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Frances PerkinsFrances Perkins
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When we came to Washington in the spring of 1933, the Black Bill was already before Congress. In the previous Congress the Black Bill had been introduced and they had had public hearings on it. It had built a considerable support. It was called the Black-Connery Bill. William P. Connery was a Congressman from Massachusetts. He was a member of the Labor Committee. He had been himself, at one time, a working man and a member of some trade union. I've forgotten what one now. Senator Hugo Black, however, was the brains back of the bill. Connery, who was the ranking Democrat on the Labor Committee in the lame duck session, had gone along with him.

Those of us in New York who read the news from Washington had read about the Black Bill. I remember having evaluated it as just being one of the many attempts to implement the theories, or some of the theories, of the Technocrats. The Technocrats were riding high in '30, '31, '32, '33. They were not completely obscured by the election of Franklin D. Roosevelt, although they had begun

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