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Nineteenth-century prose

Chandrakāntā by Devaki Nandan Khatri (selection from the novel) Urdu
Premsāgar by Lallulal (selection)
Literary criticism by Bhartendu Harishchandra, “Hindī bhāshā” and “Urdū kā syāpā”

Twentieth-century prose

“Sadgati” by Premchand
“Dudh kā dām” by Premchand Urdu
“Urdū, Hindī, aur Hindūstānī” by Premchand Urdu
“Malbe kā mālik” by Mohan Rakesh
“Tanāv” by Rajendra Yadav
“Dillī mẽ ek maut” by Kamleshwar
“Paccīs caukā deṛh sau” by Omprakash Valmiki
Apne-apne pinjare by Mohandas Naimishray Urdu
“Lājwantī” by Rajinder Singh Bedi Urdu


Two Braj Bhasha poets:
  • Kabir Urdu
  • Rahim Urdu
Selections from Braj works: The Chayavad movement, with
  • Selection from the critical essay “Kalpnā ke kānan kī rānī” in Chāyāvād by Namwar Singh
  • “Vishva chavi” by Sumitranand Pant
  • Nīrajā by Mahadevi Varma (selection)
Old Avadhi texts: selections from
  • the Rāmcaritmānas of Tulsīdās
  • the Madhumālatī of Manjhan

by Devaki Nandan Khatri

Devaki Nandan Khatri (1861 - 1913) originally wrote his novel Chandrakanta for serial publication. When it was collected into a book, it was the longest piece of modern Hindi prose to date. (However, the selection offered on this site represents only the preface and the first thirty pages of the novel.) Despite its age, it is a breezy and quite funny read and remains a favorite classic in India.

The title character, Princess Chandrakanta of the kingdom of Vijaygarh, is of marriageable age but will she marry her lover, the dashing prince Virendra Singh of neighboring Naugarh, or will she be forced to marry the conniving prime minister's son Krur Singh? In this tale of intrigue and magic, the secret agents (known in Hindi as aiyyār—or aiyyārī in the feminine, which is important to know since Princess Chandrakanta has her own team of female agents) of each side battle it out.

Despite the levity of the subject, Chandrakanta holds an important place in Hindi literature. As the author argues in the preface, his goal was to transmute the Urdu story-telling tradition known as dāstān into a modern genre. The courtly setting and the intrigues of the aiyyārs, who are really spy-magicians, come straight out of the world of the dāstān. However, unlike in the traditional genre, there is a modernizing attempt to explain how seemingly magical things take place. Thus, the ability of the aiyyār to impersonate anyone is explained by make-up, and yet for a modern reader there is still something missing because that is not a plausible explanation for how someone could appear to become a completely different person. Unsatisfactory as such explnanations may be, Devaki Nandan Khatri has managed to keep the zest of the dāstān while appealing to the drive for Western-style modernity in contemporary Hindi literature. Unfortunately in the process of preparing the dāstān for a Hindi readership, an anti-Muslim bias creeps in. Thus the aiyyārs working for the bad guys are Muslim (while those working for the good guys have Hindu names) and they are wicked, weak and fanatical. Despite demonizing Muslims, the story contains a large amount of vocabulary derived from Persian and Arabic which we would think of as “Urdu” today.

The book has recently been translated into English by Manju Gupta under the title In the Mysterious Ruins.

Special thanks to Nabila Pirani and Zahra Sabri for their help in preparing the nastaliq version of the text available below.

-Arthur Dudney

On this page

PDF availableNastaliq (Urdu script) text availableThe Hindi text of the story is available as a PDF with pages corresponding to the page numbers below. A nastaliq text is also available but the page numbers do not correspond to the glossary. 

If the Hindi words below appear as boxes or nonsense, please see the introduction page for help.



सुनसान = adj. सुन्न empty, quiet, still
शख्स - m. a man, individual
चट्टान - f. a crag, rock
इकलौता - adj. only
दीवान - m. a minister of state, secretary; can also refer to the royal court (e.g. divan-e-aam)
दिली - adj. close, intimate
चालाक - adj. clever, cunning
फुरतीला - adj. active, lively, energetic
कमर - f. waist
खंजर - m. dagger
बगल - f. m. side of the body, flank
बटुआ = बटुवा m. small bag or wallet
लटकाना - v.t. to suspend, hang
तेज़ी - f. sharpness, keenness
कसाना - v.t. to draw tight
दुरूस्त - adj. precise, exact (also sound, healthy)
बला - f. misfortune, calamity
दर्जा - m. step, stage, level
दफा - f. occasion, moment
चीठी = चिट्ठी f. letter
फासला - m. distance
सख्त - f. strong, solid, difficult
मंत्री - m. a minister of state
आशिक - m lover, loving
आशिक होना - to be in love; to fall in love
ऐयार - m. a cunning person, villain, wizard
ताकीद - f. demand, compulsion
निगहबान - m. watch person
लगावट - f. affection/attachment
ज़रिया - m cause, source; connection, influence
सबब - m. reason, motive, means of reaching or obtaining
फ़सादी - m. a trouble-maker
गिरफ़्तार करना - to arrest
मुलाक़ात - f. meeting
सिवाय = ppn. सिवा except for
दुश्मन - m .enemy
चालाकी - f. activity, dexterity, cunning
कार्रवाई - f. activity, workings, actions
बूझना - v.i. to understand
भरोसा - m. confidence, faith
पुनः - adv. again, anew, thereafter
फंसाना - v.t. to cause to be imprisoned, to trap
कुशल - adj. skillful, deft, healthy
मुलाक़ाल - f. meeting
बन्दोबस्त - m. organization, arrangement
दरख्त - m. a tree

Pages 1-2

जीवनी - f. a biography
मूल - m. root, source
मुल्तान - Multan, city in the Punjab
दीवान - m. a minister of state, secretary; can also refer to the royal court (e.g. divan-e-aam)
ताल्लुकेदार - m. a large landholder
प्रतिष्ठित - adj. prominent, famous, distinguished, established
अभिप्राय - m. sense, meaning, purpose
राज्यपाल - m. governor of a state
वंश - here m. family line; can also mean bamboo or pipe, flute
सपरिवार - adj. along with or accompanied by one's family
बसना - v.i. to dwell, reside, settle
पीढ़ी - f. generation
पुत्र - m. a son
अराजकता - f. anarchy
पौत्र - m. grandson
सन्तति - f. offspring, descendants
निःसन्तान - संतान f. is offspring, so this means "childless"
चरित्र-नायक - m. the subject of a biography
सन् - m.f. year
आयु - f. span of life, long life
संवत - m. a year, an era
आषाढ़ - m. the fourth lunar month (असाढ़) around June-July
सप्तमी - f. the 7th day of a lunar fortnight
पूसा - town in Bihar
रईस - m. a person of rank or status; a substantial landowner; a nobleman
पश्ऋत - ? (from context, something like "after")
रहस - m. merriment delight 2. a lonely place, solitude
उपरान्त - adv. after
बाल्य - m. childhood
अधिकांश - m. the greater part, majority (of)
क्शण - m. a moment
व्यतीत - adj. passed by, spent, elapsed
सम्हलना is a misprint for v.t. सँभालना - to support
होश सँभालना - v. for the consciousness, or wits, to be lost
ननिहाल - m. house or family of maternal grandfather
माध्यम - here a noun m. means, language of instruction or study
प्रास is a misprint for प्राप्त
अध्ययन - m. reading, study
जिला - m. district
व्यापारिक - adj. having to do with business, commerce, trade
कोठी - f. a bank; a storehouse; the womb (the first in this context)
प्रबन्धक - m. manager, organiser
आय - f. income, revenue, profits
मौजी - adj. whimsical, emotional, temperamental
गुड्डी - f. a paper kite, a doll (here the former since it is flying)
युवावस्था = युवा - m. young
चमत्कार - m. something astonishing, a spectacle
मनमाना - adj. agreeable, soothing, charming, arbitrary
नाबालगी - ?
प्रबंध - m. connection, arrangement
अवस्था - f. age, condition
ब्याहना - v.t. to marry
उक्त - adj. aforesaid
क्रपापात्र - recipient of favor
मुसाहब - m. companion, associate, favorite
ठेका - m. a contract
ठेका लेना - to make a contract (for का)
लाह - m. लाभ benefit, profit, advantage
लकड़ी - f. wood, firewood
शहद - m. honey
गोंद - f. gum, glue
पैदावार - f. produce
खासा - adj. good
आमदनी - f. income, revenue

Pages 3-4

विजयगढ़ proper noun
क्रूरसिंह proper noun
नाजिम proper noun
अहमद proper noun
ऐयार (m) spy-magician (mentioned in introduction above)
दामाद (m) son-in-law
चंद्र्कांता proper name
बीरेंद्रसिंह proper name
मुनासिब (adj) suitable, proper, appropriate
तेजसिंह proper noun
गिरफ्तार (adj) arrested, seized. गिरफ्तार करना to seize, to arrest
खपाना (v.t.) to destroy, to ruin
झट (adv) quickly, at once
गद्दी (f) a throne, royal seat
अलबत्ता (adv) certainly, undoubtedly
बनिस्बत (ppn.) in comparison with
राजी (adj) 1. pleased, content 2. approving; राजी करना to persuade
कसम (f) an oath; कसम खाना to swear an oath
शर्त (f) condition
मज़हब (m) religion
कबूल (m) acceptance, recognition; कबूल करना to accept
एकरारनामा - a kind of a written contract or declaration (also spelled इकरारनामा)
हवाले करना to hand over (to, के)
अख्तियार (m) option, choice; अख्तियार करना to choose, to accept, to adopt (as an attitude)
एक-दिल करना - (vt) to make everybody of one heart, i.e. unanimous, i.e. to convince
जिम्मा (m) responsibility; के जिम्मे (ppn.) in the charge of, being the responsibility of
मुकर्रर (adj) appointed (to a post); मुकर्रर करना to appoint
तमाशा (m) 1. show, spectacle 2. something astonishing or curious
बात की बात में (adv) in an instant, forthwith
ज़माना (m) 1) time, period, the times 2) the world
उलट पुलट (m, f) transformation, confusion, deception; उलट-पुलट करना to overturn
झटपट (adv) this very moment
हालचाल (m) state, condition
चपला proper noun
विरह (m) separation, the anguish of separation
बिदा (f) permission to depart, taking leave; बिदा होना to depart
चम्पा (m) proper noun
टहलना (v.i.) to stroll, to saunter
भीना (adj) damp, moist
महक (f) fragrance, scent
धीमा (adj) soft, moderate
बहार (f) spring, flourishing state; beauty, splendor
क्यारी (f) a bed of flowers
रविश (f) path in a garden
छिड़काव (m) sprinkling, watering
दरख्त (m) a tree
जूही (f) a jasmine
बेली (f) a creeper
मोतिया a kind of jasmine
सटना (v.i.) to stick, to be stuck (here used as a participle in the sense of abutting, adjacent)
बुर्जी (f) a small turret or tower
फन (m) a crafty trick
चंचल (adj) restless, active, playful
हावभाव (m) mannerisms
संग (m) 1) coming together 2) association, attachment, intimacy; संग लेना to take (one, को)
तारीफ (f) praise; तारीफ करना to praise
जुदाई (f) separation, parting, absence
बहलाना (v.t.) to divert (the mind from); to distract (the attention)
जबर्दस्ती (adv) forcibly
खींचना (v.t.) to pull; to drug
गुच्छा (m) a cluster, bunch, tangle
मालती-लता मालती (f) jasmine लता (f) a creeper, vine
कुंज (m) 1) an arbour; bower 2) a grove
फौवारा (m) a fountain
चक्करदार (adj) circular, round, circuitous (note the दार suffix)
टूटियों से - construe चक्करदार टूटियों से together. Picture the circular streams of water coming out from a water fountain.

Pages 5-6

कुंवर - m. prince
कारीगरी - f. craftsmanship, artistic work
इनाम - m. gift, reward
यकायक - suddenly
कमल - m. lotus
मुख - m. mouth
विधाता - Brahma (also can mean fate)
भोगना - to suffer, endure (it definitely means this here. In other contexts could also mean to experience, to enjoy)
धुन समाना - a wish/desire to engross one
खुशामद - m. flattery (In McGregor this is said to be masculine. In Platts it is listed as a feminine noun. In any case, here it is clearly used as a feminine noun.)
दुष्ट - wicked
क्रूर - cruel, harsh, insensitive
वश - m. state of subjection
लसी - f. stickiness, attraction
बग - m. a large garden, park (i.e. बाग)
फौवारा - m. a fountain
शुबहा - m. doubt, suspicion
चितवन - f. look, glance
बुकनी - f. powder
नाजिम - m. a Mughal administrator (here a proper name--one of Krur Singh's spies/cronies)
बेअदबी - f. something uncouth or unmannerly
बुर्ज - m. turret, tower
तहखाना - m. an underground room
लखलखा - m. smelling salts
कोड़ा - m. whip
जमाना - to deliver (a blow)
सब्र - m. patience
खौफ - m. fear
मालती - f. type of flower or plant
लता - f. vine
कुंज - m. grove

Pages 7-8

पहिर - the same as पहर- from the Braj equivalent of पहनना, to wear. (The form is a conjunctive participle)
ठहरना - (vi) to stop (it is the तू imperative, "wait [you jerk]")
कोड़ा - m. whip
बिलबिलाना - (vi) to complain, whine
निगहबानी - (f.) watching over (i.e. looking after a child or a prisoner)
पाजी - (m.) wretch, worthless guy
खोजना - (vt) to search for
मालती-लता - compound of two fem. nouns (jasmine + vines)
बत्ती - (f) wick, candle (बालना is an obscure verb meaning "to light")
झाड़ी - (f) shrub, undergrowth
बदन = वदन - (m) body (this meaning is derived from Persian rather than from Sanskrit)
लत्ता - (m) a tattered piece of cloth
लखलखा - (m) perfume (or smelling salts, the purpose of which is to bring her back to consciousness)
सुंघाना - (vt) to smell (this is causative)
ऐयारी - (f) cunning, villainy, deception by magic
गुच्छा - (m) bundle, bunch
लागत - (f) outlay, expenditure
ढांकना = ढकना - (vt) to cover, conceal; (vi) to be covered
इशारा - (m.) sign, nod, wink
भलाई (f) kindness [when used with करना it means to be kind to someone]
गारत - (f) plunder, pillage, devastation
बदौलत - (adv) thanks to
तहखाना - see above
सटा - (vi) to join together (this is a past participle from सटना--see above)
पिछवाड़ा - (m) the rear (part of something), back garden
टहलना - (vi) to go for a walk, saunter
रुखसत - (f) departure (as a conjunct verb with होना means "to depart")
तरकीब - (f) form, structure, means, plan, contrivance
कमन्द - (f) scaling-ladder, rope, lasso
एकान्त - (adj) secluded, lonely, unaccompanied [as a m. noun means "a secluded place"]
चोबदार - (m) mace-bearer
ड्योढ़ी - (f) threshold, porch, door
प्यादा - (m) someone on foot, specifically a foot-soldier
अर्दली - apparently from English "orderly," this is a higher level servant of a king
फूंक - (f) breath (namely a drag/puff of the chilam)
अफियून - not in the dictionary but this must mean "opium"
अजब - (adj) astonishing, strange
हुक्काबर्दार - servant responsible for the hookah
बटुआ = बटुवा - (m) a small bag or wallet
झट से - (adv) quickly
चैन - (m) peace
डबल = double

Pages 9-10

सुलगाना to kindle, set alight, inflame (caus. of सुलगना to be kindled)
गप्पी (m./adj.) a gossip, idle talker (the word गप, f., optionally spelled with one or two "प " is gossip, i.e. the rumours themselves and not the person telling them)
प्यादा (m.) Pers. pedestrian, foot soldier, or peon/messenger
झुकना to be bent down, droop, lean
औंधा, - (adj) flat on one's face/upside down/overturned
फाटक (m.) gate, entrance
लौंडी (f.) girl, servant-girl
फुरती (f.) activity, speed, promptness
कमन्द् (f.) Pers. Lasso, rope
मोमबत्ती (f.) wax candle (Pers.)
रवाना (Pers.) departed, dispatched, sent
इनाम (Arabic, m.) gift, favour, prize (pl. of na'm = gift, favour)
नख़रा (m. Pers) flirtatious airs/manners
झोंटा (m.) coil, knot
इत्तिफ़ाक़ (Arabic ) event, incident (ittifaaq se means suddenly, by accident)
नक़ली (arabic) imitated, artificial
ऐयार (Arabic, M.) cunning person, villain
चालाकी (f.) (Pers.) activity, quickness, cunning
तारीफ (Ar. f.) praise, lit. "making known"
सूजना to swell, to look sullen (of the face)
नुक़साम (Ar. m.) loss, harm, damage

Pages 11-12

बिदा करना- v.t. to dismiss, to dispatch
ऊधम - m. uproar, commotion
वश- m. power
मुलाक़ात- f. a meeting
The strange conjunct in the third word of the seventh line is a double च्च so the word is सच्चों
कान- f. ear
मौका- m. opportunity, occasion
सखी- f. a close female friend
पिछ्वाड़ा- m. back garden, yard
सचाई- f. truth, the truth
मुकर्रर करना- v.t. to repeat (also means to appoint, to post)
इजाज़त- f. permission, leave, leave to depart
तहख़ाना- m. an underground dwelling or room, a basement
कैद करना- v.t. to imprison, to capture
चालाकी- f. activity, quickness, skill, cunning
हैरान- adj. harassed, worried, distressed (also means "amazed")
धोखा खाना- v.t. to be deceived by
भेजवाना- v.t. alternate form of भिजवाना- to be sent by
चालाक- adj. quick, clever
कहलाना- v.i. to be called or named, designated
दौड़ना, - vi. to run
छेड़ना- v.t. to touch, to begin a quarrel (also means "to tease")
अदना- adj. low, humble
नाक दम करना- id. use. to harass
*झूंझलाना, to become irritated, flare up in anger. (Note that it is compounded)
बेहिसाब- adj. countless
जूतियाँ लगाना - vt. to beat; literally to hit apply shoes to someone
कारीगरी- f. workmanship, skill, skilled work
बतलाना- alt. form of बताना- v.t. to tell
फ़लाना- alt. form of फ़लाँ- adj. such and such, any, particular
ढाढ़स- m. fortitude, encouragement, patience, encouragement
बखेडा़- m. entanglement, difficulty, trouble, obstacle
प्यादा- m. one on foot, a pedestrian
चित पड़ना- id. use, to fall or lie on the back
डपट- f. shouting, a rebuke (this is from the verb डपटना)
दरबान- m. doorkeeper
पहरा देना- v.t. to watch over
सूँघना- v.t. to smell, to inhale
अफ़ीम- f. opium
चोबदार- m. mace-bearer

Pages 13-14

लायक - adj. fit, suitable, capable
चोबदार - m. a mace bearer (चोब - f. mace)
जहरीला - adj. poisonous
पाजी - m. a scoundrel (can also be adj. base, worthless)
धोखा खाना - to be deceived (by से)
सजा - f. punishment, retribution
खबरदार - adj. watchful, careful
क़ैद - f. imprisonment, confinement
तहखाना - m. underground room, cellar, basement
चहुँचना = a typo for पहुँचना
किवाड़ -m. door, leaf of a door
झट - adj. quickly, adv. at once
फँसना - v.i. to stick, sink, be stuck (also to be caught)
कोड़ा - m. a whip
चालाक - adj. cunning, quick, clever
यानी - conj. that is, i.e.
छिपाना - v.t. to cause to be hidden, to hide
शक - m. doubt, suspicion
लौंडी - f. girl, servant girl
भेस - m. appearance, manner, disguise
मौका - m. fit place or time, occasion, opportunity
सूरत - f. face, appearance
मुक़र्रर - adj. settled, fixed, appointed
नसीब - m. destiny, fate
दङ्ग/ दंग adj. dumbfounded, taken aback
मेल - m. meeting, assembly (or something a bit more conspiratorial here "... she might come over to our side")
लालच देना - to tempt, decoy
इनाम - m. a gift, favor, prize, tip
मेहरबानी - f. kindness, favor
मददगार - m. helper, assistant, ally

Pages 15-16

हरगिज (adv., used with negation) on no account, absolutely not
मंज़ूर (adj) accepted, approved.
उधार (m) a loan, credit
सौदा (m) 1) goods 2) transaction, deal
खफा (adj) angry, displeased
एतबार (m) confidence, belief, faith
इलायची (f) cardamon
बटुआ (m) a small bag
बेशक (adv) without doubt; शक (m) doubt
कमर (f) waist
खंजर (m) a curved dagger
खींचना (v.t.) to pull
दाँव (m) 1) opportunity 2) move, throw (as in a game) 3) snare, trap, ambush
कलाई (f) the wrist
मुश्क (f) the upper arm
चादर (f) 1) a sheet; 2) a woman's light shawl
गठरी (f) a bundle, a package
कसना (v.t.) to tighten, to tie, to fasten
पीठ (m) the back, back part (of anything)
लादना (v.t.) to load
नौगढ़ proper noun
मारे (ppn.) because (of, के)
कैफियत (f) 1. account 2. state of affairs, situation
खुलासा (m) substance, essence, gist (of a present situation)
उछलना (v.i.) to spring up, to fly up into a passion, to spurt up (this compound will take उठना rather than पड़ना)
संदूक (m) box, chest
सन्न (adj) paralyzed, silent, speechless
पिटना (v.i.) to be beaten
जूता खाना (v.t.) to suffer a shoe beating, to be treated insultingly
मिटाना (v.t) to erase, to cancel
हरदम (adv) with each breath, at every moment, constantly
झुकाना (v.i.) to be caused to bend downwards, to sink
निराला (m) a lonely place, a private place
ढांपना (v.t.) to cover, to conceal
हुकूमत (f) authority, rule
राह (f) road, way.
सम्हालना equals संभालना
मसहरी (f) bed with mosquito net

Pages 17-18

गठरी - f. bundle
सौग़ात - f. a present given on a return from a trip
मरतबा - m. time, occasion (मर्तबा is an alternative spelling)
फसाद - m. disturbance, quarreling, strife
खोह - f. cave, pit
शागिर्द - m. pupil, disciple
दिली - close, intimate
फन - m. art
पेचीला - twisted, coiled
कोस - m. a measure of distance equivalent to approx. 2 miles
ताबेदार - m. obedient servant
*हिफाज़त - f. protection, safety
खुलासा - open, unencumbered
बेड़ी - f. shackle
कुदरती - naturally occurring
नहर - f. stream
मेवा - m. dried fruit
दरख्त - m. a tree
आबोहवा - f. climate
बखूबी - completely
झरना - m. waterfall
अजब - astonishing, strange
सोहावना - pleasant, charming (generally spelled सुहावना in standard Hindi)
घनघनाहट - f. murmuring

Pages 19-21

बहना - (vi) to flow
कुदरती - (adj) natural, innate
खोह - (f) cave, den
सैलानी - (adj/m) sightseer, tourist
कोठरी - (m) small or dark room, cell
ढालवां - (adj) sloping
खुलासा - (adj) plain, explicit
शामियाना - m. tent
गठरी - (f) bundle, package
बेड़ी - (f) fetters, bonds
कलमा - (m) a word, speech (especially Islamic confession of faith)
खौफ - (m) fear
पेचीला - (adj) twisted, complicated
सिफारिश - (f) recommendation, introduction (to a person)
बर्खास्त - (f) breaking up, dismissal
रवाना - (adj) departed, dispatched (with karna = to send off)
हैरान - (adj) harrassed, worried, perplexed; surprised
दिलजमई - (f) assurance, peace of mind
कैफियत - (f) quality, nature, condition (also details, information about something)
जिद्द (for ज़िद) - (f) stubbornness, persistence
हौसला - (m) capacity, desire, ambition
खौफ - (m) fear
हर्ज - (m) trouble, loss, inconvenience, obstacle
सरहद - (f) frontier, border
खेमा - (m) tent
डेरा - (m) temporary shelter, tent
सुभीता - (m) convenient opportunity, good circumstances
सिवाना - (m) boundary line (i.e. of a village)
मुकाम - (m) stopping, stopping place, camp

Pages 21-22

ख़ौफ़ f. Arabic - fear; x से ख़ौफ़ करना to fear x
चौकन्ना - adj. startled
भड़काना to inflame, incite
सलाह f. Arabic -- advice, consultation
मातम m. Arabic -- mourning
जमाना - to lay, spread, adhere
हुकूमत f. pers. arabic - rule, authority
ज़हर pers. m. poison
ज़ाहिर में (arabic, adverbial phrase) evidently, apparently; ostensibly
सरहद f. frontier, border; frontier region (pers. 'sar' - head plus arabic 'hadd' limit, border)
ख़ेमा m. arabic - tent
बालादवी - ?
टोह f. feeling, touching, seeking
गश्त m. pers. going around, patrol, i.e. spying, information gathering)
नालायक़ (pers. prefix 'naa-' (not) plus arabic 'laayaq' (capable)) incapable, unsuitable
सूतक m. state of ritual impurity (e.g., in a household after the death of one of its members)
ठिकाना m. fixed place, residence, abode
फेरना to turn, twist, bend
अस्तु (interj.) so be it, very well (a Sanskrit imperative, "let it be")
हालचाल (arabic 'haal' plus hindi 'chaal') state, routine condition (of a person)
जुदाई pers. f. separation, absence
टहलना to go for a walk; to saunter
तरद्दुद arabic, m. indecision, perplexity, hassle
x के ज़रिये by means of x (from arabic ज़रिया f. means, cause, agency)
x के बीचोबीच in the midst/very middle of x
संगमरमर f. marble (pers. 'sang' (rock) plus pers/greek 'marmar' marble)
चिकना 1) greasy, oily 2) smooth
चबूतरा m. 1) platform (as of a temple/mosque) 2) terrace, open/raised space
मोमी adj. Pers. made of wax
शमादान m. candle-holder (Ar. shama' - candle, plus pers. suffix x-daan - container of/for x)
कंपकंपी f. shudder, shivering

Pages 23-24

चूड़ी- f. bracelet
डींग- f. boast, vanity
हिचकी- f. hiccups, convulsing sobbing
फेर- m. twist (not the common compound उलट-फेर, m. twist)
टोह- f. feeling (for), touch, search
मजलिस- f. assembly, meeting, conference
तुरत- adv. at once (normally this is spelled तुरंत)
खुलासा- m & adj. essence, summary, gist, substance
हँसी- f. laughter, smile, fun, joking
चहचहा- m. loud laughter, merriment, chatter
छाना - this is a compounded form of the verb
जाहिरी- adj. evident, apparent
मुड़ाना - v.i. to be shaved, fleeced, swindled
मेढ़क- मेढक - m. frog
नंग धड़ंग- adj. stark naked
औंधी- adj. face down, upside down, confused, ruined, wrong
हँड़ी- f. a small earthenware cooking pot, a glass bowl containing a candle, a lamp (optionally spelled either हँड़ी or हाँड़ी)
सूतक- m. state a ritual impurity occurring after a birth or death in a household
परवरिश- f. fostering, rearing, nurturing, maintenance, support
बट्टा लगाना- to charge a discount on (the double ta is not displaying properly) (here in its v.i. form बट्टा लगना)
लायक़- adj. fit, suitable, capable
बिगाड़ना- v.t. to spoil, corrupt, ruin
सवार होना- v.i. to ride on
मजाल- f. strength, power, courage
उलझना- v.i. to be confused, perplexed, stuck
कलूटा- adj. dark complexioned, base, wretched
आबनूस- m. ebony
कुन्दा- m. a log, block of wood
लंगोटा- m. a loin cloth
कूदना- v.i. to jump, leap, hop
दफ़ा - m. moment, time
घसीटना- v.t. to drag (along), haul
पिशाच- m. fiend, demon
रंज- m. sorrow, distress
सबब- m. a means of reaching or achieving, cause, reason, motive

Pages 25-26

कमन्द - f. rope, ladder, lasso
ज़रिया - m. means, agency (used in a postpositional phrase के ज़रिये, "by means of")
तमाशा - m. show, spectacle, fun
पिशाच - m. fiend, demon
कलेजा - m. the liver, vitals esp. the heart, liver and lungs
धड़धड़ाना - v.i. to make a rattling or banging noise
मुआ - m. a wretched creature
ताज्जुब - m. surprise, astonishment
शोरगुल - m. noise, outcry, uproar
घेरना - to surround, confine
झुकाना - to cause to bend downward
यकायक - adv. suddenly
ओस - f. dew
शरमिन्दा - adj. ashamed, embarrassed
समाना - to be contained or held
बे + धड़क - adj. without fear
ऐब - m. a fault, shortcoming
सजा - f. punishment
कमीनापन - m. lowness, baseness
हुक्म - m. order, instruction, command
हाज़िर करना - to cause to appear, to present
खोजना - to sear for
काँपना - to tremble, shiver
बे - interj. you wretch
बट्टा - m. discount, rebate
बट्टा लगाना - to charge a discount
गदहा - गधा m. donkey
पाजी - adj. worthless; m. scoundrel
काँपना - v.i. to tremble, quiver
कैफियत - f. quality, nature; account, details
बरदाश्त - f. endurance, tolerating
दोतर्फी - = दो+तरफ़ी, adj. "two-sided"
गूँजना - to hum, buzz
मिट्टी - f. earth, soil, dust; fig. the body, a dead body

Pages 27-28

जहन्नुम (m) hell
पहर (m) a watch of the day - i.e. they kept arguing all that time
लानत (f) a curse
डेरा (m) a temporary dwelling, a tent, a halting-place
सरहद (f) frontier, border
हौसला (m) capacity, ambition, courage
ज्योतिषी (m) an astrologer, an astronomer
रमल (m) sand: fortune-telling by lines or figures drawn in the sand.
फेंकना (v.t.) to throw, to hurl, to cast
फलाना equals फ़लाँ (adj.&m) such and such, a certain (man), so an so.
जवाहिरात (f) jewels, precious stones
हिफाज़त (f) guarding (the second consonant should also have a dot)
ताज्जुब (m) surprise, astonishment
बाग़ी (adj&m) rebellious, a rebel; बाग़ी होना 1) to turn rebel 2) to be offended or displeased with (with से)
छीनना (v.t.) to snatch away, to seize
कौड़ी (f) colloq. a small amount of money
बरस (m) year
रजवाड़ा (m) raja's territory; princely state

Pages 29-30

बयान - m. description
दाखिल - m. entered, paid, paid over as a fine
तामील - f. putting into effect, carrying out
दुहाई - f. a cry for help or justice
डकारना - to gulp down, to embezzle
झुंझ्लाना - to flare up in anger
संदूक - m. chest, box
पाक - pure
रुतबा - m. rank, standing
तमस्सुक - m. a promissory note
मुराद - f. something desired or wished for
मुफ्त - (here) uselessly
लड़कपन - m. childhood
सबब - m. cause, reason
रज्वाड़ा - m. a raja's territory
मेल - m. connection, harmony, union
बनाव - m. harmony, concord
मैल - f. dirt, filth
बखेड़ा- m. entanglement, obstacle
उभाड़ना - to rouse, incite

Pages 31-32

नायब - (m) deputy, assistant, vicegerent
पदवी - (f) rank, position, title, post
नेकबख्त - (adj) fortunate, blessed
ग़ारत - (f) plunder, devastation [from Ar.]
सानी - (adj & m) rival, equal
ड्योढ़ी, f. threshhold
शक - (m) doubt, suspicion
फसाद - (m) disturbance, brawl, quarreling
कुटुम्ब - (m) family, relatives
मय - (prep) together, in addition
लैस - (adj) ready, prepared
कंधा - (m) the shoulder
करमनासा - (f) a particular river that joins the Ganges to the east of Banaras
चौड़ा - (adj) wide, broad

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This site last updated by Justin Ben-Hain on 5 November 2013.