cruz, April 2002.

Last update: Thu Oct 1 14:30:38 2009


Frank da Cruz / fdc@columbia.edu / Columbia University Computing History