((ahd-e junuu;N hai mausam gul kaa aur shiguufah laayaa hai
abr-e bahaarii vaadii se u;Th kar aabaadii par aayaa hai

1) it is the time/era of madness; the rose-season has brought about more/different fertility/creativeness
2) the spring (rain-)cloud, having arisen from the valley, has come upon the town/city



shiguufah : 'A bud, blossom; flower; (colloq.) a fabrication'. (Platts p.732)


shiguufah laanaa : 'To bud, blossom; to put forth young shoots; —to produce something new and wonderful'. (Platts p.732)

S. R. Faruqi:

One possible reading of the first line is that the prose will be, mausam-e gul ( ya((nii bahaar ) kaa ((ahd junuu;N hai _ aur ( yih ((ahd-e junuu;N ek , aur ) shiguufah laayaa hai . That is, the rose-season was somehow at such a height of turbulence that now the ebullience of madness has come upon it too. And one other new thing happened to it that will even further increase the madness. This reading is difficult to extract, but there's no doubt that it's possible. The other reading is straightforward: that the prose will be, ((ahd-e junuu;N hai ( aur ) gul kaa mausam ( ek ) aur shiguufah laayaa hai .

Mir has used shiguufah laanaa elsewhere too; for example, in


There I have [extensively explained its meaning]. [The phrase shiguufah laanaa does not appear in some dictionaries, though it does appear in the nuur and the aa.sifiyah .] I mistakenly did not declare it to be an idiom. For this reason the meaningfulness of the second line of {757,3} was not able to be fully elucidated.

In the present verse, shiguufah laanaa is both an idiom and a zila with 'rose'. For the spring raincloud to arise from the vaadii (=field, foothills, valley between two mountains, etc.) and come upon the town/city is the shiguufah of the rose-season in the sense that because of the rose-season madness is at full strength in any case; now, when there will be the tumult of the cloud and the rain, the madness will increase even further.

It's an enjoyable style of expression-- that the cloud of itself has arisen from the valley and come upon the town/city, but the poet has construed it as a disaster brought by the rose-season. (Why would it not be so-- the speaker is in any case absorbed in wildness/madness.) In the second line, the freshness of the movement of the clouds and the image of the rain pouring down are fine.

Mir has left it ambiguous exactly how, as the rose-season comes in madness, the springtime raincloud would 'show its colors/effects' [gul khilaa))egaa]. He has left the doors of possibility open. A detailed exposition is also not particularly necessary; on the theme of shor-e bahaaraa;N see


The tajnis of vaadii and aabaadii is superb. When one heard about the cloud's having arisen from the vaadii and come upon the aabaadii , for a moment the suspicion occurs that there's some meaningful relationship between the two-- although it's clear that between vaadii and aabaadii the affinity is verbal, not one of meaning. Such a use of words, which creates freshness in the atmosphere of the verse, has the power of a metaphor.

In abr-e bahaarii there's also the subtlety that the people of Iran use it to refer to a cloud that rains in the month of Rabi', while we take it to mean the cloud of the rainy season [barsaat]. But the intensity of madness is not in the rainy season; rather, it is in the real/true rose-season (= in India, February-March). Here, a mixture of two different geographical metaphors is 'causing a new bud to bloom' [nayaa shiguufah khilaa rahaa hai].



At the end of his discussion SRF notes the stylized quality of the concept of 'springtime', which both is (poetically) and isn't (in actual fact) the same as the 'rose-season'. Similar flexibility apparently exists in the case of the laalah , which can be either the tulip in Iran or also the red poppy in India (Platts p.947). A similar case is that of the bulbul , which in Iran is the nightingale and in India is, ornithologically speaking, 'the fork-tailed shrike, Lanius boulboul' (Platts p.164). The zunnaar , now unambiguously a Brahminical sacred thread, could once have referred to 'a cord worn round the middle by the Eastern Christians and Jews, and also by the Persian Magi' (Platts p.618). (Along the same lines, many Sanskritists think that soma , the Vedic psychedelic plant, probably referred to different species in different times and places.)

How much do such discrepancies matter? Unless you're a 'natural poetry' advocate, very little. The ghazal is a genre, after all, in which the dead lover can, and often does, go right on talking after his death. If we can accept that convention (which is only the most striking among many such), why should we boggle at such trivia as the exact chronology of springtime?