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What are your recollections of how the Rapp-Coudert process
It unfolded first in the press. You're talking about a lot of
papers, screaming headlines in the Journal American and in the News
and The Mirror and The World Telegram, names forty-three
communists, that kind of thing. These were big headlines and this is
big stuff. It came as a big shock to us, obviously. We weren't prepared
Oh, no. It came as a very sudden thing for us. Maybe some
people may have known. I didn't.
That something like this might happen.
Might happen, or that something was happening. Very often
you know these things, but I did not know.
Was it a shock in the sense that you never thought that being a red
meant your job was at stake?
We never thought of it, at least I never thought of it that way.
You did what you were doing in a free society, in a place where ideas
clashed, and people had beliefs. You talked about the ideas you
believed in. They were sort of broad kind of concepts. You see, this is
a period of a strong anti-war movement on campus, student
movement. The student union was active and big. There were student
strikes. There were a lot things happening, a lot of involvement. A lot
of people were sympathetic. We always worked in organizations with
students, with faculty, etc., so you had a sort of protective color
around it, around the work you did. And in that sense, you were well-
known, respected, and liked, and you were treated as a radical, I
guess, if the word means anything -- liberal, radical, progressive, etc.
And in some cases you told people what you believed in and tried to
work with them. But these were times when the student movement
was strong. There was a general strong liberal sentiment in the
So it came as a shock when you began to read these headlines.
What was the immediate impact on you and on your brothers also?
Once we saw it, we began to examine what the possibilities
were here. Then other people came forward to corroborate, lesser
people. See, he named a lot of people, and some people who were
named were trying to find cover for themselves, and so they testified.
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