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And that was -- if it couldn't be demonstrated in the laboratory, or if you couldn't quantify it
in terms of somebody's behavior, then I felt that we were only giving out part of the
information. Certainly, you've got to have the signal before somebody can listen to it. But in
Salt Lake City, or a couple of hundred miles north of Salt Lake City in the mountain states,
you can almost hear the grass grow. In the New York area, you could go as far as White
Plains and not hear the station because of man-made noise, or signal interference and things
of that kind. So that the maps reflected the behavior of the audience.
And you discovered this by using the black box that you had developed?
No, that was totally unrelated. Ideally, the black box in profusion would have given
you the information much better than we got it as we did. And I did not develop the
technique of -- the early technique for the listening areas. That was done by John Churchill
who had the title, as I recall, of Chief Statistician and predated me in the company by at least
a year or so.
But we were trying to keep track in the Research Department of expenditures by advertisers,
by categories. By expenditures, I'm referring solely to advertising expenditures so that if the
Sales Department wanted to know whether the Colgate Company was spending money in
various media, we could tell them the amount and by month where they spent it and for
which products and so forth. In those days, some of that was reported to Publishers'
Information Bureau --PIB, I think it was called. And we had to go through books and pull it
out. Today that's all on a database and you can get it without any trouble at all. But
ultimately we had people who did nothing but keep track of the expenditures in advertising,
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