"Detroit Red"

The Prison Years and
Early Ministry: 1946-55

The Nation of Islam:

The National Spokesman:

Malcolm X, Martin Luther King and the Civil Rights Movement

The Silencing, Muhammad Ali and Out: Dec. 1963 - April 1964

The Epiphany of Mecca

African Sojourner, 1964

1965: The Final Months

February 21, 1965:
The Assassination and Aftermath


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Peter BaileyPeter Bailey on Malcolm's 'epiphany' about white people in Mecca

Farah GriffinFarah Griffin on Malcolm's 'new' attitude toward women after going abroad

A New Vision? The Epiphany of Mecca.

Converting to traditional Islam, Malcolm X completed his spiritual hajj to Mecca in April, 1964, and returned to the United States the next month as El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz.

  • Malcolm X/Haley: Autobiography, Chapter 17-18.
  • George Breitman, ed., Malcolm X Speaks, pp. 18-71.
  • Edward E. Curtis IV, “Islamic Universalism, Black Particularism, and the Dual Identity of Malcolm X (1925-1965), Islam in Black America: Identity, Liberation, and Difference in African-American Islamic Thought, pp. 85-105.
  • Abdelwahab M. Elmessiri, “Islam As a Pastoral in the Life of Malcolm X,” in John Henrik Clarke, ed., Malcolm X: The Man and His Times, pp. 69-78.
  • “Interview with Malcolm X by A. B. Spellman,” Monthly Review (May 1964), pp. 14-24.
  • Malcolm X, “An Open Letter to Elijah Muhammad” (June 23, 1964), in Malcolm and the Cross, pp. 221-222.
  • George Breitman, “Allies and Alliances” and “Appendix A: Statement of Basic Aims and Objectives of the Organization of Afro-American Unity,” The Last Year of Malcolm X, pp. 51-63, 115-122.
  • “Seek To Evict Malcolm X From Home in Queens,” Amsterdam News, April 18, 1964, pp. 1-2. download pt 1 | downloadpt 2
  • “Minister Who Knew Him Best,” Muhammad Speaks, May 8, 1964, p. 13. download
  • Handler, “Malcolm X Pleased by Whites’ Attitude On Trip to Mecca,” New York Times, May 8, 1964, pp. 1, 38. download
  • “Seek to Link Malcolm X to Slayings in Harlem,” Amsterdam News, May 9, 1964, p. 1. download
  • “Malcolm X Woos 2 Rights Leaders,” New York Times, May 19, 1964, p. 28. download
  • “Malcolm Says He is Backed Abroad,” New York Times, May 22, 1964, p. 22. download
  • Malcolm Rejects Race Separation,” New York Times, May 24, 1964, p. 61. download
  • “Goals Changed by Malcolm X,” Los Angeles Times, May 24, 1964, p. D26. download
  • “ ‘My Next Move’—Malcolm X: An Exclusive Interview,” Amsterdam News, May 30, 1964, pp. 1, 52. download pt 1 | downloadpt 2
  • “The Truth About Fall of a Minister,” Muhammad Speaks, June 5, 1964, p. 8. download
  • “Police on Alert Over Muslim Rift,” New York Times, June 18, 1964, p. 25. download
  • “Malcolm X Flees for Life; Muslim Factions at War; Seize Guns, Ammo,” Amsterdam News, June 20, 1964, pp. 1-2. download
  • “Clay Coming Here with Muhammad,” Amsterdam News, June 27, 1964, pp. 1-2. download
  • “Malcolm Calls for Muslim Peace,” New York Times, June 27, 1964, p. 9. download
  • “Malcolm X Repeats Call for Negro Unity on Rights,” New York Times, June 29, 1964, p. 32. download
  • “Malcolm Says Muhammad Fails Cause of Negroes,” New York Times, June 30, 1964, p. 20. download
  • Wechsler, “The Cult of Malcolm X,” The Progressive (June 1964), pp. 24-28.
    download pt 1
    download pt 2
    download pt 3
    download pt 4
    download pt 5
  • “Open Letter: Muslim Minister Writes to Muhammad,” Muhammad Speaks, July 3, 1964, p. 9. download

  • The Malcolm X Project at Columbia University home