"Detroit Red"

The Prison Years and
Early Ministry: 1946-55

The Nation of Islam:

The National Spokesman:

Malcolm X, Martin Luther King and the Civil Rights Movement

The Silencing, Muhammad Ali and Out: Dec. 1963 - April 1964

The Epiphany of Mecca

African Sojourner, 1964

1965: The Final Months

February 21, 1965:
The Assassination and Aftermath


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Max StanfordMax Stanford on Malcolm's model of resistance based in Africa

Stanford on Malcolm's plan to put the U.S on trial in the U.N.

Stanford on Malcolm's organization work in Africa and beyond

Herman FergusonHerman Ferguson on Malcolm's reception in Africa

Louis DeCaroLouis DeCaro on Malcolm's relations with African counterparts

Abdul Abdur-RaazaqAbdur-Raazaq on threats to Malcolm overseas

African Sojourner, 1964.

During his two extended journeys through Africa and the Middle East in 1964, Malcolm X gained new insights into the problem of racism. In his Autobiography, he later wrote: “I was no less angry than I had been, but at the same time the true brotherhood I had seen had influenced me to recognize that anger can blind human vision.” He now believed that race war was not inevitable, and felt that “America is the first country … that can actually have a bloodless revolution.”

Malcolm X’s new political strategy called for building black community empowerment, through tools such as voter registration and education, economic self-sufficiency, and the development of independent politics. He called upon African Americans to transform the civil rights movement into a struggle for international human rights.

  • Breitman, ed., Malcolm X Speaks, pp. 72-87.
  • De Caro, On the Side of My People, Chapter 18, pp. 230-245.
  • MSE: Multimedia Index: Malcolm X, “Defining the situation of Afro-Americans as a human rights problem,” Cairo: WTN, July 17, 1964.
  • Albert Cleage and George Breitman, “Myths About Malcolm X: Two Views,” International Socialist Review 28 (September/October 1967), pp. 33-60.
  • Claude Andrew Clegg III, Chapter 7, “Trials and Tribulations,” An Original Man: The Life and Times of Elijah Muhammad, pp. 149-189.
  • “Malcolm X Flees For His Life,” Pittsburgh Courier, July 11, 1964, p. 4. download
  • “Malcolm X Bids Africans, Take Negro Issue to U.N.,” New York Times, July 18, 1964, p. 2. download
  • “Malcolm X Lays Harlem Riot To ‘Scare Tactics’ of Police,” New York Times, July 21, 1964, p. 22. download
  • “Beware of False Prophets,” Muhammad Speaks, July 31, 1964, pp. 1, 3, 8. download pt 1 | download pt 2 | download pt 3
  • Handler, “Malcolm X Seeks U.N. Negro Debate,” New York Times, August 13, 1964, p. 22. download
  • “Mr. Muhammad Speaks: Calls Malcolm X Greatest Hypocrite He’s Ever Seen,” Pittsburgh Courier, September 5, 1964, p. 19. download pt 1 | download pt 2
  • “Order Eviction of MX,” Amsterdam News, September 5, 1964, p. 1. download
  • “Malcolm X Article Favors Goldwater,” New York Times, September 8, 1964, p. 19. download
  • “Vicious Scheming and Treachery by Malcolm X,” “Biography of Hypocrite: By Two Muslim Brothers Who Knew Him Best,” Muhammad Speaks, September 25, 1964, p. 16. download pt 1 | download pt 2
  • “Malcolm Rejects Racist Doctrine,” New York Times, October 4, 1964, p. 59. download
  • “Minister Exposed by Those Who Knew Him Through Life,” Muhammad Speaks, October 9, 1964, p. 5. download
  • Liz Mazucci, “Going Back to Our Own: Interpreting Malcolm X’s Transition From ‘Black Asiatic’ to ‘Afro-American,’” Souls, Vol. 7, no. 1 (Winter 2005), pp. 66-83. download

  • The Malcolm X Project at Columbia University home