SITEMAP == MIR SITEMAP == A COMPLETE GHALIB CONCORDANCE ==

== SETS ==

The best initial context for understanding any of Ghalib’s verses is usually the set of his own similar verses. The GRAMMAR PAGE includes many unusual, idiomatic, and archaic forms; and of course there are the indices of NAMES and TERMS as well. The sets below are informal ones that I have put together partly logically and partly idiosyncratically, for the kinds of future study that I might like to do myself. There’s also a SETS PAGE FOR MIR that provides comparative material. And finally, there’s the SITEMAP—from which everything is accessible at once.

The first group on the present page consists mostly of sets based on Urdu grammar and structural words and literary devices. I consider these to be fundamental and obvious choices. But it also includes a few tentative categories of my own, like ‘humor’, ‘mushairah’, and ‘grotesquerie’, that I want to think about further as I work on the divan. More instances and examples of such sets will be found in the Index of Terms, especially under ;husn-e ta((liil , iihaam , inshaa))iyah , kinaayah .

The second group consists of a few illustrative examples drawn from the hundreds of imagery sets (the liver, the mirror, etc.) and thematic notions (the beloved's having no mouth, etc.). I chose them partly for importance, partly for distinctiveness, partly for level of occurrence (neither inconveniently frequent nor extremely rare), sometimes just because they intrigued me. In order to keep this page from getting too long, the full lists of examples are given in the verses to which links are provided.

The third group consists of a small number of ‘translatables’, verses that seem to lend themselves especially well to translation into English.

An asterisk shows that some special explanation or comment is included, or something else of particular interest.

If you want to use the SEARCH box in the top left corner of this page, remember to spell Urdu words the way I do (you can check them with the ‘Plain Roman’ option on the script bar); for a complete set, keep in mind that there may be plural and oblique forms too, and/or variant spellings for the sake of meter (as in these cases).

A,B == Some examples of sequences of nouns or phrases, or most often the two separate lines, with various ways to connect them, such that the reader must work to figure out the possible relationships and must make personal choices among various possible readings, without guidance from the verse itself.
{2,1}; {4,4}*, on 'list' verses; {4,5}; {5,8x}*; {6,1}; {6,8x}; {7,3}; {8,1}; {10,6}; {11,3x}; {14,5}*; {15,17x}; {15,18x}; {21,1}*; {21,8}; {21,13}; {22,5}; {26,2}; {26,8}; {24,6}*; {27,1}*; {28,3x}; {29,3}*; {31,1}*; {33,3}; {33,7}; {34,6}*; {35}**, most verses; {37}; {41,4}; {42,2}*; {42,6}; {44,4x}; {44,5x}; {47,3x}; {51,7x}; {53,5}; {53,12x}; {56,5}, enforced by verbs; {57,3}; {56,7x}; {57,6}; {57,7}*; {67,6x}; {68,6x}; {68,10x}; {71,3}*; {72,2}; {75,6}; {77,3}*; {77,5}; {78,1}; {79,2}; {79,4x}; {80,3}; {80,11x}; {81,2}; {81,3}; {81,13x}; {82,2x}; {84,5x}, {86,8}; {87,5}; {88,1}; {94,2}; {95,2}**; {96,1}; {96,5}; {97,9}; {97,10}*; {100,8}; {101,1}; {103,2x}; {103,3x}*; {104,4x}; {106,1}; {109,2x}; {114,1}; {114,5}; {115,1}; {119,9}; {125,3}; {129,4x}**; {130,3}; {130,7x}; {131,8}; {133,1}; {137,6x}*; {141,2}; {142,2}; {143,3}*; {145,4}; {145,9x}; {145,16x}; {146,5x}; {147,1}; {147,2}; {147,3}; {147,7x}; {149,8x}; {151,3}; {152,2}**; {152,4}; {155,1}; {155,4x}; {158,3}; {162,1}; {162,10}; {163,2}; {163,3}; {163,4}*; {163,5}; {166,5}; {170,2}; {170,5}; {172,2}; {172,5x}; {175,7}; {182,2}; {187,1}; {188,1}; {190,1}; {194,3}; {194,4}; {206,3}; {206,4}; {209,6}; {209,7}; {212,7x}; {213,1}; {214,2}; {214,6}; {214,9}; {214,10}; {215,1}*; {215,7}; {217,7x}; {219,6}*; {221,2}; {223,2}; {226,1}; {226,4}*; {226,5}; {227,3}; {228,2}; {228,10}; {229,1}; {229,6}*; {230,1}; {230.5}; {230,7}*; {232,6}

AUR == Some verses that exploit the possibilities of aur, including both ‘more’ and ‘other’ as well as ‘and’.
many verses in {62}, of which it’s the refrain; compare the limited uses in {66}; {86,4}; {111,11}*; {160,1}**, both meanings; {160,4}*; {160,6}

BAH == Some verses that exploit the meanings of bah as 'with', 'along with', 'toward', 'in', etc. and/or its special sense as 'by' (in an oath).
{37,6x}; {67,4x}; {75,3}; {75,5}**; {77,4}; {84,4x}; {92,5}; {109,1}*; {109,3x}*; {109,4x}; {221,1}*

BASKIH
== The meanings of baskih as 'although', and 'to such an extent' (and sometimes 'since' as well); compare {59,7}, har-chand
{1,5}***; {12,3x} ( z-bas ); {13,5}**; {17,1}; {17,4} ( az baskih ); {49,7}*; {49,9}*; {53,11} ( z-bas ); {62,1}*; {68,7x} ( z-baskih ); {72,6}; {73,3x}; {79,4x}*; {81,6x}; {81,7x}; {94,4x}, not 'although'; {94,5x}; {111,11}; {143,7x}*; {145,7x}; {149,4}; {150,1}; {154,6x}*; {172,1}; {185,1} ( az baskih ); {185,3} ( az baskih ); {206,1} ( z-baskih ); {212,5x}

BHI == A few of the many verses that exploit the complexities of bhii — both 'even' and 'also', etc.:
{6,5}*; {6,7x}; {15,13}; {36,5}; {36,9}**, well illustrated; {61,8}*; {77,1}*; {78,5}; {90,4}; {99,5}; {108,7}; {110,7}*; {111,2}*; {112} (in refrain); {116,5}*; {123,4}; {124,7}*; {129,2}; {131,2}; {132}* (in refrain); {134,1}; {136,1}; {138,5}; {140,7x}; {142,2}*; {143,5}; {147,1}; {148,4}; {148,9}*; {150,1}, exclamatory?; {151,4}; {153,3}; {153,9}; {154,4}*; {157,2}; {158,5} (exclamatory); {162,3}; {175,1}; {177,1}; {179,3}; {202,6}; {221,2}*; {224,1}; {230,9}; {232,9}, on its idiomatic complexities; {231,6}

CATCH-22 == You’re damned if you do, and damned if you don’t. (You can only escape from flying bombing missions if you’re insane; but if you want to escape from flying bombing missions, you're sane.)
{15,2}; {24,5}; {41,3}; {78,3}; {78,4}; {84,1}; {95,6}; {97,1}; {97,3}; {112,2}; {121,4}; {145,3}; {151,7}; {153,1}; {161,6}; {174,5}; {177,1}; {184,2}; {202,5}; {203,4}; {205,1}; {209,8}; {215,5}; {231,9}; {233,11}

DEFINITION == Verses that challenge, question, or discuss the meaning of words
{6,9x}; {9,1}; {22,4}; {28,4x}; {33,3}; {60,2}; {68,9x}; {75,2}; {86,1}; {86,5}; {86,6}; {86,7}; {88,7x}; {99,7}; {101,1}; [116,1}; {125,2}; {126,9}; {145,1}; {147,1}; {162,8}; {162,10}; {163,3}; {181,2}; {203,4}; {209,3}; {214,13x}; {229}, most verses

DIALOGUE == Examples of verses in which someone else’s (real or imagined) speech is quoted, other than the lover’s.
{4,1}; {15,15}; {19,2}; {20,11}; {21,2}; {21,8}; {22,9}; {25,9}; {26,10}; {32,3}; {42,1}; {46,1}; {46,7}; {59,2}*; {66;3}; {66,4}; {66,10}; {71,10}; {72,7}; {77,8}; {91,10}*; {99,5}; {100,6}; {104,1}; {107,4}; {107,7}; {116,6}; {116,7}; {116,10}; {123,6}; {123,12x}; {126,6}; {126,10}*; {129,7x}; {134,2}; {143,5}; {151,4}; {151,9}; {162,3}; {162,9}; {163,1}; {174,2}; {178,9}; {178,10}; {191,4}; {193,5}; {193,6x}; {201,9}; {209,1}; {209,2}; {231,4}

DISRUPTION == Examples of the trick of setting up a sustained metaphor, and then disrupting its development
{3,12x}*; {11,1}, disrupter first; {21,10}**; {24,7}; {47,3x}; {48,3}; {50,5x}, needs disruption; {91,13x}; {93,1}; {116,9}*; {129,3x}; {138,3}; {143,9x}, disrupter first

EK == Verses in which the multivalence of ek (or ik )— 'a, an', 'single', 'mere', 'singular', 'particular', 'unique', 'excellent'— is exploited (on yak , see {78,6}; on expressions compounded with yak , see {11,1}; on do-((aalam expressions, see {18,2})
{4,8x}***; {6,6}*; {10,1}; {10,4}; {10,6}; {10,9}; {14,5}**; {15,14}; {16,10x}; {18,5}; {24,6}; {25,5}; {25,7}; {26,2}; {29,1}; {36,5}; {40,3x}*; {42,4}; {43,3}; {49,10}; {54,2}; {61,7}; {62,8}*; {68,5}; {72,4}; {78,1}; {78,5}; {78,6}**, vs. yak ; {85,4}; {86,7}; {87,7}; {87,8}; {88,1}; {91,1}; {92,1}; {97,9}; {97,10}; {98,8}; {108,2}; {119,6}; {123,11}; {124,4}; {127,2}; {131,5}; {132,1}; {132,2}; [{132,3}, controlled case]; {135,1}; {138,1}; {150,2x}**; {157,4}; {158,1}; {159,6}; {160,6}; {164,11}; {169,1}; {169,12}; {173,6}; {173,9}; {174,6}*; {175,5}; {176,6}; {185,3}; {186,2}; {186,4}*; {190,10}; {197,2}; {208,2}*; {208,12}; {229,4}; {231,2}; {231,5}; {234,4}

EXCLAMATION == The sheer expression of strong emotion that can cover a range of tones and shades; these are, of course, mostly left for the reader to supply
{1,3}; {5,8x}; {7,5}; {17,3}; {17,8}*; {17,9}; {19,6}; {20,5}; {20,8}; {20,9}; {21,11}*; {21,12}; {26,3}; {27,2}; {35,8}; {39,4}; {40,2}; {46,4}; {46,5}; {48,4}*; {49,11}; {51}, most verses; {56,3}; {57,8}; {64,4}; {66,1}; {68,10x}; {71,7}; {71,8};{71,10}; {72,3}; {72,7}; {76,3x}, most primitive; {77,6}; {80,3}; {80,11x}**; {85,7}; {88,4}; {97,8}; {99,4}; {100,2}; {100,5}; {100,7}; {100,8}; {101,5}; {106,3}; {107,2}; {108,7}**; {110,2}; {112,5}; {112,7}; {112,9}; {114,4}; {117,6x}; {119,9}; {120,4}; {121,5}; {124,4}; {124,6}; {125,9}; {126,3}; {126,4}; {126,10}; {129}; {132,3}; {132,4}; {132,9x}; {133,3}; {137,3x}; {137,5x}; {138,5}; {141,4}**; {148,4}; {148,7}; {148,8}; {149,9x}; {151,1}; {151,2}; {153,1}; {153,5}; {155,2}; {158,2}; {158,5}; {159,2}; {159,7}; {162}; {163,2}; {163,9}; {166,1}; {166,5}; {167,7}; {170,3}; {170,6}; {172,5x}; {173,10}; {178,8}; {179,1}; {179,2}; {179,3}; {189,8}; {193,2}; {193,4}; {199,4}; {201,4}; {201,8}; {201,9}; {202,2}; {202,5}; {202,6}; {202,7}; {202,8}; {203,3}; {206,4}; {208,12}; {208,14}; {214,2}; {214,6}; {215,1}; {215,5}; {216,1}; {228,8}; {230,3}; {230,6}; {230,7}; {231,3}; {232,7}; {234,2}; {234,10}

FILL-IN == Some verses so general and unspecified that each reader is invited/compelled to invent his/her own content.
{3,3}; {11,1}; {22,6}; {35,3}; {46,2}; {50,2}; {54,1}; {63,1}; {64,7x}; {68,2}; {70,3}; {71,2}; {78,2}; {80,3}; {81,4}; {115,9}; {129,1}; {131,3}; {160,1}; {160,3}; {160,4}; {161,5}*; {163,5}; {163,9}; {179,1}; {180,4}; {182,1}; {191,8}; {208,9}; {208,12}; {230,9}

GENERATORS == Some examples of the many verses framed as radically indeterminate, closure-refusing 'meaning generators'.
{1,4}*; {4,4}*, on 'list' verses; {4,5}; {4,9x}; {5,4}; {5,8x}; {15,10}*; {15,11}; {15,17x}, vexing; {18,2}; {21}, most verses; {22,1};{24,1}; {26,8}; {27,1}; {32,1}***; {35,4}*; {36,7}; {38,5}*; {40,3x}; {41,4}; {42,2}; {42,6}; {45,3}**; {46,7}*; {49,9}; {57,6}; {57,8}; {68,6x}; {71,3}*; {75,6}; {79,1}; {82,2x}; {92,5}; {95,2}; {96,1}*; {97,10}; {98,5}; {98,10}; {99,7}; {100,8}; {101,5}*; {103,2x}; {106,1}; {107,5}; {108,2}; {110,1}; {111,1}; {111,14}; {119,6}; {125,5}; {126,3}; {131,8}; {138,1}*; {141,3}, problematical; {145,14x}; {147,3}; {152,4}; {155,1}; {158,3}; {165,2}*; {167,1}; {169,3}; {172,5x}; {177,1}; {183,4}; {190,1}; {190,4}; {196,7}; {202,3}; {202,4}; {203,2}; {206,2}; {206,3}; {208,5}; {208,8}; {213,2}; {214,2}; {214,3}; {214,10}; {219,1}; {220,2}; {223,2}; {228,10}; {230,1}; {230,7}*; {232,4}

GESTURES == Some examples of gestures that are ultimately uninterpretable.
{50,2}; {62,1}; {84,9x}; {116,1}; {116,4}; {137,5x}; {144,1}; {151,1}*; {162,5}; {178,5}; {182,1}

GROTESQUERIE == A category of my own that I am working through and discussing in the verses that I think display it. It seems to be based on excessive physical literalness of an off-putting kind.
{6,4}; {8,4x}; {25,7}, perhaps; {39,3}***; {39,4}*; {42,8x}, 'nose-hair'; {44,3x}*; {45,6x}; {48,6}; {50,8x}*, no fingers; {53,5}; {57,4}, perhaps; {60,9}; {62,6}; {67,3}; {69,1}**; {72,2}; {87,6}(?); {87,8}**; {108,7}; {117,5x}, 'nose-hair'; {123,1}, constant fainting; {129,6x}; {140,3}; {145,5x}; {161,7}(?); {173,3}; {173,6}*; {177,4}; {178,4}*; {187,4x}; {190,5}; {190,7}; {196,6}; {200,2}(?); {222,2x}; {223,1}; {233,2}

HANUZ == Verses in which the double meaning of hanuuz as both ‘still’ and ‘now’ is exploited.
{3,4}*; {10,9}; {13,6}; {27,5}; {35,2}; {38,2}; ghazals {67} and {69}, with the refrain of hanuuz ; {98,9}; {98,10}; {99,6}, abhii ; {130,2}

HERE/THERE == Verses that juxtapose things ‘here’ [yaa;N] with those ‘there’ [vaa;N].
{15,2}; {15,3}; {15,4}; {15,5}; {15,6}; {15,7}; {15,19x}; {24,6}; {25,8}, temporal; {43,3}; {115,7}; {122,1}; {138,9x}*, abstract; {149,6x}; {153,4}, ardor vs. heart; {167,9}; {185,2}; {205,4}

HI == A few of the many verses that make significant use of the various possibilities of hii (restrictive, intensive, etc.).
{13,1}*; {14,8}; {17,3}; {26,3}*; {31,3}*; {33,5}; {35,5}; {36,8}; {43,2}; {45,1}*; {46,5}; {48,2}; {90,5}; {98,5}; {115,1}; {115,4}; {119,4}*; {125,3}; {175,3}*; {175,7}; {224,1}; {234,5}*

HUMOR == Some of the many verses that are witty, light, and actually rather funny.
{14,7}; {19,4}; {20,3}; {20,11}*; {35,9}; {36,10}; {40,2}; {50,3}; {55,1}; {62,4}; {62,7}; {62,8}; {65,1}; {68,1}; {68,5}; {70,1}; {77,6}; {78,4}; {90,1}; {90,3}; {90,5}; {91,11}; {95,1}; {96,6}; {97,1}; {97,5}; {98,8}; {99,1}; {99,4}; {100,6}; {101,3}; {101,8}; {101,9}; {104,1}; {108,6}; {110,2}; {111,7}; {111,12}; {112,10}; {116,1}*, with 'cute' verses; {116,3}; {116,6}; {119,10}; {121,7}; {122,1}; {123,6}; {131,4}; {133,2}; {137,1}; {138,4}; {138,5}; {140,4}; {140,5}; {143,1}; {151,8}; {152,3}; {159,2}; {159,6}; {162,9}; {163,4}; {163,7}; {169,2}; {170,7}; {174,6}; {178,3}; {178,8}; {189,3}; {208,1-4}; {208,10}; {209,2}; {210,1}; {210,6}; {219,3}; {231,2}; {231,3}; {231,4}; {233,5}; {234,2}

I AND == Ambiguously emotive 'I, and' [mai;N aur] or ‘I am, and...’ [mai;N huu;N aur] constructions.
{5,6}*; {16,2}; {30,1}; {42,4}; {64,4}; {71,2} (with list of 'you and I' verses); {71,3}*; {84,5x}, with abstract nouns instead of ‘I’; [{85,7}, as a prose example]; {97,8}; {137,3x}*; {145,2}; {151,2}; {165,4x}, 'he and'; {190,12x}; {217,9x}

IDIOMS == Some of the many verses that rely on idiomatic expressions, almost always in ways that turn out to invoke and 'revitalize' their literal meanings as well.
{1,4}; {1,5}; {11,2}; {15,1}; {15,16x}, phrase; {21,7}; {21,8}; {21,11}; {22,4}, evoked; {24,4}; {25,2}; {25,9}, proverb; {30,3}; {35,8}; {35,10}; {38,6}; {39,4}; {40,1}; {44,1}; {46,7}; {48,2}; {50,3}; {51,1}; {53,1}; {53,5}; {54,1}; {55,1}*, proverb; {62,5}, phrase; {64,9x}*; {65,1}; {67,3}; {68,3}; {70,3}; {71,9}; {75,3}; {85,3}; {85,7}; {87,1}; {88,3}; {91,2}; {94,4x}, evoked; {97,1}; {99,4}; {105,4x}; {108,4}; {111,16}; {114,1}; {114,4}; {115,5}; {121,2}*; {123,6}; {124,1}; {124,4}; {124,7}; {130,2}; {132,1}; {132,6}; {133,4}, evoked; {137,1}; {141,4}*; {145,9x}; {148} (whole ghazal, hii sahii ); {151,1}; {151,6}; {163,9}; {167,2}; {167,3}; {170,7}; {175} (whole ghazal); {176,5}; {179,4}; {189,1}; {189,3}; {191,1}*; {191,2}; {191,8}; {200,1}, evoked; {201}; {205,3}; {205,6}; {207,3}; {208,10}; {210,1}; {212,3}; {214,14x}*; {215,2}; {217,6x}; {219,9}; {226,4}; {226,7x}; {229,4}; {231,5}

INEXPRESSIBILITY == Verses that affirm the impossibility of describing something.
{1,2}; {5,4}; {9,8x}; {10,2}; {15,11}**, with a list of kyaa kahuu;N verses; {16,4}; {16,8x}; {17,5}; {18,4}; {20,8}; {29,5x}; {34,3}; {39,4}; {49,2}; {56,2}; {58,9}; {68,5}; {75,6}; {81,13x}; {86,8}; {87,4}; {88,3}; {91,2}; {92,5}; {92,8x}; {97,2}; {108,6}; {113,4}; {129} (whole ghazal); {133,5x}; {136,7}; {147,6x}; {167,4}; {172,3}; {183,2}; {194,6}; {197,1}; {201}; {208,5}; {210,5}; {227,3}

IZAFAT == A few of the very many verses that take exceptional advantage of the i.zaafat construction.
{3,11x}; {4,9x}; {7,3}; {9,8x}, an odd case; {11,5x}; {15,11}**; {16,1}***; {16,2}; {18,1}; {18,5}*; {24,1}*; {24,5}; {25,9}; {33,2}*; {38,5}; {39,2}; {39,3}; {40,4x}; {41,2}; {49,6}; {49,10}; {53,4}; {56,2}; {57,6}; {61,7}; {64,8x}; {67,4x}; {68,6x}; {69,3x}; {71,3}*; {73,4x}; {74,3x}; {75,6}*; {75,7}; {77,2}; {79,5x}; {80,2}; {81,8x}; {81,10x}; {81,13x}; {90,4}; {91,14x}; {93,1}; {96,5}; {98,5}*; {100,5}; {101,5}*; {109,5x}, grouping of three izafats is crucial; {112,8}; {117,5x}; {119,3}; {123,1}; {135,1}; {141,3}; {142,4x}; {145,8x}; {145,9x}; {151,3}; {152,4}; {158,3}; {164,12}; {169,3}; {172,5x}; {183,4}; {196,4}; {206,2}; {211,2}; {220,2}; {223,1}*; {228,3}; {228,6}; {230,2}

JO == As 'since', 'if', 'when'.
{12,2}**; {20,9}; {20,10}, 'if'; {25,5}, 'as if'; {39,2}*; {50,5x}*; {50,7x}; {53,1}; {106,1}; {149,10x}; {157,2}; {176,5}; {176,6}; {178,5}; {183,8}; {208,9}; {231,5}; {234,7}

KA/KE/KI == A few of the verses that use the possessive kaa / ke / kii as flexibly as any i.zaafat construction
{10,6}; {24,1}*; {24,5}; {27,6}*; {33,7}*; {39,4}; {41,6}* (with discussion of the ambiguities of possession); {100,1}; {118,2}; {141,7}; {189,6}; {208,6}

KAHAN == Some examples of the use of kahaa;N as both an interrogative marker and a scornful rhetorical question
{4,1}**; {5,4}; {5,08x}**; {20,5}; {21,2}; {26,3}; {35,6}; {43,8}; {77,1}; {77,2}, kis qadar; ghazal {85}, with the refrain of kahaa;N ; {85,7}, kahaa;N ... kahaa;N ; {91,14x}; {98,4}*; {111,1}*; {115,7}, also kyuu;N ; {123,3}*; {158,3}; {214,15x}

KIH == Some verses that take special advantage of the remarkable complexities of kih — as a quote marker, or 'since', or 'in that', or 'which', or 'so that' or 'such that', or 'while', or 'and', or 'or' (on jab kih see {53,8}; on jo kih see {39,4}; and on jo see {12,2}; on taa-kih see {122,2}.)
{13,6}***; {15,1}; {15,8}* 'which'; {20,7}; {22,1}; {39,1}; {45,4}**; {46,7}; {53,5}**; {58,6}*; {64,7x}; {68,8x}**; {84,2x}; {84,4x}; {88,6x}, only 'or'; {99,2}; {110,1}**; {112,3}; {116}; {120,11}; {125,9}, 'whether'; {141,3}; {145,12x}**, a full range; {145,13x}; {145,16x}; {158,8}* ('or'?); {166,4}; {176,1}; {177,1}; {191,7}; {201,4}*; {201,5}*, 'so that'; {214,10}*; {219,9}* ('while'); {226,3}; {229,1}; {234,3};

KYA == A few of the many verses that exploit the sensational multivalence of kyaa .
{7,5}, on the idiomatic negative use of ko))ii ; {10,2}; {14,4}; {15,10}***; {15,11}, with a list of kyaa kahuu;N verses; ghazals {19}, {21}*, and {46}, refrain of kyaa; {22,1}; {31,2}; {32,1}; {32,3}; {36,10}**, implied but required; {39,2}, kis qadar ; {45,3}; {45,7x}; {64,3}*; {46,5}, only a negative rhetorical question; {72,8x}, kab ; {77,1}; {78,3}; {84,5x}; {87,10}*; {91,9}, implied but assumed; {98,7}*; {99,7}; {107,7}; {111,1}; {117,5x}; {119,9}; {120,1}; {120,11}; {123,2}; {126,8}; {137,5x}, implied but required; {138,1}*; {148,3}*; {149,9x}, taa chand ; {150,1}; {151,9}*, four options; {162} (most verses); {163,9}*; {165,2}; {167,5}; {178,5}; {178,6}; {180,5}; {183,3}; {202,7}; {205,5}; {209,11}; {228,10}; {231,3}; {231,7}; {232,4}

LIST == On these see {4,4}.

MAGAR == Verses that exploit the double meaning of magar as both ‘but’ and ‘perhaps’.
{3,1}**; {3,13x}; {15,10}**; {27,2}; {35,7}*; {36,1}; {41,8}; {62,3}; {88,5x}; {114,2}, only 'perhaps'; {143,8x}; {159,1}*; {161,10}; {163,4}*; {180,5}*; {183,3}; {204,8}; {205,2}*; {214,3}; {219,5}; {217,9x}

MIDPOINTS == Verses in which small phrases or other (often adverbial) elements are grammatically positioned so that they can easily be read with either of two clauses.
{5,5}**; {6,14x}*; {21,12}*; {22,3}; {24,3}; {25,3}; {25,6}* with jaise ; {27,3}; {30,3}; {40,3x}; {42,6}; {45,3}*; {50,2}; {53,2}; {53,3}, with huu;N ; {53,9}; {68,9x}; {71,8}; {84,4x}; {91,1}; {91,8}; {94,2}*; {98,1}; {111,1}; {116,4}*; {125,9}; {131,1}; {131,9}; {132,2}; {133,1}; {146,4x}; {147,1}; {152,6}; {173,6}; {177,1}*; {191,7}*; {202,3}*; {209,5}*; {230,9}

MULTIVALENT WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS == a few of his favorites, with further explications and examples, in English alphabetical order: aab : {193,2} / baare : {31,3} / baat : {59,2} / balaa expressions: {58,1} / be-takalluf : {25,1} / bhalaa : {21,11} / dam : {1,3} / dimaa;G : {11,2} / fareb : {71,3} / ;Gaafil : {5,3} / goyaa : {5,1} / ;haa.sil : {12,1} / ;hairat : {51,9x} / har-chand : {59,7} / havaa : {8,3} / jaan'naa : {16,5} / jalnaa : {60,1} / juz : {101,1} / ;harf : {143,1} / kaa , ke , kii : {41,6} / kaafir : {21,12} / kaam : {22,6} / kyuu;N-kar : {125,1} / la;z;zat : {6,4}; nafas (a special note): {15,6} / nang : {3,5} / nikalnaa : {219,1} / qasam : {89,3} / rashk : {53,4} / rusvaa : {20,9} / sahii expressions: {9,4} / samajhnaa : {90,3} / saudaa : {58,5} / taab : {60,1} / yak expressions: {11,1} / yuu;N : {30,1}

MUSHAIRAH (a form of '1,2' verse; for other '1,2' verses see iham) == My own experimental category: some verses particularly well suited to presentation at a mushairah [mushaa((irah]; the concept is explained in the starred verses.
{3,3}; {4,2}*; {5,2}*; {6,3}*; {12,2}; {14,9}*; {19,7}*; {20,10}*; {22,4}; {26,9}; {29,1}; {32,1}; {39,2}; {43,4}*; {48,2}; {50,1}; {50,3}; {51,2}; {53,13x}; {54,2}; {56,6}; {58,2}; {62,7}; {63,2}; {70,2}; {73,2}*; {73,3x}; {73,5x}; {75,4}; {78,2}*; {80,9}; {81,5}; {86,1}; {86,6}; {87,2}; {87,6}; {88,2}; {88,7x}, abstract; {90,3}*; {90,5}; {91,4}; {91,11}*; {94,1}; {96,2}; {97,5}; {98,11}; {100,6}; {101,4}; {101,7}; {102,1}; {102,2}; {106,4}; {107,2}; {107,7}; {108,5}; {108,9x}; {109,6x}; {110,3}; {110,4}; {111,3}**; {111,8}**; {111,12}; {111,15} ; {112,1}; {115,2}; {115,4}; {116,3}; {116,6}; {118,2}; {118,5x}; {120,5}; {120,6}; {121,1}**; {121,9x}; {123,2}; {123,6}**; {124,3}*; {124,4}; {126,11}; {129,2}; {130,2}; {132,6}; {133,4}, active misdirection; {136,2}; {137,1}; {137,4x}; {138,4}*; {138,5}*; {140,4}; {143,1}; {151,6}; {151,8}; {153,7}; {157,3}**; {163,7}; {164,3}*; {165,3}*; {167,3}; {167,6}*; {168,3}; {169,2}; {173,7}; {174,3}; {178,2}; {179,4}; {180,3}; {193,2}; {196,6}; {199,3}; {200,1}; {200,2}; {205,8}; {207,3}; {208,7}; {208,11}; {209,3}; {209,4}; {210,1}; {216,2}; {217,5}; {217,6x}*; {226,2}; {226,4}; {227,4x}; {231,4}; {231,7}; {234,2}*

OPPOSITES == A few select examples from among the dozens and dozens of verses that make use of pairs of opposite terms.
{1,2}; {3,3}; {4,1}; {8,2}; {17,1}; {22,4}; {25,9}; {26,1}*; {29,3}; {41,4}; {46,3}; {51,8x}; {53,10}; {66,9}; {68,2}; {86,1}; {101,8}; {107,6}; {109,1}; {111,15}; {112,3}; {112,10}; {113,7}; {126,11}; {147,2}; {149,9x}; {154,1}; {176,3}*; {183,5}*; {185,2}; {196,7}; {232,1}

PARALLELISM == Some examples of similarity of structure between two parts (usually, but not always, the two lines) of the verse, such that the reader must decide whether comparison or contrast is intended, and along what lines. (See also parallelism.)
{4,5}; {9,4}, offbeat; {17,7}; {19,6}; {20,9}; {21,12}*; {22,5}*; {22,6}*; {26,8}; {31,1}; {33,7}; {34,5}; {37,6x}; {42,1}; {47,3x}; {48,1}; {49,11}*; {51,8x}*; {62,9}; {62,10}; {63,1}; {71,2}**; {71,7}; {77,3}; {84,5x}; {87,1}; {91,3}; {91,5}; {91,7}; {91,8}; {96,1}; {96,8x}; {97,9}; {97,10}*; {102,3}; {107,3}; {109,2x}; {111,15}; {113,7}; {115,7}; {120,11}; {123,12x}; {125,3}; {127,3}; {131,8}**; {136,3}; {137,3x}; {153,4}*; {155,3}; {157,6}; {161,1}; {164,1}; {164,4}; {164,5}*; {169,7}; {169,8}; {184,2}; {186,5}; {190,9}; {190,12x}; {191,7}; {191,8}; {194,2}; {201,7}; {201,8}; {204,1}; {204,2}; {205,4}; {208,2}; {208,3}; {208,4}; {208,5}; {208,9}; {209,5}; {209,6}; {209,7}; {209,8}; {215,6}; {215,7}; {229,1}

PETRIFIED PHRASES == Verses that first invoke cliches and then suddenly revitalize them.
{15,16x}; {46,6}; {50,8x}; {54,5x}; {62,5}; {62,7}**; {65,1}; {106,2}; {132,2}

PHIR == Verses that take advantage of its power to mean either 'again' or then'.
{4,5}; {6,6}; {14,2}; {20,6}; {35,1}; {35,2}; {35,3}; {35,7}; {97,3}; {99,8}

POETRY == Verses that refer to poetry and its composition and qualities.
{1,4}; {8,5x}** (Bedil); {12,7x}* (Bedil); {14,1}; {18,5}; {24,6}; {24,8}; {26,10}; {29}; {29,10x} (Bedil); {33,4}; {36,11}* (Mir); {40,5x}; {41,9x}; {43,1}; {44,1}*; {43,5}; {50,3}; {50,6x}; {53,11}*; {54,6x}, frustration; {59,6}**; {59,7}**; {60,7}, discriminatingness; {62,10}; {62,11}; {86,9}; {88,5x}, ma.zmuun ; {88,7x}*; {91,11}; {92,7} (Mir); {92,8x} (Mir); {99,9}, frustration; {103,4x}*; {100,9} (Zuhuri); {108}; {111,9}; {112,3}; {114,7}; {116,10}; [{119,7}]; {120,1}; {120,11}; {121,8}; {123,5}; {128,4x} (Bedil); {129,3x}; {133,1}; {141,1}, incomprehensible; {147,7x}; {149,5}*; {150,2x}*; {150,3x}; {154,6x}*, 'fresh thought'; {156,2x}; {156,3x}; {169,13}; {173,11}; {175,6}*; {177,12}; {201,8}; {202,8}; {203,2}; {204,1}; {209,6}; {209,7}; {214,10}; {214,12}; {214,13x}; {216,3}; {217,10x}; {232,9}; {234,8}; {234,13}; {234,14}

REPETITION == Some of the many verses that display conspicuous repetition of one or more important words within the verse.
{1,3}; {4,2}; {4,6}; {7,1}; {12,7x}; {17,8}; {17,9}**; {19,3}; {20,7}; {21,13}; {26,7}; {26,9}; {32,1}*; {35,5}; {35,8}; {46,1}; {49,1}* (of whole lines within the ghazal and divan); {51,3}; {51,8x}; {53,11}*, tongue in cheek; {58,2}; {58,7}; {59,5}**; {62,2}; {66,9}; {70,2}; {75,2}; {91,3}; {92,6}; {96,1}; {98,10}; {113,7}* (six uses of huu;N ); {114,4}; {121,4}; {126,10}; {127,1}**; {127,2}; {127,3}; {146,5x}; {163,3}; {164,5}; {189,8}; {191,1}; {196,3}; {200,1}; {205,6}; {205,7}; {208,14}; {209,1}; {209,5}; {209,9}; {215,6}; {215,7}; {219,1}; {219,4}; {224,1}

STRESS-SHIFTING == Some verses in which different words can be emphasized in ways that change the reading
{10,8}; {10,12}*; {17,3}**; {17,8}; {27,7}; {35,5}; {36,2}, {86,3}; {88,4}; {91,14x}; {93,3x}; {98,5}; {107,5}; {108,8}; {110,1}*; {116,1}; {119,6}; {120,10}; {126,9}; {129,7x}**; {131,9}; {149-10x}; {154,4}; {158,2}; {158,3}; {159,3}; {159,5}; {161,2}**; {163,1}; {166,4}; {172,2}; {173,10}; {183,2}; {219,3}; {227,3}

SUBJECT? == A few of the many verses in which there can be two (or more) possible subjects for a verb (or for references to a human agent)
{15,12}* (with discussion of apnaa usages); {21,3}**; {26,7}*; {32,1}***; {34,4}; {35,8}; {36,7}**; {41,1}; {45,3}; {46,7}*; {50,5x}*; {55,1}; {60,10}; {64,2}; {68,10x}; {84,5x}; {86,2}*; {86,4}; {99,5}; {103,1}; {108,12x}; {109,5x}; {112,2}; {112,3}; {112,9}**; {113,5}; {119,3}*; {120,11}; {126,2}*; {126,3}; {131,2}; {138,8}; {140,2}; {142,3x}; {153,9}**; {160,4}; {163,3}; {165,2}; {167,1}; {177,1}; {177,3}; {214,3}; {220,2}

SYMMETRY == Examples of verses with lines in which both 'A is B' and 'B is A' are equally possible readings.
{1,4}; {1,5}; {1,7x}; {4,13x}**; {4,15x}; {6,5}; {10,6}**; {11,1}; {11,5x}; {12,7x}; {15,8x}; {16,7x}**; {16,9x}; {17,5}; {18,7x}*; {20,5}; {24,1}; {24,3}; {25,1}; {28,5x}; {33,8x} (GC notes it); {44,3x}; {44,4x}; {45,6x} (GC notes it); {47,3x}; {53,12x} (GC notes it); {58,1}; {61,7}*; {67,1}; {67,4x}; {75,2}; {87,4}; {87,9}; {95,2}*; {105,2}*; {105,4x}**, commentators illustrate it; {113,1}; {113,9}; {119,7}; {138,1}; {138,6}*; {145,7x}; {145,13x}; {145,14x}*; {147,3}**; {147,7x}; {149,6x}; {149,7x}; {149,8x}; {152,1}; {152,2}**, proof; {152,4}; {154,3}; {155,1}; {155,4x}; {155,5x}*; {156,2x}**, max.; {165,1}; {165,2}; {166,1}; {172,1}; {181,6}; {188,1}; {203,1}; {203,2}; {212,7x}; {214,7}; {221,1}; {221,3}; {222,1}; {228,2}; {228,3}; {230,7}

VARNAH == Verses that exploit the double meaning of varnah (or sometimes vagarnah ) as either indicative or contrafactual.
{3,5}***; {3,14x}; {5,3}; {10,10}; {13,4}; {15,12}**; {13,1}; {15,15}; {40,4x}; {42,8x}; {59,4} ; {71,4}*; {77,2}; {82,2x}*; {89,3}; {95,4}; [{99,8}, only contrafactual]; {109,1}, mostly indicative; {146,2}; {212,3}; {212,4}

WORD == Some verses of what I am calling ‘word-exploration’, or investigation of the possibilities of some single word (or sometimes concept).
{9,8x} on ;xa:t:t ; {15,9} on be-taab ; {17,9} on qismat ; {18,7x} on be-navaa))ii ; {26,7} on ;haq ; {42,3} on naazish ; {50,3} on ;harf ; {75,2} on zabaan ; {91,5} on harchand ; {95,4} on bhed ; {98,6} on shaahid ; {100,2} on muqaddar ; {100,3} on man:zuur ; {100,4} on :zarf ; {109,4x} on kushaadah ; {110,2} on gardish ; {114,7} on ((ar.z ; {118,2} on laag ; {118,4} on lahnaa ; {123,11} on kashash ; {131,7} on rang ; {136,1} on taqriib ; {140,6} on udaas ; {141,2} on laal ; {141,4} on munfa((il ; {145,8x} on ta.sarruf ; {147,2} on saaz ; {149,7x} on niyaaz ; {153,8} on khulnaa ; {154,6x} on fa.sl ; {159,4) on kalaam ; {172,3} on chhe;Rnaa ; {180,2} on hathka;N;Daa ; {192,3} on giraa;N-jaanii ; {193,2} on aab ; {196,2} on tu;Nbaa ; {196,5} on se guzarnaa ; {198,2} on pardah ; {200,3} on ((aari.z ; {204,8} on taab ; {209,1} on kahnaa ; {218,3} on havaa ; {219,1} on nikalnaa ; {228,1} on dimaa;G

WORDPLAY == Some examples of the remarkable number of verses organized around wordplay.
{1,5}; {4,12x}; {5,7x}; {6,2}; {7,2}; {9,2}; {10,8}; {13,1}*; {15,5}*; {16,4}; {16,5}; {20,3}; {23,1}*; {26,4}; {27,4}; {28,4x}; {29,10x}; {34,3}; {41,6}; {41,10x}*; {51,6x}; {53,3}; {53,13x}*; {56,1}; {58,5}; {61,5}; {63,4x}; {64,1}; {64,8x}; {68,7x}; {69,2}*; {73,3x}; {75,2}; {76,3x}, most primitive possible; {81,7x}; {81,10x}; {88,1}; {90,2}; {90,3}*; {91,10}; {92,1}; {95,1}; {96,3}; {97,1}; {97,3}; {98,6}; {98,11}**; {99,3}; {99,10}; {101,8}; {102,2}; {102,3}; {105,1}; {108,1}**; {108,2}; {108,4}; {108,5}; {108,9x}; {108,11x}; {109,1}**; {109,7x}; {111,3}*; {111,8}; {111,9}; {111,10}; {111,11}; {112,6}; {112,8}*; {113,1}; {113,7}; {113,8}; {113,9}; {114,2}; {114,3}; {114,5}; {117,1}; {117,3}; {118,3}; {119,2}; {119,10}; {120,3}; {120,6}; {121,1}; {121,6}; {121,8}; {123,1}; {125,1}; {126,4}; {126,7}; {132,7}; {136,5}; {137,1}; {138,4}*, meaning too; {138,5}; {139,2}; {141,5}; {143,2}; {143,6}**; {145,6x}; {145,11x}; {146,4x}; {147,2}; {147,3}; {149,5}; {152,1}; {152,2}; {153,1}; {153,7}; {153,9}; {154,1}; {155,2}; {155,4x}; {156,2x}; {157,2}; {157,5}; {157,7}*; {158,4}; {161,1}; {161,9}; {163,8}; {164,6}; {164,10}; {165,2}; {166,2}; {167,6}; {170,4}; {171,1}; {172,1}; {176,5}; {180,7}; {183,5}; {183,6}; {183,7}; {183,8}; {186,5}; {189,1}; {190,6}*; {190,10}; {190,11x}; {192,5}; {193,5}; {194,2}; {195,1}; {196,6}; {200,1}*; {202,1}; {204,4}; {206,3}; {212,4}; {214,1}; {214,8}; {217,2}; {219,4}; {222,1}; {222,2x}; {226,4}}; {226,5}; {227,2}; {230,3}; {234,4}; {234,5}; {234,13}




ARCHERY: {6,2}
BEKHUDI: {21,6}
[BELOVED IS A MALE ADOLESCENT: {9,2}]
[BELOVED FALLS IN LOVE: {13,2}]
[BELOVED HAS NO MOUTH: {91,4}]
[BELOVED HAS NO WAIST: {99,4}]
[BELOVED IS TALL: {38,4}]
[BELOVED SEEMS TO BE GOD: {20,10}]
[BELOVED SEEMS NOT TO BE GOD: {20,3}]
[BELOVED VISITS LOVER: {106,2}]
BUREAUCRATIC: {38,7}
BONDAGE: {1,5}
CANDLE: {39,1}
CHAK-E GAREBAN: {17,9}
CLOTHING/NAKEDNESS: {3,5}
COMMERCE: {3,3}
CURLS: {14,6}
[DEAD LOVER SPEAKS: {57,1}]
DESERT: {3,1}
DIFFICULT/EASY: {6,5}
DOOMSDAY: {10,11}
DREAMS: {3,3}
DROP/OCEAN: {21,8}
[EROTIC SUGGESTION: {99,4}]
EXISTENCE/NONEXISTENCE: {5,3}
EYES {3,1}
FLAME/STRAW: {21,5}
FOOD: {6,4}
FRIEND/ENEMY: {4,3}
GATHERINGS: {6,3}
GAZE: {10,12}
GOOD/BAD: {22,4}
GRANDIOSITY: {5,3}
HENNA: {18,4}
HOME: {14,9}
HOPE/DESPAIR {4,10x} {95,6}; {145,4}
IDOL: {8,1}
INDEPENDENCE: {9,1}
ISLAMIC: {10,2}
JALVAH: {7,4}
JAUHAR: {5,4}
JIGAR: {2,1}
LIFE/DEATH: {7,2}
LIGHTNING: {10,6}
LOSING/FINDING {4,6}
[LOVER IS A BIRD: {126,5}]
MADNESS: {14,3}
MIRROR: {8,3}
MUSIC: {10,3}
NIGHT/DAY: {1,2}
[PLURALIZED ABSTRACTIONS: {1,2}]
PROPORTIONALITY: {6,4}
RELIGIONS: {60,2}
ROAD: {10,12}
SCRIPT EFFECTS: {33,7}
SHAME/HONOR: {3,5}
SKY {15,7}
SMILE/LAUGHTER: {27,4}
[SNIDE REMARKS ABOUT FAMOUS LOVERS: {100,4}]
[SNIDE REMARKS ABOUT PARADISE: {35,9}]
[SNIDE REMARKS ABOUT THE NATURAL WORLD: {4,8x}]
SOUND EFFECTS: {26,7}
SPEAKING: {14,4}
SPRINGTIME: {13,2}
SUN: {10,5}
SWORD: {1,3}
TAMASHA: {8,1}
TESTING: {4,4}
‘UNION’: {5,2}
VEIL: {6,1}
VOWS: {20,2}
WARNINGS: {15,15}
WINE: {49,1}
WINE-HOUSE: {33,6}
WRITING: {7,3}
ZARRAH: {15,12}

TRANSLATABLES == A few examples of verses that seem to lend themselves especially well to translation.
{4,2}; {4,6}; {58}; {62,2}; {80,9}; {91,3}; {92,2}; {95,6}; {97,2}; {97,4}; {97,11}; {97,12}; {97,13}; {98,4}; {101,4}; {104,1}; {105,2}; {107,3}; {107,4}; {110,6}; {110,7}; {110,8}; {113,7}; {115,5}; {136,3}; {174}; {177,5}; {179,2}; {234,6}

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