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Frances PerkinsFrances Perkins
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trade with the Phoenicians. The Phoenicians came up as far as Totnes in Devonshire. The tin was dragged down and there they traded with the Phoenicians. All through Dorset the Phoenicians traded in tin.

So there was always the tradition that those who dug into the earth were the superior people of the tribe. After all, these Britons were savage in these pre-Roman times. So that tradition carries on today in the coal and metal mining. The open out mining doesn't offer the hazards that underground mining does. Sandhogs also work underground and have to be brave and courageous men, but I don't think they have as much clannishness. It's not a traditional trade, but a new-fangled one. The coal mining is slightly special over the metals, because it is more a traditional trade. England, France, Scotland and Belgium all have coal mining - a great deal of it. The emigration from those countries brought to America a group of people who were accustomed to the coal mining techniques. They carried over from England, Scotland and Wales the traditions, habits and attitudes of life which they were accustomed to in the old country.

For instance, I don't know that this is a much true of metal miners, but coal miners are almost invariably deeply religious and philosophical. This same feeling runs through the whole coal mining area so far as I know. In Iowa are the





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