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Nineteenth-century prose

Chandrakāntā by Devaki Nandan Khatri (selection from the novel) Urdu
Premsāgar by Lallulal (selection)
Literary criticism by Bhartendu Harishchandra, “Hindī bhāshā” and “Urdū kā syāpā”

Twentieth-century prose

“Sadgati” by Premchand
“Dudh kā dām” by Premchand Urdu
“Urdū, Hindī, aur Hindūstānī” by Premchand Urdu
“Malbe kā mālik” by Mohan Rakesh
“Tanāv” by Rajendra Yadav
“Dillī mẽ ek maut” by Kamleshwar
“Paccīs caukā deṛh sau” by Omprakash Valmiki
Apne-apne pinjare by Mohandas Naimishray Urdu
“Lājwantī” by Rajinder Singh Bedi Urdu


Two Braj Bhasha poets:
  • Kabir Urdu
  • Rahim Urdu
Selections from Braj works: The Chayavad movement, with
  • Selection from the critical essay “Kalpnā ke kānan kī rānī” in Chāyāvād by Namwar Singh
  • “Vishva chavi” by Sumitranand Pant
  • Nīrajā by Mahadevi Varma (selection)
Old Avadhi texts: selections from
  • the Rāmcaritmānas of Tulsīdās
  • the Madhumālatī of Manjhan

Rasikapriyā chapter 7
by Keśavdās

Keśavdās composed his first Rītigranth (text of method), the Rasikpriyā, in 1591 for the Orchha court. This work was an early attempt to vernacularize Sanskrit aesthetic theory. In his Rasikpriyā   the poet alternates between lakṣaṇ (definition verses) and udāharaṇ (example verses). While the lakṣaṇ verses do not generally refer directly to the Kṛṣṇa-Rādhā bhakti paradigm, the udāharaṇ verses are understood to refer inherently to the Kṛṣṇa-Rādhā romance at the backdrop of Braj bhakti. Keśavadās's devotional rendition of Sanskrit aesthetic theory is a departure from the earlier tradition, but its versification in a Braj register resonates perfectly with the bhakti extension to the older genre. Allison Busch and her Fall 2012 class prepared the following glossary for the text.

-Justin Ben-Hain

On this page

PDF availableThe Braj text is available as a PDF

If the Hindi words below appear as boxes or nonsense, please see the introduction page for help.


Rasikapriyā chapter 7, vv.1-4, 6-8, 16, 18, 25-26, 28

v. 1
अष्ट- eight
बरनी(बरनन-वर्णन) -to describe
मति-f- mind
बखानिये (बखानना) -exposition, description, account, comment to expound
स्वाधिनपतिका-f-a subtype of nayika ,a woman whose husband acts according to her wishes
उत्कहाँ- उत्का, f. type of nāyikā who is anxious from waiting for her beloved
उत्कंठित, a. eagerly desirous, looking for
बासकसज्जा- This is a bahu-vrihi compound, note the Skt feminine ending--"by whom the bed has been decorated." This describes more of an amorous mood, where she is getting everything ready for him.

v. 2
अभिसंधिता- "stubborn." Often she quarrels with her lover and then regrets it.
खंडिता-f- a woman whose husband or lover has been unfaithful

v. 3
प्रोषितप्रेयसी - a woman whose husband away from home.
लब्धाबिप्र - the word has been modified for the meter. This is to be read as विप्रलब्धा . It simply means "separated," and the context here is that the lover has not kept the rendezvous
अभिसारिका-a woman who keeps lover's tryst, the abhisārikā braves everything to go and meet her lover. She must see him and can't wait until morning.
सुजानि-adj.-discerning, wise, intelligent, profiting from experience.

v. 4
बँध्यो- from बांधना, to bind
बरनत-v- to describe
प्रसंग-context, theme

v. 6
संवारिबोई -The equivalent MSH is संवारना, AB]
तियदेवता- Goddess
मनोरथ-desire, wish
बानी- words
घाम- heat/sunshine

v. 7
उत्का-f- the उत्का type of nāyikā
हेत-love, affection

v. 8
स्वधीनपतिका- a woman whose husband acts according to her wishes
प्रच्छन्न- hidden, in the sense of love that is hidden or kept secret from others
गृह-काज- compound , work of home
बिभात-dawn, morning
सोधु-news, address
बिरोधु- ill will, enmity, antagonism
उपज्यो- to born- (perfect)
बैराग्य - freedom from passion or from worldly attachments; devotion, austerity, penance
अवदात- adj. meaning clear, bright, pure.
नेहु-n- affection, cf. MSH, स्नेह
अधिरात- midnight- आधी रात

v. 16
खंडिता — A woman who, on spotting traces of lovemaking with another woman on her lover, becomes irate
प्रीतम — Lover, beloved
प्रात — Dawn, early morning
बिधि — Type, manner, method, way (MSH विधि)

v. 18
प्रकाश — Light, lustre
महावर — A kind of coloured powder made from lac that women colour their feet with
मोह — Ignorance, illusion; infatuation; spell
मोसहुं — मुझ से
मानहुँ — मानो (can be taken as an imperative, or as a frozen grammatical particle)
बेगि — Quickly
हियें — मन, ह्रदय, ह्रदय में
रस-रोष —  रोष means anger, resentment: thus, the phrase means ‘a feeling of anger’
बियोग — Separation (MSH वियोग)
तेज — Glow, splendour
तचीं — तप्त (गरम) हुई
पगी — from पगना, to be dipped, seeped/immersed in

v. 25
अभिसारिका — This nayika hides her tryst from her family. The poetry often shows her to be bold--rushing out to see her lover despite the cost to her reputation but as per​ Rasikpriyā 7. 26 the specifically स्वकीया अभिसारिका is shy
हित — Well-being, gain, benefit; in this context, ‘love’
कै — Or
मद-मदन — मद is pride, arrogance, intoxication; मदन is passion.
पै — a postposition: के पास works well
बरनी — वर्णन करना
त्रिबिध — Of three types, from बिधि

v. 26
स्वकीया — a woman who is faithful to her husband, or 'one's own wife'
मग — Road, way (MSH मार्ग)
बधुन — Women; specifically, the modern tadbhava is बहू, which has the restricted meaning of son's daughter.

v. 28
प्रच्छन्न — Concealed, secret, hidden
लीनो — लिया
मोल — Value, price (MSH मूल्य)
घनमाला — A line of black clouds
बाट — मार्ग
कंटकनि — Thorns
साहस-गयंद-गति — A gait like an elephant: remember, women are गज गामिनी, "elephant-gaited."
साहस means courage/might. The idea is that her elephant gait was her courage/might as she headed out into the night. Elephants are associated with war and powerful assets in battle. They also of course help lift one far up above the ground.
निसि — Night
निपट — Dreadful, horrible
प्राननाथ — Husband [lit. "lord of my breath/life.]
प्रेमजू — Separate out जू and take it as जो, "since love was my helper/ companion."
सहाई — Helper, rescuer (MSH  सहायक)

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This site last updated by Justin Ben-Hain on 5 November 2013.