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1945, until the end of the war.
Even though at various points there had been publishers--Perry
Prentice had been publisher of Time, I think; I think, I'm not sure,
that Ingersoll wasn't general manager or something--it was small
enough so that it was really managed by, not exactly by committee but
by all of these people talking to each other pretty continuously.
Obviously, there was no clear line of responsibility. And I think
that's why at the end of 1945, the so-called “publisher system,”
which hadn't really been made very effective because the publisher
wasn't necessarily responsible for money, advertising, promotion, so
on so on, was finally put into place. With Linen becoming publisher
of Time, and me becoming publisher of LIFE, all of the departments
that were necessary for the running of the magazine, other than
editorial, came under the publisher. And the position of Black
continued, but it was more--but the advertising director of Time or
LIFE was directly responsible to the publisher. Yes, he also talked
to Black as overall supervisor, but it was a much clearer picture,
and the publisher really did become responsible for the so-called
“bottom line"--a phrase I've always hated.
When I came in, the Circulation Department was under me. I
could pretty well give direct orders to the production people, even
though they didn't come directly under you. Fulfillment came under
me; promotion came under me; ad sales came under me; and you had your
own small Financial Department--a business manager and all of that.
And that seemed to work quite well for quite a few years.
LIFE grew rapidly during the 1950s. Time was doing pretty well.
Fortune was not. Fortune had its troubles after the war, partly
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