I offer a comprehensive analysis of India's trade policy, particularly since 1991, and its impact on the economy. I provide evidence showing that trade liberalization has had a major impact on the quality and availability of goods and on services growth. The evidence on productivity growth in the industrial sector varies across studies, however. I also explain why India lags behind China and what India must do to catch up. The strategy for future liberalization, including a possible U.S.-India free trade area, is discussed.