Ghazal 100, Verse 9


huu;N :zuhuurii ke muqaabil me;N ;xafaa))ii ;Gaalib
mere da((ve pah yih ;hujjat hai kih mashhuur nahii;N

1) I am, in confrontation/contrast with Zuhuri/'manifest', 'Khafa'i'/'secret', Ghalib
2) for my claim there is this proof: that I am not famous


:zuhuur : 'Appearing, arising, springing up; appearance, manifestation, visibility'. (Platts p.756)


muqaabil : 'Fronting, confronting; opposing, contending; opposite; --comparing; collating; --corresponding, matching; resembling, like; --in opposition (to, - ke ); in front (of), over against; face to face (with), in the presence (of); --in comparison (with)'. (Platts p.1053)


;xafaa : 'Concealment; a secret'. (Platts p.491)


That is, my not being famous is the proof that I am Khafa'i/secret, and between 'manifest' and 'secret' is an opposition. So I am the opposite pole to Zuhuri. (106)

== Nazm page 106


[During his stay in Calcutta Ghalib composes a Persian ode called 'A contrary wind' [baad-e mu;xaalif] in which he names the Persian poets he most admires: they are Hazin, Asir, Talib, 'Urfi, Naziri, and above all Zuhuri, to whom five verses are devoted.]

== Urdu text: p. 25 in Hali, Yadgar-e Ghalib

Bekhud Dihlavi:

He says, I am the opposite of Zuhuri. And my claim rests on this proof: that he was 'manifest' and I am 'secret'. That is, he was famous, and I am not famous. And the existence of this opposition proves my claim. (157)

Bekhud Mohani:

Zuhuri was fortunate, in that he was masterfully accomplished and became famous as well. I am unfortunate, in that even though I'm accomplished, I'm unknown. (207)


TESTING: {4,4}

This verse pays tribute to a poet Ghalib genuinely admired; for proof, see {92,7}. Zuhuri (d.1615) was a member of the 'Herat School' of Persian poetry, a school that 'seems never to have been popular in Persia, except, perhaps, in their own day in Khurasan, but enjoys a much more considerable reputation in India, where Zuhuri, whose very name is almost unknown in Persia, enjoys an extraordinary and, as I think, quite undeserved fame, especially as a writer of extremely florid and bombastic prose' (Brown 4:250). Brown's view underlines the literary politics of Persian Persian vs. Indo-Persian poetry, a complex subject we can't really get into here. Zuhuri in any case counts as a kind of hybrid, for he left Persia for India, and became the poet laureate of Sultan Ibrahim 'Adil Shah of Bijapur (r.1580-1627).

This light, self-mocking verse both underlines Ghalib's usual complaint of non-recognition, and enables him to set up a direct claim to equality with Zuhuri. Just as the 'manifest' and the 'secret' can be seen as opposite poles with equal significance, each indispensable to the definition of the other, so Ghalib-- under the temporary tongue-in-cheek guise of 'Khafa'i'-- can be seen as an opposite pole to Zuhuri. If anything, in mystical terms the 'inner' is higher and more significant than the merely 'outer'.

Perhaps Zuhuri and 'Khafa'i' are even two expressions of the same (poetic) mind, one outer and public, the other inner and private. Indeed, in order to tell them apart you have to resort to a special test, for they both pointedly live up to their names: one is famous, the other isn't.