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appropriate form of reform. They could not hope to compete going
in the direction of the Board of Examiners and that kind of
restrictive approach, even though that might have been quite appropriate
40, 50 years before. Now, we had to have other methods.
And it just so happened, I never believed that the selection
process, in terms of Boards of Examiners, led to any increase
in the efficiency of the personnel -- you know. And my evidence
for that was, looking at the reading scores.
In fact, if you looked at the evidence, you could say that
there was an inverse relationship between the increasing severity
of the standards of selecting of teachers, and the performance of
the teachers, as measured by the academic achievement of the
youngsters. And I interpreted, and said, that the examination
procedure, as it was then practiced, had an exclusionary effect,
without any related beneficial effect, in terms of the needs of our
So my argument was never one that I saw as “displacement.”
My argument was one of making the necessary modifications of
governance and operation of the schools that would meet contemporary
Now, other people interpreted it as displacement. They
said that -- I was called names.
As you can see, Edwin, I'm not particularly well liked by
people with whom I come in conflict, nor do I have any illusions
that I am.
Yes, but you've been put at the head of an organization like
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