"Detroit Red"

The Prison Years and
Early Ministry: 1946-55

The Nation of Islam:

The National Spokesman:

Malcolm X, Martin Luther King and the Civil Rights Movement

The Silencing, Muhammad Ali and Out: Dec. 1963 - April 1964

The Epiphany of Mecca

African Sojourner, 1964

1965: The Final Months

February 21, 1965:
The Assassination and Aftermath


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Max StanfordMax Stanford on an alleged meeting between Malcolm and the FBI in 1964

Stanford on the early meetings of the OAAU

Peter BaileyPeter Bailey on when Malcolm was barred from entering France

Bailey on the first OAAU meeting, pt. 1

Bailey on the first OAAU meeting, pt. 2

Ossie DavisOssie Davis on the firebombing of Malcolm's house

Herman FregusonHerman Ferguson on threats against Malcolm

Ferguson on undercover agents within Malcolm's organization

Ferguson on being invited to join the OAAU

Ferguson on being part of the MMI and the OAAU

Abdul Abdur-RaazaqAbdullah Abdur-Raazaq on threats to Malcolm's life

Abdur-Raazaq on the formation of the MMI, pt. 1

Abdur-Raazaq on the formation of the MMI, pt. 2

1965: The Final Months.

Malcolm X emphasized the parallels between the African-American struggle for equality and the Asian, Latino, and African campaigns against European colonialism. Malcolm X also drew attention for criticizing the growing U.S. military involvement in Vietnam.

Upon Malcolm X’s return to the United States in November 1964, death threats escalated against him and his family. in the early morning hours of February 14, 1965, his home in Elmhurst, Queens, was firebombed.
  • Malcolm X/Haley, Autobiography, Chapter 19.
  • Breitman, ed., Malcolm X Speaks, pp. 88-156.
  • Turner, Islam in the African-American Experience, pp. 147-173; 214-233.
  • Steve Clark, ed., February 1965: The Final Speeches, pp. 17-256.
  • Claude Andrew Clegg III, Chapter 8, “Rumors of War,” An Original Man: The Life and Times of Elijah Muhammad, pp. 190-234.
  • “Malcolm X In, Out to London,” Amsterdam News, December 5, 1964, p. 4. download
  • Lusbasch, “Malcolm Favors a Mau Mau in U.S.,” New York Times, December 21, 1964, p. 20. download
  • Handler, “Malcolm X Cites Role in U.N. Fight,” New York Times, January 2, 1965, p. 6. download
  • Les Matthews, “Muslim Factions At War; Clay’s Ex-Secretary On Run,” Amsterdam News, January 16, 1965, pp. 1-2. download pt 1 | download pt 2
  • “Cassius (Muhammad Ali) Speaks Out on Malcolm X,” Amsterdam News, January 16, 1965, pp. 1-2.
  • Booker, “Malcolm X Speaks,” Amsterdam News, February 6, 1965, pp. 1-2. download pt 1 | download pt 2
  • “Malcolm X Barred From France,” London Times, February 10, 1965, p. 11. download
  • “Malcolm X Barred by French Security,” New York Times, February 10, 1965, p. 3. download
  • “Break Up of the Old World!,” Muhammad Speaks, February 12, 1965, pp. 1, 3.
  • “I’m Ready to Meet the Challenges of the Messenger’s Foes,” Muhammad Speaks, February 12, 1965, p. 4.
  • “Malcoln [sic] X To Reveal New Plans,” Amsterdam News, February 13, 1965, p. 5.
  • Handler, “Malcolm X Flees Firebomb Attack,” New York Times, February 15, 1965, pp. 1, 21.
  • “Malcolm Accuses Muslims of Blaze; They Point to Him,” New York Times, February 16, 1965, p. 18. download
  • “Bottle of Gasoline Found on Dresser in Malcolm X Home,” New York Times, February 17, 1965, p. 34. download
  • “Malcolm X Denies He Is Bomber,” Amsterdam News, February 20, 1965. download

  • The Malcolm X Project at Columbia University home