"Detroit Red"

The Prison Years and
Early Ministry: 1946-55

The Nation of Islam:

The National Spokesman:

Malcolm X, Martin Luther King and the Civil Rights Movement

The Silencing, Muhammad Ali and Out: Dec. 1963 - April 1964

The Epiphany of Mecca

African Sojourner, 1964

1965: The Final Months

February 21, 1965:
The Assassination and Aftermath


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James Farmer on Malcolm's interaction with the Civil Rights Movement

Max StanfordMax Stanford on the Malcolm's conversations with Dr. King

Stanford on Malcolm's speech in Selma, Alabama

Amiri BarakaAmiri Baraka on Malcolm's plans to create a "united front" with civil rights organizations

Ossie DavisOssie Davis on Malcolm's interactions with the movement

Davis gives his opinion on the civil rights struggle

Davis on Malcolm's outreach to the civil rights organizations

Davis on Malcolm's recruitment and instruction beyond the NOI

Davis on Malcolm's outreach to Africa and the civil rights groups

Davis on Malcolm's meetings with Dr. King

Davis on the FBI's opinion of Malcolm's meetings with Dr. King

Abdul Abdur-RaazaqAbdullah Abdur-Raazaq on Malcolm's trip to Africa and reactions to MLK

Malcolm X, Martin Luther King, and the Civil Rights Movement.

In reaching out to Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., James Farmer, and other civil rights leaders, Malcolm X proposed a broad coalition of black activist organizations, working in concert to achieve social justice.

  • Malcolm X and James Farmer, “Separation or Integration: A Debate,” in Dialogue Magazine 3 (May 1962), pp. 14-18.
  • LeRoi Jones, “What Does Nonviolence Mean?” Home: Social Essays, pp. 133-154.
  • Manning Marable, “Malcolm, Martin and the Mandates of Justice,” Speaking Truth to Power: Essays on Race, Resistance and Radicalism, pp. 134-138.
  • Robin Kelley, “House Negroes on the Loose: Malcolm X and the Black Bourgeoisie,” Callaloo 21 (2) 1998:419-435.
  • James Baldwin, “Malcolm and Martin,” Esquire 77 (4) 1972: 94-97, 195-196, 198, 201-202.
  • James Cone, Martin & Malcolm & America, Chapter 9, “Two Roads to Freedom,” pp. 244-271; Part of Chapter 10, “Nothing But Men,” pp. 272-273, 280-287; Chapter 11, “Making Their Mark: Legacies,” pp. 288-314; and “Conclusion,” pp. 315-318.
  • The Playboy Interview: Malcolm X Speaks with Alex Haley (May 1963),” in Gallen, ed., Malcolm X: As They Knew Him, pp. 109-130.
  • “Minister Malcolm: A Conversation with Kenneth B. Clark (June 1963),” in Gallen, ed., Malcolm X: As They Knew Him, pp. 131-134.
  • Malcolm X, “God’s Judgment of White America,” in The End of White World Supremacy, pp. 121-148.
  • “Muslims Press Race Separation,” New York Times, February 26, 1963, p. 3. download
  • “X Marks the Spot,” Newsweek, May 6, 1963, p. 28. download
  • Handler, “Malcolm X Starting Drive in Washington,” New York Times, May 10, 1963, pp. 1, 14. download
  • Handler, “Malcolm X Terms Dr. King’s Tactics Futile,” New York Times, May 11, 1963, p. 9. download
  • “Themes and Variations: Coffee with Malcolm X,” Wall Street Journal, May 16, 1963, p. 12. download
  • Handler, “Malcolm X Scores Kennedy on Racial Policy,” New York Times, May 17, 1963, p. 14. download
  • “Why Black Muslims Are Focusing on the Nation’s Capital Now,” US News & World Report, May 27, 1963, p. 24. download
  • Malcolm X Disputes Nonviolence Policy,” New York Times, June 5, 1963, p. 29. download
  • Malcolm X, “Muslim Teachings,” New York Times, August 25, 1963, p. SM2. download
  • “3 Negro Speakers on TV Hold Kennedy Leadership Inadequate,” New York Times, June 25, 1963, p. 13. download
  • Clayborne Carson, “The Unfinished Dialogue of Martin Luther King, Jr. and Malcolm X,” Souls, Vol. 7, no. 1 (Winter 2005), pp. 12-19. download
  • George Breitman, ed., Malcolm X Speaks, pp. 3-17.

  • The Malcolm X Project at Columbia University home