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The video, audio, and transcripts available on this page are for videotaped portions of Carnegie Oral History Project interviews. Some interviews were conducted solely on video, others were conducted on a combination of audio and video. Transcripts that begin on a page other than "1" are of video interview sessions that took place after several audio-only sessions. The complete transcripts of all sessions are available at the Oral History Research Office.

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Omar Badsha

Badsha, Omar
Omar Badsha, a South African photographer and political activist whose work documents the history of the labor and antiapartheid movements, participated in the Second Carnegie Inquiry Into Poverty and Development in Southern Africa. He was instrumental in the creation of Afrapix and the photographic exhibit and companion book titled South Africa: The Cordoned Heart.

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Fikile Bam

Bam, Fikile
Fikile Bam was appointed director of the Legal Resources Centre in Port Elizabeth in 1985, and later became judge-president of the South African Land Claims Court. He was held on Robben Island as a political prisoner for ten years during apartheid.

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Geoffrey Budlender

Budlender, Geoffrey
Geoffrey Budlender is an attorney whose involvement with the Legal Resources Centre began with its inception in 1979. He succeeded Arthur Chaskalson as the center's second national director. In 1996, he was appointed director-general of the South African Department of Land Affairs.

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James E. Carter

Carter, James E.
James E. Carter, the 39th president of the United States, founded the Carter Center, a nonprofit and nonpartisan organization dedicated to the advancement of human rights as well as conflict prevention and resolution, in 1982. The Carter Center's Global Development Initiative was sponsored by the Carnegie Corporation.

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Arthur Chaskalson

Chaskalson, Arthur
Arthur Chaskalson was appointed president of South Africa's Constitutional Court in 1994 and became chief justice in 2002. Highlights of his legal career include the creation of the Carnegie-funded Centre for Applied Legal Studies, the directorship of the Legal Resources Centre, and representation of clients such as Nelson Mandela during the antiapartheid movement.

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Joan Ganz Cooney

Cooney, Joan Ganz
Joan Ganz Cooney is the Emmy-award winning television executive who received funding from the Carnegie Corporation to create the children's television show, Sesame Street. She has held numerous leadership roles at the Children's Television Workshop, where she was executive director from 1968 to 1970.

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John Dugard

Dugard, John
John Dugard, an international lawyer and human-rights advocate, established the Centre for Applied Legal Studies in 1978 with financing from the Carnegie Corporation. He provided free legal assistance through Lawyers for Human Rights and challenged apartheid through the South African legal system.

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Sara Englehardt

Engelhardt, Sara
Sara Engelhardt's career at the Carnegie Corporation spanned two decades, including 12 as secretary. As a program officer, she focused on increasing opportunities for women in the public sphere and in higher education. She became president of the Foundation Center in 1991.

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Barbara T. Finberg

Finberg, Barbara D.
Barbara D. Finberg joined the Carnegie Corporation in 1958 and retired in 1996 as the executive vice president. She was responsible for the early childhood initiative that funded the development of the children's television show Sesame Street.

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David A. Hamburg

Hamburg, David A.
David A. Hamburg served as the eleventh president of the Carnegie Corporation from 1982 to 1997. During his tenure, the Corporation focused on early childhood education, started work in the area of nuclear nonproliferation, and emphasized a collaborative approach to strategic philanthropy.

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Dudley Horner

Horner, Dudley
Dudley Horner is deputy director of the University of Cape Town's Southern Africa Labor and Development Research Unit, where he has worked since 1975. The research unit was established with support from the Carnegie Corporation.

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Helene L. Kaplan

Kaplan, Helene L.
Helene L. Kaplan is an attorney specializing in the representation of nonprofit organizations. She was elected to a second term as chair of the board of the Carnegie Corporation in 2002.

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Clark Kerr

Kerr, Clark
Clark Kerr, chancellor of the University of California, Berkeley, from 1952 to 1958, was a board member of the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Training. He was also director and chairman of the Carnegie Commission on Higher Education.

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Dorothy Knapp

Knapp, Dorothy
Dorothy Knapp was the corporate secretary of the Carnegie Corporation from 1987 to 2000. She came to the Corporation in the 1970s.

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Mary Jane Morifi

Morifi, Mary-Jane
Mary-Jane Morifi was a research intern at the Southern African Labor and Development Research Unit in the 1980s during the Second Carnegie Inquiry Into Poverty and Development in Southern Africa. She later became a director of BP, the global energy company, where she helped administer the company's grants in South Africa.

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Lloyd N. Morrisett

Morrisett, Lloyd N.
Lloyd N. Morrisett, a founder of Children's Television Workshop, was vice president of the Carnegie Corporation in the 1960s.

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Alan J. Pifer

Pifer, Alan J.
Alan J. Pifer was the president of the Carnegie Corporation from 1967 to 1982. During his tenure, the Corporation established the Second Carnegie Inquiry Into Poverty and Development in Southern Africa.

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Mamphela Ramphele

Ramphele, Mamphela
Mamphela Ramphele, a medical doctor and political activist, was banished within South Africa from 1977 to 1984. In 1996 she became vice-chancellor of the University of Cape Town. In 2000 she was appointed managing director of the World Bank.

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Desmond Tutu

Tutu, Desmond
Desmond Tutu, the Anglican Bishop and recipient of the 1984 Nobel Peace Prize, chaired South Africa's Truth and Reconciliation Commission. He was an outspoken opponent of apartheid. His work has been supported by the Carnegie Corporation.

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David Weikart

Weikart, David
David Weikart, an American advocate of early childhood education, began the Perry Preschool Project in 1962 with the goal of measuring the impact of preschool on the outcomes of disadvantaged children. The longitudinal study, conducted by the High / Scope Educational Research Foundation with support from Carnegie, culminated in a landmark 1980 report.

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Francis Wilson

Wilson, Francis
Francis Wilson, an economist based at the University of Cape Town, is the coauthor of Uprooting Poverty: The South African Challenge. He founded and directed the Southern Africa Labor and Development Research Unit, which conducted research for the Second Carnegie Inquiry Into Poverty and Development in Southern Africa.

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