Works in English
== English works used in this project ==

BROWNE, Edward Granville. A Literary History of Persia (4 vols.), Bethesda, MD: Iranbooks, 1992 [1906]. All four volumes are available online through This is a classic work, and full of valuable background material; if only because it’s shaped everybody’s literary attitudes, it’s well worth studying.

CHELKOWSKI 1975. Mirror of the Invisible World: Tales from the Khamseh of Nizami. Peter J. Chelkowski et al. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1975. The Met has generously placed the work online; for extra security, it is also available on this site.

DAUD RAHBAR, trans. and ed. Urdu Letters of Mirza Asadullah Khan Ghalib. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1987.

FAROOQI, MEHR AFSHAN. Ghalib: A Wilderness at My Doorstep; A Critical Biography. New Delhi: Penguin Random House, 2021.

HARCOURT and HUSSAIN. E. S. Harcourt and Fakhur Hussain, trans. and ed. Lucknow: The Last Phase of an Oriental Culture, by Abdul Halim Sharar. London: Paul Elek, 1975.

KHWAJA AHMAD FARUQI, trans. Dastanbuy: A Diary of the Indian Revolt of 1857. Bombay: Asia Publishing House, 1970. This work was written in a special archaic Persian that avoided Arabic words; the translation is available on this site. The Persian text: on the site.

NAIM 1970. C. M. Naim, trans. and ed. Twenty-Five Verses by Ghalib. Calcutta: Writers Workshop Redbird Book, 1970. All the commentary from this volume has been included with the relevant verses.

NAIM 1972. C. M. Naim, trans. and ed. Ghalib’s Lighter Verse. Calcutta: Redbird Book, Writers Workshop, 1972. All the commentary from this volume has been included with the relevant verses.

NIAZI 2002. Sarfaraz K. Niazi, trans. and ed. Love Sonnets of Ghalib. Lahore: Ferozsons, 2002. A translation and commentary.

PLATTS. Platts, John T. A Dictionary of Urdu, Classical Hindi, and English. Oxford:  Oxford University Press, 1930 (fifth impression). This dictionary is online through DSAL.

PRITCHETT. Frances W. Pritchett. Nets of Awareness: Urdu Poetry and Its Critics. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994. Online on the Univ. of California Press website.

PRITCHETT 1991. Frances W. Pritchett. The Romance Tradition in Urdu: Adventures from the Dastan of Amir Hamzah. New York: Columbia University Press, 1991. An extended version is on this site.

PRITCHETT AND FARUQI. Frances W. Pritchett, in association with S. R. Faruqi, trans. and ed. Ab-e Hayat: Shaping the Canon of Urdu Poetry. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2001. A slightly corrected version of this work is online through DSAL, with page numbers linked to the original Urdu text.

PRITCHETT AND KHALIQ. Frances W. Pritchett and Khaliq Ahmad Khaliq. Urdu Meter: A Practical Handbook. University of Wisconsin at Madison: South Asian Studies, 1987. An online version of this handbook is provided on this site.

QUR'AN. A. Yusuf Ali, trans. and commentator, The Holy Qur'an. Beirut: Dar ul-Qur'an, 1992/3 [1934]. This translation has many useful notes about South Asian Islamic traditions.

RUSSELL AND ISLAM. Ralph Russell and Khurshidul Islam, trans. and ed. Ghalib 1797-1869; Volume I: Life and Letters. London: George Allen and Unwin, 1969, and many reprint editions: on this site.

RUSSELL AND ADANI. Ralph Russell and Iftikhar Ahmad Adani. Selections from the Persian Ghazals of Ghalib, With Translations. Lahore: Pakistan Writers’ Co-operative Society, 1997. Russell translates into English, Adani into Urdu: on this site.

RUSSELL 2003. Ralph Russell. The Oxford India Ghalib: Life, Letters, and Ghazals. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2003. Unfortunately, this is a chaotic, poorly annotated rehash of parts of Russell's other works and cannot be recommended.

SCHIMMEL. Annemarie Schimmel, A Dance of Sparks: Imagery of Fire in Ghalib's Poetry. New Delhi: Ghalib Academy, 1979.

SCHIMMEL 1992. Annemarie Schimmel, A Two-Colored Brocade: The Imagery of Persian Poetry. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1992. Very useful for background.

SHAHNAMAH. Firdausi, The Epic of Kings (1010), trans. by Helen Zimmern: online at MIT and at Univ. of Australia.

STEINGASS. F. Steingass, A Comprehensive Persian-English Dictionary. London: Routledge, 1988 [1892]. This dictionary is online through DSAL.


YUSUF HUSAIN, trans. Persian Ghazals of Ghalib. New Delhi: Ghalib Institute, 1980.

THE ABOVE ENGLISH WORKS have been particularly referred to in this site. For additional literature see: ***GHALIB STUDIES IN ENGLISH***

Works in Urdu
== Urdu works used in this project ==

ABDUL HAKIM (1885-1959). ;xaliifah ((abd ul-;hakiimIdeas of Ghalib / afkaar-e ;Ghaalib — Lahore: Maktabah Mu'in ul-Adab, 1954. Commentary on selected Urdu and Persian verses, especially from a mystical point of view: available on this site.

ARSHI (1904-1981). imtiyaaz ((alii ((arshii Divan-e Ghalib / diivaan-e ;Gaalib — New Delhi: Anjuman Taraqqi-e Urdu, 1982 (2nd ed.) [1958]. All references are to the ghazal numbers and page numbers in Part 2, called navaa-e sarosh within the volume. The second edition (1982) is available on this site. The first edition (1958) is available on the site. Another copy: on the site. Also available: his Dictionary of Ghalib / farhang-e ;Gaalib : on the site.

ASAR LAKHNAVI (1885-1967). ja((far ((alii ;xaa;N a;sar lakhnavii A Study of Ghalib / mu:taala((ah-e ;Gaalib — Lucknow: Danish Mahal, 2nd edition, 1957. Thanks to the generosity of Satyanarayana Hegde (of Mumbai), this rare text from his collection is available on this site. This work comments selectively on certain verses only, including some unpublished ones.

ASI (1893-1946). ((abd ul-baarii aasii Complete Commentary on the Divan-e Ghalib / mukammal shar;h-e diivaan-e ;Gaalib — Lucknow: Siddiq Book Depot, 1931; also Complete Commentary on the Poetry of Ghalib / mukammal shar;h-e kalaam-e ;Gaalib , his commentary on the unpublished verses from published ghazals; both are available and indexed on this site.

AZAD (1830-1910). mu;hammad ;husain aazaadWater of Life / aab-e ;hayaat — Lucknow: Uttar Pradesh Urdu Academy, 1982. Photo offset of: Lahore: Naval Kishor, 1907. This edition is already online at DSAL, and is also linked to the the Pritchett and Faruqi translation.

BAQIR (1927?-1972). aa;Gaa mu;hammad baaqirGhalib's Speech / bayaan-e ;Gaalib: shar;h-e diivaan-e ;Gaalib — Lahore: Shaikh Mubarak Ali and Sons, 1940: on the site; [Lahore: Shaikh Barakat Ali and Sons, 1939]. Another edition: Mubarak Ali, Lahore, 1954: on the site. A modern reprint: on the site.

BEKHUD DIHLAVI (1863-1955). sayyid va;hiid ud-diin be;xvud dihlaviiA Mirror of Ghalib / miraat ul-;Gaalib — Calcutta: 'Usmaniyah Book Depot, 1934 [Delhi: Mahbub ul-Mutaba, 1924].

BEKHUD MOHANI (1883-1940). sayyid mu;hammad a;hmad be;xvud mohaaniiA Commentary on the Divan of Ghalib / shar;h-e diivaan-e ;Gaalib — Lucknow: Nizami Press, 1970 [composed 1923].

CHISHTI (1896-1984). yuusuf saliim chishtiiA Commentary on the Divan of Ghalib / shar;h-e diivaan-e ;Gaalib — New Delhi: Itiqad Publishing House, 1983 [Lahore: Ishrat Publishing House, 1959]. On the site.

FARHANG. sayyid a;hmad dihlaviiAsifiyah Dictionary / farhang-e aa.sifiyah — Delhi: National Academy, 1974 [1896], 4 vols.

FARUQI, Shamsur Rahman (1936-). shams ur-ra;hmaan faaruuqiiAn Explanation of Ghalib / tafhiim-e ;Gaalib — New Delhi: Ghalib Institute, 1989. A new, augmented edition came out in 2006, and was reprinted in 2014. An index to both editions of this book is provided on this site. Also, the 2014 edition (an unchanged reprint of the 2006 edition) is available here, through the generous permission of the author and the kind help of Satyanarayana Hegde: on this site. It is also on the site.

FARUQI 2. A Selection from the Complete Urdu Works of Ghalib / inti;xaab-e urduu kulliyaat-e ;Gaalib — New Delhi: Sahitya Academy, 1993. 2nd ed., 1999. A list of the verses chosen from divan ghazals contained in this book is provided here; of the verses chosen from unpublished ghazals, here. The whole book is online through the site.

FARUQI 3. Four Essays on Ghalib / ;Gaalib par chaar ta;hriire;N — New Delhi: Ghalib Institute, 2001. Online through the site.

FARUQI, S. R., et al. A Course in Rhetoric / dars-e balaa;Gat — New Delhi: Taraqqi-e Urdu Bureau, 1981; on this site.

GHALIB 1816— The ‘Nuskhah-e Bhopal’, compiled c.1816 nus;xah-e bhopaal aur nus;xah-e bhopaal-e ;saanii — ed. by 'Abd ul-Quvvi Dasnavi. Bhopal: Saifiyah College, 1970; on this site.

GHALIB 1821— The ‘Nuskhah-e Hamidiyah’, compiled c.1821nus;xah-e ;hamiidiyah — ed. by Hamid Ahmad Khan. Lahore: Majlis Taraqqi-e Adab, 1969; on this site. An edition from the Majlis Taraqqi-e Adab, Lahore, 1983: on the site. The early Anwar ul-Haq edition is available on the site. There is also a beautiful modern facsimile edition: Nuskha-e-Hamidiya, introduced by Mehr Afshan Farooqi (Charlottesville: Department of Middle Eastern & South Asian Languages & Cultures, University of Virginia, 2015.

GHALIB 1826/7. The 'Nuskhah-e Sherani' -- diivaan-e ;Gaalib nus;xah-e sheraanii — Lahore: Majlis Taraqqi-e Adab, 1969; on this site.

GHALIB 1828— 'A Graceful/'Two-colored' Rose', compiled 1828 / gul-e ra((naa — ed. by Sayyid Qudrat Naqvi. Karachi: Anjuman Taraqqi-e Urdu, 1975 [first published 1970]. Here are its Urdu ghazals: on this site. The whole text of the Urdu and Persian intikhab is available, in an edition by Malik Ram (1970), on the site.

GHALIB 1841— Divan-e Ghalib [Urdu], 1841 / diivaan-e asadull;aah ;xaan .saa;hib ;Gaalib ta;xallu.s — intro. by Kalidas Gupta Raza, facsimile ed., Bombay 1986; on this site.

GHALIB 1862-- Divan-e Ghalib [Urdu], 1862 / diivaan-e ;Gaalib -- Kanpur, Nizami Press; on this site.

GYAN CHAND (1923-). gyaan chandThe Interpretation of Ghalib / tafsiir-e ;Gaalib — Srinagar: Jammu and Kashmir Academy of Art, Culture, and Language, 1971. A commentary on the unpublished ghazals; on this site. Also: on the site.

HALI (1837-1914). ;xvaajah al:taaf ;husain ;haaliiA Memorial of Ghalib / yaadgaar-e ;Gaalib — New Delhi: Ghalib Institute, 1986 [Kanpur: Nami Press, 1897]. The full text is available on this site.

HAMID (1901-1980), ed. ;haamid ((alii ;xaa;NDivan-e Ghalib / diivaan-e ;Gaalib — Lahore: Punjab University Press, 1969; on this site. Text images from this edition are also linked through the index pages of each divan ghazal.

HASRAT (1875?-1951). fa.zl ul-;hasan ;hasrat mohaaniiA Commentary on the Divan of Ghalib / shar;h-e diivaan-e ;Gaalib — Karachi: Al-Kitab, 1965 [1905]; on this site.

JOSH (1883-1976). labbhuu raam josh malsiyaaniiThe Divan of Ghalib with Commentary / diivaan-e ;Gaalib ma(( shar;h — Delhi: Atma Ram and Sons, 1950; on this site. Also: on the site.

KHALIQ ANJUM, ed. ;xaliiq anjumLetters of Ghalib / ;Gaalib ke ;xu:tuu:t — New Delhi: Ghalib Institute, 1984 (vol. 1), 1985 (vol. 2), 1987 (vol. 3), 1993 (vol. 4); there is also a fifth volume, an index. These volumes are available online through *volume 1*; *volume 2*; *volume 3*; *volume 4*; *volume 5*. There are reprints too, but as far as I can tell they have the same contents and pagination.

MIHR (1895-1971). ;Gulaam rasuul mihrThe Voice of an Angel / navaa-e sarosh, mukammal diivaan-e ;Gaalib ma(( shar;h — Lahore: Shaikh Ghulam Ali and Sons, 1967.

MIHR (1895-1971). ;Gulaam rasuul mihrLetters of Ghalib / ;xu:tuu:t-e ;Gaalib — Lahore: Punjab University, 1969. 2 vols. These volumes are available online through *volume 1*; *volume 2*.

MIR (1722-1810). mu;hammad taqii miirThe Complete Works of Mir, Volume 1 / kulliyaat-e miir, jild-e avval, mukammal chhih diivaan, ;Gazaliyaat — Ed. by :zill-e ((abbaas ((abbaasii , with additions and corrections by a;hmad ma;hfuu:z — New Delhi: Qaumi Council bara-e Furogh-e Urdu Zaban, 2013 [1983, 2003]. The complete ghazal texts from this edition are available through See also 'A Garden of Kashmir'.

MUHAMMAD ANSARULLAH. mu;hammad an.saarullaahA Ghalib Bibliography / ;Gaalib bibliyograafii — Aligarh: Aligarh Muslim University, 1972. Updated edition: ;Gaalib bibliyograafii , kitaabe;N — New Delhi: Ghalib Institute, 1998. On the site.

NAIYAR MASUD (1936-). nayyar mas((uud ri.zviiAn Interpretation of Ghalib / ta((biir-e ;Gaalib — Lucknow: Kitab Nagar, 1973. Available on this site (with thanks to Mehr Farooqi). Also on the site.

NATIQ (1886-1969). abuu'l ;hasan naa:tiq gulaa))o;Thvii A Treasure of Meanings: a Commentary on the Divan of Ghalib / kanz ul-ma:taalib shar;h-e diivaan-e ;Gaalib — Lucknow: Maktabah Din o Adab, 1968. Thanks to the generosity of Satyanarayana Hegde (of Mumbai), this rare text from his collection is available on this site. Using Satya’s numbers at the upper right, alif begins on 9; be on 66; nuun on 101; ye on 148; ghazal {181} on 196. Also on the site.

NAZM (1852-1933). ((alii ;haidar na:zm :tabaa:tabaa))ii lakhnaviiA Commentary on the Urdu Divan of Ghalib / shar;h-e diivaan-e urduu-e ;Gaalib — Hyderabad: Matba Mufid ul-Islam, n.d. [1900]. This commentary (title pages) is provided on this site, thanks to the generous help of Sean Pue. Each verse is linked to the relevant page(s) of the commentary. Here are Nazm's concluding pages about other genres. Here's the whole work together: on the site. Another edition:on the site. A third edition: on the site.

NIZAMI BADAYUNI (1872-1947). ni:zaamii badaayuunii -- The Urdu Divan of Ghalib With a Commentary by Nizami / urduu diivaan-e ;Gaalib ma(( shar;h-e ni:zaamii -- Badaun: Matba Nizami Press, n.d. [1915; 6th ed., 1927]. After 76 pages of extensive introductory material (including reproduced separate introductory notes to all five previous editions), the commentary itself begins on a second p. 1. Available on this site.

NIYAZ FAT'HPURI (1884-1966). niyaaz faat;hpuurii -- The Difficulties of Ghalib / mushkilaat-e ;Gaalib -- Lucknow: Nasim Book Depot, 1972. Thanks to Satya Hegde, this text is available on this site.

RAZA (1988, 1995). kaaliidaas guptaa ra.zaaThe Complete Divan of Ghalib, in Historical Order / diivaan-e ;Gaalib kaamil, taarii;xii tartiib se — Bombay: Sakar Publishers Pvt. Ltd., 1988. Page images from this earlier edition are provided for all unpublished ghazals, linked from each one. There is now a revised, augmented, annotated final edition, diivaan-e ;Gaalib kaamil, nus;xah-e guptaa ra.zaa published in 1995 (with an intermediate edition in 1990); this definitive 1995 edition is now available on this site.

SA'ID UD-DIN (1926). sa((iid ul-diin a;hmadA Commentary on the Urdu Divan of Ghalib, and Criticism of the Poetry of Ghalib, known as ‘the Gift of Sa'id’ / shar;h-e diivaan-e ;Gaalib urduu aur tanqiid-e kalaam-e ;Gaalib ma((ruuf bah hadiyah-e sa((iid — New Delhi: Ghalib Academy, 2007 (1926). With much appreciation for the good work of the Ghalib Academy (and with many thanks to Satyanarayana Hegde for making the pdf), this reprint edition is available on this site. Using Satya’s numbers at the upper right, alif begins on 23; be on 59; nuun on 82; ye on 117; ghazal {181} on 147.

SARVAR. miir mu;hammad ;xaa;N bahaadur sarvar -- Best of the Anthologies; that is, the Tazkirah of Sarvar / ((umdat-e munta;xabah ya((nii ta;zkirah-e sarvar -- Ed. and intro. by Khvajah Ahmad Faruqi. Delhi: Delhi University Department of Urdu, 1961. The tazkirah was composed from 1799 to 1809. It contains an entry on the young Ghalib: pp. 116-120: on this site. Sarvar includes, sometimes with small changes in wording, verses from: {345x}, {305x}, {88}, {432x}, {363x}, {324x}, {426x}, {238x}, {41}, {288x}, {301x}, {54}, {307x}, {129}, {165}, {434x}, {217}, {164}, {183}, {48}, and the famous quatrain discussed in {141,1}. (Also included is Sarvar's p. 121, with a rare sample of Bedil's Urdu poetry.) The full tazkirah:

SHADAN (1869-1948). sayyid aulaad ;husain shaadaa;N bilgraamiiThe Seeking Soul: A Commentary on the Divan of Ghalib / ruu;h ul-ma:taalib fii shar;h-e diivaan-e ;Gaalib — Lahore: Shaikh Mubarak Ali, 1967 [Lahore: Matba Koh-e Nur, 1946].

SHAHID. mu;hammad ayyuub shaahidA Critical Examination of the Commentators on Ghalib / shaara;hiin-e ;Gaalib kaa tanqiidii mu:taali((ah — Lahore: Maghrabi Pakistan Urdu Academy, 1988. 2 vols.

SHAKIL UL-RAHMAN (1929-). shakiil ul-ra;hmaan -- Mirza Ghalib and Indian-Mughal Poetics / miirzaa ;Gaalib aur hind mu;Gal jamaaliyaat -- New Delhi: Ma'sum Publications, 1987. Thanks to Satya Hegde, available on this site.

SHARAR (1860-1926). ((abd ul-;haliim sharar Guzishtah Lakhna'u / gu;zishtah lakhna))uu yaa mashriqii tamaddun kaa aa;xirii namuunah, taarii;xii-o-ja;Graafiyaa))ii ;haalaat — ed. Shamim Inhonvi. Lucknow: Nasim Book Depot, 1965.

SUHA (1892-1947). suhaa mujaddidiiMeanings of Ghalib ma:taalib ul-;Gaalib — Bhopal: Madhya Pradesh Urdu Academy, 1923. Thanks to the generosity of Satyanarayana Hegde (of Mumbai), this rare text from his collection is available on this site. Using Satya’s numbers at the upper right, alif begins on 27; be on 76; nuun on 103; ye on 136; ghazal {181} on 168. An edition from Lahore, 1928: on the site.

VAJAHAT ALI SANDILVI (1916-1996). vahaahat ((alii sandiilvii == The Delight of Ghalib /nishaa:t-e ;Gaalib-- Idara-e Furogh-e Urdu, Lucknow, 1964. Focused on sixty problematical verses. Thanks to Satya Hegde, available on this site.

VAJID. mu;hammad ((abd ul-vaajid vaajidA Commentary on the Urdu Divan of Ghalib, called the Rapture of Investigation / shar;h-e diivaan-e urduu-e ;Gaalib mausuum bah vajdaan-e ta;hqiiq — Hyderabad: Matba Fakhr-e Nizami, 1902: [introduction]; [conclusion]; text source: [site]. A PDF file is linked from each of the verses (selected from alif ghazals only) on which Vajid comments. The whole text is on the site.

VALIH. mu;hammad ((abd ul-a((l;aa vaalihSteadfastness of Purity / vu;suuq-e .saraa;hat . Hyderabad: Matba Fakhr-e Nizami, 1893/4. A very early but all too brief commentary: on this site.

ZAMIN. sayyid mu;hammad .zaamin kantuurii -- A Commentary on the Divan of Ghalib / shar;h-e diivaan-e ;Gaalib -- ed. Ashraf Rafi'. Delhi: Educational Publishing House, 2012 [1934, mss. completed but not published]. The only combined commentary on both published and unpublished verses.

THE ABOVE URDU WORKS have been particularly referred to in this site. For additional literature see: ***GHALIB STUDIES IN URDU***

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