INDEX OF
PROPER NAMES

background
 

Adam / aadam In Islamic as in Judeo-Christian religious tradition, the name of the first man. His creation was not approved by the angels (Qur'an 2:30-34). == {96,3}; {98,2}; {219,3}
'Ali / ((alii The Prophet’s cousin and son-in-law. == [{98,1}]; {141,5}; {216,1}, as saaqii-e kau;sar
'Ali Bahadur / ((alii bahaadur Navab Ali Bahadur was the ruler of the state of Bandah [baa;Ndah], and a patron of Ghalib’s. == {99,10}
Allah (God) / all;aah An invocation of God, often exclamatory, more formal than ‘Lord’. == {48,4}; {121,5}; {162,2}; {167,7}
Anonymous — A bystander of some unspecified kind who offers a (usually sympathetic) comment, to or about the lover, almost always in the closing-verse (because of the presence of the pen-name). == Some examples: {7,7}; {15,15}; {20,11}; {22,9}; {25,9}; {32,3}: {71,10}; {72,7}
Anqa / ((anqaa A bird from Arabic story tradition, whose single defining trait is his not-there-ness. Whenever you try to catch him, he’s gone. == {1,4}*; {5,3}; {95,1}; {145,1}; {214,13x}
Arif / ((aarif Ghalib’s brother-in-law, whose early death evoked the melancholy ghazal {66}. == {66,5}
Asad / asad The poet’s early pen-name, before he changed over to ‘Ghalib’. His own comment on it: {219,1}. A list of closing-verses discussed in this commentary in which it appears: {2,1}; {3,6}; {3,14x}; {4,16x}; {5,9x}; {6,14x}; {7,7}; {8,5x}; {13,7}; {16,10x}; {18,7x}; {19,7}; {23,1}; {25,9}; {27,8}; {34,8}; {35,10}; {37,6x}; {38,7}; {40,6x}; {41,8}; {42,6}; {45,5}; {49,12}; {50,3}; {64,6}; {68,9x}; {71,10}, Asadullah Khan; {78,7}; {79,6x}; {81,5}; {82,3x}; {108,13x}; {109,1}; {112,10}; {113, 9}; {114,7}; {119,10}; {129,7x}, Asadullah Khan; {140,6}; {141,7}; {147,7x}; {148,10}; {149,10x}; {152,7}; {153,10}; [{155,3}]; {158,9}, Asadullah Khan; {167,10}; {187,5x}; {189,9}; {190,10}; {193,5}; {199,4}; {200,3}; {210,7}; {212,7x}; {214,12}; {214,16x}; {217,10x}; {220,3x}; {221,3}; {226,7x}; {228,10}
Atish / aatish Khvajah Haidar 'Ali ‘Atish’ (1777-1847) was a well-known ghazal poet. == {89,1}; {92,7}; {97,1}; {164,9}; {164,9}; {167,6}; {191,9}; {203,4}; {234,1}
Azurdah / aazurdah Mufti Sadr ud-Din Khan ‘Azurdah’ (1789-1868), scholar, Islamicist, and poet, was a close friend and confidant of Ghalib’s. == {38,6}; {90,3}; {97,10}; {144,1}; {234,7}
Bahman / bahman One of the legendary kings in the Shah-namah. == {120,12}
Banat un-Na'sh (Daughters of the Bier) / banaat un-na((sh The constellation of the Pleiades. == {111,3}
Barbud / baarbud The name of a famous Persian musician. == {177,8}
Bedil / bedil Mirza 'Abd ul-Qadir ‘Bedil’ (1642-1720) was a famous Indo-Persian poet whom Ghalib greatly admired. == {6,3}; {8,5x}*; {12,7x}; {29,10x}; {155,3}; {234,9}
Brahmin / barhaman The Brahmin, as a symbolic high priest of Hinduism; his distinctive mark is the sacred thread [zunnaar]. == {60,8}; {120,8}; {174,6}; {204,7}
Bu Turab/ buu turaab Literally, the ‘father of dust’. A title of Hazrat 'Ali. == {98,11}
Bulbul (Nightingale)/ bulbul The sweet singer of the garden, and the archetypal lover of the rose. == {33,3}; {58,8}; {77,3}; {80,1}; {111,9}; [{126,5}]; [{145,2}]; {187,2}, ((andaliib ; {199,3}; [{202,5}]; {210,4}; {217,7x}; {228,5}, ((andaliib ; {228,8}, ((andaliib ; {230,5}; {231,5}. The only other garden bird who appears is the turtledove [qumrii], in {152,2} and {230,5}.
Dagh / daa;G Navab Mirza Khan ‘Dagh’ (1831-1905), a famous ghazal poet. == {30,1}; {87,3}; {96,2}; {101,5}; {111,10}; {189,10}; {191,7}; {197,2}; {208,11}; {219,2}
Darab / daaraab One of the legendary kings in the Shah-namah. == {120,12}
Darban (Doorkeeper) / darbaa;N The lover has one too, but of course the only one who really counts is the beloved’s. See also Pasban. == {10,7}; {31,3}; {111,12}; {151,2}; [{202,7}]; {233,15}
Dard, Mir / miir dard Khvajah Mir ‘Dard’ (1720-85), a famous Sufi and ghazal poet. == {38,6}; {60,8}; {95,2}; {98,3}: {103,2x}
Darvesh / darvesh A wandering religious mendicant who is expected to live on the alms given by the pious; see also Faqir. == {24,3}; {162,9}
Delhi /  dillii [only one ref?] == {19,7}
Dijlah (Tigris) / dijlah The Tigris River, in Iraq. == {22,8}
Divali / divaalii The Hindu festival of lights; Ghalib mentions it in an unpublished verse == Raza 154, verse 4.
Faqir / faqiir A wandering Muslim ascetic, who ideally lives on alms from the pious and generous; see also Darvesh. == {96,6}; {139,1}; {160,1}
Farhad / farhaad In Persian story tradition, a stone-mason who fell in love with the princess Shirin, wife of Khusrau. He’s also known as Kohkan. The gist of his story is told in {1,2}. == {1,2}; {36,8}; {101,2}; {174,7}
Faridun / fariiduun One of the legendary kings in the Shah-namah. == {120,12}
Farishtah (Angel) / farishtah One of God’s invisible winged servants; they often assist him in monitoring the doings of humankind. See also Ruh ul-Qudus. == {36,10}; {38,6}; {98,2}
Firdausi / firdausii The author of the Shah-namah [shaah-naamah], the Persian national epic. Ghalib speaks of Firdausi (c.934-1020) as the greatest of poets. == {139,1}; {219,6}
Ghair (Other) / ;Gair The Other Man, the (true) lover’s (false) competitor for the favors of the beloved. See also Raqib. == {10,10}; {13,3}; {15,9}; {28,2}; {36,7}; {41,5}; {42,1}; {43,2}; {53,4}; {53,6}; {77,7}; {83,1}, said of a foreign country; {86,1}; {87,6}; {89,2}; {98,5}; {103,1}; {112,6}; {115,2}; {115,6}, aur ; {116,4}; {116,6}; {119,3}; {119,8}; {124,1}; {126,10}; {145,14x}; {148,4}; {151,7}; {153,3}; {153,7}; {180,1}; {189,6}; {191,4}; {198,2}
Ghalib / mirzaa asadull;aa;h ;xaan ;Gaalib (1797-1869) — the poet as commentator == {1,1}, {6,1}, {6,2}; {28,1}; {34,2}; {57,7}*, quoted by Hali; [{75,3}]; {97,5}; {99,10}; {110,1}; {111,1}; {112,3}; {115,6}; {119,7}; {155,1}; {155,2}; {155,3}*; {159,4}; {160,1}; {167,3}; {169,1} (2 comments); {183,5}; {191,7}*; {193,1}; {209,4}; {216,1}; {230,5}, quoted by Hali. In other cases, the poet quotes verses in his letters == {26,1}; {38,5}; {41,1}; {46,1}; {46,2} (2 instances); {46,6} (7 instances); {62} (2 instances of most of ghazal); {70,3} (2 instances); {85,8} (2 instances); {95,1}; {111,1-2}; {115,1}; {124,1}; {126}; {126,1 & 8}; {127,3}; {135,1}; [{139}] (?); {142,2}; {150,1}; {151,1}; {154,1}; {157,4}; {160,2}; {160,6}; (2 instances); {161}: 2 instances, various verses; {162,3}; {163}; {177,2}; {177,13}; {178,1} (2 instances); [{180,6}]; {180,7} (2 instances, with one word changed); {189,8} (3 instances); {191,1}; {191} (2 instances); {201}; {205,8} (echoed in a Persian letter); {208}; {208,12}; {209,1} (2 instances); {216,1}, 2 instances, various verses; {219,1}; {228,10}, 2 instances; {229,7}; {231,3} and two more verses
Gul-chin (Flower-picker) / gul-chiin He is another version of the Hunter, and a danger to all the inhabitants of the garden. == {101,7}; {145,15x}; {175,2}; {199,1}
Hamzah / ;hamzah The hero of the Persian/Urdu romance called qi.s.sah-e ;hamzah or daastaan-e amiir ;hamzah. I have written a book about this romance. == {22,7}. A major feature of Hamzah’s world is the :tilism == {3,9x}; {29,3}; {157,7}; {173,11}; {203,2}
Hindi / hindii The word literally means ‘pertaining to Hind’, or ‘Indian’. It was sometimes used by Ghalib and his contemporaries as another name for their own language, which they also called ‘Urdu’ or ‘Rekhtah’. == {88,3}; {148,10}; {150,1}; {178,1} {189,2}; {189,2}; {161,1}; {194,5}; {228,4}; {228,10}
Hindustan / hinduustaan The name referred most centrally to the Mughal heartland of the Punjab, the Delhi region, and the Gangetic plain; sometimes it included Bengal and the Deccan, and sometimes it didn’t. == {129,4x}; {138,6}; {150,1}
Huma / humaa The king-maker bird of Persian story tradition: anyone upon whom his shadow falls is destined to wield royal power. == {49,3}; {79,6x}; {84,6x}; {220,3x}
Hur (Houri) / ;huur A celestial damsel of the kind that will be available to (male) believers in Paradise. See Quran 44:54 and 52:20. == {100,6}; {111,7}; [{139,1}]; {159,1}; {231,2}
'Id / ((iid The great Muslim festival that occurs at the end of the daytime-fasting month of Ramzan, and is inaugurated by the sight of the crescent moon. == {107,5}
Insha / inshaa Insha'allah Khan ‘Insha’ (1756-1817) was a lexicographer, occasional prose writer, and ghazal poet. == {190,10}; {191,5}
Iqbal / mu;hammad iqbaal Sir Muhammad Iqbal (1877-1938) , admiringly known as Allama [the learned] Iqbal, was not only one of the intellectual founders of Pakistan and a Persian poet of note, but also one of the greatest Urdu poets of the twentieth century. == {16,8x}; {24,6}
Isa (Jesus) / ((iis;aa In Islamic tradition, one of Jesus’s chief miracles is his ability to breathe on the dying and restore them to life (for the basis of this idea see Quran 5:113). == {9,7}; {215,1} [ibn-e maryam]; {222,1}
Jallad (Executioner) / jallaad He usually acts at the direct and even enthusiastic command of the beloved. == {62,7}; {163,5}; {176,1}
Jami / jaamii A famous Persian poet (1414-92), author of an extremely influential masnavi about the love of Yusuf and Zulaikha. == {111,5}; {145,9x}; {194,5}
Jamshid / jamshiid A famous Persian king in the Shah-namah who owned a magic world-revealing Cup, the jaam-e jam or jaam-e jamshiid . == {33,2}; {95,2}; {100,8}; {120,12}; {174,3}; {219,6}
Jur'at / jur))aat Shaikh Qalandar Bakhsh ‘Jur'at’ (1748-1809) was an Urdu poet in ghazal and other genres. == {126,3}
Ka'bah / ka((bah The holiest religious site for Muslims; it has the form of a squarish black building, and is located in Mecca; on its origin see Qur'an 2:125-27. The Ka'bah also marks the Qiblah, or direction of prayer, for Muslims (Qur'an 2:142-50). == {22,2}; {86,5}; {108,12x}; {115,2}, ;haram ; {118,1}; {120,8}; {123,10}, ;haram ; {141,5}; {161,10}; {163,7}; {208,9}; {231,6}; {232,6}, ;haram
Kausar / kau;sar The name of a fountain and river in Paradise, from which all other rivers are believed to flow; see Qur'an 108:1. == {98,1}; {216,1}
Khizr / .xi.zr Khvajah Khizr is an important figure in Islamic folk tradition. More information about him is given in {68,1}. == {12,7x}; {68,1}; {151,4}; {159,6}; [{174,9}]; {215,9}; {234,3}
Khizr Sultan / ;xi.zr sul:taan This young prince (1831-57), a son of Bahadur Shah Zafar, was also a shagird of Ghalib’s — {174,9}
Khuda (Lord) /  ;xudaa A reference to God, of a slightly less formal kind than ‘Allah’ would provide. See also Rab. == {7,7}, ;haq ; {79,2}; {83,1}; {83,2}; {86,8}; {88,4}; {106,2}; {107,6}; {112,5}; {112,7}; {112,9}; {115,8}; {120,2}; {120,4}; {124,6}; {132,7}; {141,3}; {141,4}; {150,1}; {162,4}; {176,4}; {199,4}; {205,2}; {215,5}; {228,2}; {229,3}; {230,11}; {234,10}
Khusrau /  ;xusrau Khusrau Parvez was the husband of Farhad’s beloved Shirin. He is identified with the historical Khusrau II (r.590-628), the last king in the Sasanian dynasty. == {101,2}; {120,12}, kai;xusrau ; {121,8}
Kohkan / kohkan ‘Mountain-digger’, an epithet for Farhad. == {1,2}; {3,6}; {42,6}; {121,2}; {204,2}; {204,3}
Laila / lail;aa The beloved of Majnun. == {18,3}; {42,2}; {95,1}; {104,1}; {139,1}; {145,8x}; {147,7x}; {166,2}; {175,4}; {208,10}; {214,2}; {223,5x}
Lucknow / lakhna))uu For information on Ghalib’s visit to the city in 1827, see Russell and Islam, pp. 46-47. == {123,9}
Majnun / majnuun In Arabic story tradition, the classic mad — literally, ‘jinn-possessed’ — lover of Laila. His real name was Qais. == {6,1}; {6,10x}; {18,3}; {23,1}; {35,10}; {42,2}; {44,4x}; {61,3}; {139,1}; {140,6}; {145,8x}; {147,3}; {147,7x}; {159,5}; {166,2}; {208,10}; {214,2}; {223,5x}; {228,7}
Malak ul-Maut (Angel of Death) / malak ul-maut The one among the Angels whom God sends to claim human souls when the appointed death-hour has arrived. == {66,7}
Mani / maanii A famous Central Asian miniature painter. == {184,1}
Mansur / man.suur The famous Sufi of 10th-century Baghdad who was executed for the heresy of repeatedly and publicly proclaiming an al-;haq, ‘I am God/Truth’. == {21,8}; {100,4}; {128,1}; {204,2}
Masiha (Messiah) / ma.sii;haa A name for Jesus/Isa; more generally, any rescuer or healer. == {55,1}; {95,1}; {208,2}
Mir / mu;hammad taqii miir Muhammad Taqi ‘Mir’ (1722-1810) was Ghalib’s great predecessor, and only real rival, as an Urdu ghazal poet; see "A Garden of Kashmir" == {1,1}; {4,8x}; {6,4}; {19,1}; {20,10}; {31,1}; {36,8}; {36,11}*; {54,1}; {56,1}; {58,8}; {68,1}; {75,3}; {78,7}; {81,3}; {86,2}; {86,7}; {92,7}*; {92,8x}*; {111,1}; {111,1}; {111,10}; {131,1}; {137,2}; {154,4}; {161,7}; {170,5}; {197,2}; {204,9}; {208,9}; {206,2}; {213,2}; {217,2}; {227,1}; {228,9}; {232,6}; {234,8} == Also: here’s an index of references to Ghalib that occur within "A Garden of Kashmir"; each of them is mutually hyperlinked back and forth with the appropriate Ghalib verse in "A Desertful of Roses."
Mirza Yusuf / mirzaa yuusufGhalib’s younger (and only) brother (born 1799/1800), who went mad in 1826 and remained so until his death from a fever in 1857. == {202,9}
Momin / mominHakim Momin Khan ‘Momin’(1800-52) was Ghalib’s contemporary and a well-known Delhi ghazal poet. == {1,1}; {5,1}; {56,1}; {78,3}; {86,9}; {87,10}; {89,1}; {99,3}; {119,3}; {125,1}; {126,7}; {153,6}; {159,2}; {177,1}; {177,6}; {199,1}; {204,9}; {208,8}
Murgh (Bird)/ mur;G The lover may be imagined as a Bird who is trapped or snared, and thus deprived of access to his beloved garden. == {101,7}; {112,7}
Musa (Moses) / muus;aa Hazrat Musa, the Islamic counterpart of Moses, experienced on Mount Tur the unbearable glory of God’s presence (Quran 7:143). == {36,5}; {53,2}
Najaf / najaf The Iraqi city, sacred to Shi'a Muslims, where Hazrat 'Ali is buried. == {123,10}
Nakhshab, Moon of / mah-e na;xshab A proverbial magic feat, in the form of an artificial moon that rose and set; see verse commentary for further information. == {38,2}
Nakiren (Recording Angels) / nakiire;N The two angels, Munkar [munkar] and Nakir [naakir], who visit a dead Muslim in the grave, sit on his shoulders, and interrogate him about his good and bad deeds. == {163,4}
Namah-bar (Messenger) / naamah-bar He carries letters and messages, usually (but not always) from the lover to the beloved. See also Qasid. == {14,9}; {46,4}; {106,1}; {159,4}; {160,4}; {176,4}; {201,1}
Namrud (Nimrod) /  namruud [get info] == {26,6}
Nasih (Advisor) / naa.si;h The Advisor is always right in a prudential, worldly sense, and is always trying to straighten the lover out; but naturally the lover never listens to a word he says.== {4,7}; {19,3}; {19,5}; {20,5}; {60,8}; {61,8}; {109,6x}
Nasikh / naasi;x Shaikh Imam Bakhsh ‘Nasikh’ (1776-1838) was a well-known ghazal poet, and a friend and correspondent of Ghalib’s. == {92,7}; {98,11}; {111,1}; {111,9}; {112,9}; {163,4}; {167,9}
Nayyar / nayyar Arif’s friend, Navab Ziya ud-Din Ahmad Khan ‘Nayyar’ (1821-85), a ghazal poet who also used the pen-name ‘Rakhshan’ [ra;xshaa;N]. == {66,8}
Pari / parii In Persian story tradition, members of the Pari race (the word is a cognate of ‘fairy’) are born of fire, can fly, and are exceptionally beautiful. They are female; males are called pariizaad. Paris tend to fall in love with mortal men, but since children of Adam (aadmii) are made from dust, these affairs are always problematical. == {14,4}; {43,1}; {153,8}; {162,5}; {223,2}; {227,4x}
Parizad (Pari-born) / pariizaad In Persian story tradition, these are males of the Pari race; though the term seems sometimes to apply to female Paris too. == {95,1}; {111,7}
Parvanah (Moth) / parvaanah The Moth is an archetype of the lover (and mystic), as he helplessly circles the candle and finally, embracing his doom, flies directly into the flame. == {40,6x}; {45,5}; {64,7x}; {75,4}; {81,3}; {81,10x}; {166,3}; {188,3x}
Pasban (Gatekeeper) / paasbaa;N Who else could guard the beloved’s house so zealously? See also Darban. == {43,4}; {127,2}; {234,7}
Persian About a (mostly) macaronic Persian-Urdu ghazal: {37,2}.
Personifications Some especially conspicuous examples of abstract (semi-)personifications, often addressed with the vocative ay : ‘Desert’ in {3,1}; ‘Opening’ in (8,2}; ‘Kindness’ in {15,2}; ‘Self-adornment’ in {15,3}; ‘Weeping’ in {17,2} and {87,2}; ‘Ardor’ in {27,1}; ‘Suspiciousness’ in {34,4}; ‘Satisfaction’ and ‘Arrangement’ in {54,3}; ‘Sky’ in {66,5}; ‘Relish of Enchainedness’ in {72,1}; ‘Incompleteness of the Fire-shedding Breath’ in {76,2}; ‘the Card-player of Thought’ in {81,2}; ‘Tyranny-invention’ in {101,1}; ‘Longing-stride’ in {137,1}; ‘Crowd/rush of Hopelessness’ in {157,4}; ‘Laggingness’ in {157,5}; ‘Pleasure of Freedom’ in {158,2}; ‘Existence’ in {212,5x}. On Ghalib’s special penchant for pluralized abstractions see {1,2}.
Prophet There is one clear reference to the Prophet Muhammad, though he is not named. == {14,10}
Qais / qais The real name of Majnun. == {3,1}; {6,1}; {95,1}; {104,1}; {175,4}; {204,2}
Qasid (Messenger) / qaa.sid The messenger who goes back and forth between lover and beloved. See also Namah-bar. == {40,2}; {97,4}; {152,7}; {159,4}; {205,3}
Qiblah / qiblah The direction of prayer (toward the Ka'bah in Mecca); or the niche [mi;hraab] in a mosque that points toward it. == {86,5}; {131,1}; {131,8}; {164,3}
Qur'an / quraan Ghalib occasionally quotes passages. == {91,6}
Rab (Lord) /  rab A reference to God, of a slightly less formal kind than ‘Allah’ would provide. See also Khuda. == {4,8x}; {6,2}; {6,10x}; {14,1}; {39,2}; {43,2}; {44,5x}; {46,4}; {62,2}; {68,1}; {110,3}; {111,10}; {124,7}; {129,5x}; {136,2}; {149,9x}; {153,3}; {166,5}; {168,3}; {173,6}; {179,3}; {186,1}; {192,3}; {203,1}; {203,3}; {217,7x}; {229,8x}; {230,10}
Raqib (Rival) / raqiib The (true) lover’s (false) competitor for the affections of the beloved. See also Ghair. == {6,1}, as ‘enemy’; {26,2}; {26,4}; {43,1}; {56,4}; {65,1}; {76,1}; {80,4}, ;hariif; {80,5}; {97,7}; {99,3}; {111,5}; {115,6}; {124,2}; {184,1}; {201,1}; {216,2}; {233,7}, heart vs. eye
Rekhtah / re;xtah Ghalib referred to his language variously as ‘Rekhtah’, ‘Urdu’, and ‘Hindi’. The rigid division into ‘Urdu’ and ‘Hindi’ is basically a late-nineteenth-century innovation. == {36,5}; {36,11}*; {51,4}; {92,7}; {111,1}; {111,2}; {116,10}; {119,7}; {155,3}; {163,1}; {201,1}; {208,1}
Rizvan / ri.zvaa;N The keeper of a special garden (also called Rizvan) in paradise. == {10,1}; {31,3}; {35,9}
Ruh ul-Qudus / ruu;h ul-quduus The ‘Pure Soul’, a title of the Farishtah (Angel) Gabriel. == {91,11}
Saiyad (Hunter)/ .saiyaad The beloved can appear as a Hunter. == {68,7x}; {71,4}; {101,7}; {145,11x}; {232,3}. Often reference is made to her pursuit of the lover as her ‘prey’ [.said] == {15,14}, {36,3}; {45,2}; {72,1}
Samandar (Salamander) / samandar For information about this fire-dwelling creature, see the commentary on {38,7}. == {38,7}; {56,6}
Saqi (Cupbearer) / saaqii The beautiful, temperamental, coquettish youth who serves the drinkers in the wine-house. == {12,2}; {18,1}; {21,6}; {30,1}; {47,2}; {57,7}; {87,9}; {97,5}; {132,6}; {159,3}; {169,5}; {169,8}; {169,10}; {175,3}; {193,4}; {216,1}; {221,1}; {226,4}; {232,2}
Sauda / saudaa — Mirza Muhammad Rafi ‘Sauda’ (1706?-81) was famous for his work in a number of Urdu literary genres, including the ghazal. == {4,8x}; {56,1}; {92,7}; {111,1}; {154,4}; {202,6}; {231,5}
shagird (pupil) / shagird The shagird or pupil is defined by his relationship to an Ustad, a master who has agreed to accept him, correct his verses, and generally instruct him in the art of Urdu poetry, especially the ghazal. == {35,8}; {66,8}; {150,1}
Shah (King) /  shaah In most cases the dates make it clear that the reference is at least probably to Bahadur Shah ‘Zafar’ (1775-1862; r.1837-57); for some verses the current ruler was his predecessor, Akbar Shah II (r.1806-37). == {14,1}, shaahinshaah ; {110,8}; {120,12}; {121,8}, ;xusrav ; {124,7}, baadshaah ; {125,10}, ;hu.zuur ; {138,6}, farmaa;N-ravaa-e kishvar-e hinduustaan ; {174,9}; {177,8}; {177,9}, shahinshaah ; {178,10}; {180,6}; {181,7}; {218,1}, shahryaar ; {218,2}, baadshaah
Shaikh / shai;x The Shaikh is a general emblem of complacent piety. He disdains the lover for ignoring the letter of the law, and the lover disdains him for ignoring its spirit. == {38,6}; {60,8}; {108,12x}; {204,7}
Sheftah / navaab mu.s:taf;aa ;xaan sheftah Navab Mustafa Khan Sheftah (1806-69), poet and tazkirah writer, was an excellent friend and frequent correspondent of Ghalib's. == {86,9}; {97,13}
Shirin / shiiriin In Persian story tradition, the wife of Khusrau who was the beloved of Farhad.== {42,6}; {121,8}; {174,7}
Sikandar (Alexander) / sikandar Alexander the Great, the world-conqueror, was misled by Khizr and deprived of the Water of Life. == {215,9}
Sulaiman (Solomon) / sulaimaan An ideal type of the divinely guided king; see for example Qur'an 27:15-44, 38:30-40. == {95,1}; {120,12}; {208,2}
Tajammul Husain Khan / tajaamul ;husain ;xaan The Navab of Farrukhabad, a potential patron for Ghalib. == {234,9}
Talib Amuli / :taalib aamulii A Persian poet (d.1626) who was the poet laureate of Jahangir. == {216,1}
Tur / :tuur the mountain on which Hazrat Musa experienced the presence of the Lord. (Quran 7:143; 28:29-30) == {40,4x}; {53,2}; {60,11}; {231,7}
Ustad / ustaad The Ustad is a recognized master of the art of poetry; he may or may not choose to accept and train shagirds == {11,3x}*; {15,15}; {34,2}; {36,11}*; {38,6}; {59,1}; {167,6}
Vahshat / ;Gulaam ((alii ;xaan va;hshat Ghulam 'Ali Khan ‘Vahshat' was a friend and shagird of Ghalib's. == {86,9}
Va'iz (Preacher) /  vaa((i:z As the voice of orthodoxy, the Preacher is even more irritating to the lover than the Shaikh, and for his part naturally considers the lover a hopeless reprobate. == {60,8}; {92,6}; {163,5}; {219,9}; {229,7}; {231,3}
Yaqub (Jacob) /  ya((quub The father of Hazrat Yusuf; he wept for his lost son until he ruined his eyes. == {61,2}; {111,1}; {111,4}; [{204,4}]
Yusuf (Joseph) /  yuusuf Hazrat Yusuf, the Islamic counterpart of the Biblical Joseph, was one of the Prophets; his story is told at length in the Quran, Sura 12. See also Yaqub and Zulaikha. == {10,9}; {36,6}; {61,2}; {111,4}; {111,5}; {202,9} (also about Ghalib's brother Mirza Yusuf); {204,4}
Zafar / bahaadur shaah :zafar The last nominal Mughal emperor, Bahadur Shah ‘Zafar’ (1775-1862; r. 1837-57) was a ghazal poet himself; he was a willing patron of Zauq, and after Zauq’s death a grudging patron of Ghalib. == {49,5}**; {90,5}; {111,1}; {163,1}; {163,2}; {163,9}; {164,14}; {231,9}
Zafar Iqbal / :zafar iqbaal Zafar Iqbal (1933-) is a modern Pakistani ghazal poet. == {86,7}
Zahid (Ascetic) / zaahid The Ascetic is a renunciant, always preaching the joys of the life to come and deprecating the pleasures of this world; he considers the lover self-indulgent, and the lover considers him shallow. == {10,1}; {85,2}; {109,5x}; {133,3}; {186,6x}; {196,6}; {203,1}
zamzam /  zamzamThe name of a special sacred well in Mecca, near the Ka'bah. == {180,4}; {232,6}
Zauq /  ;zauq Shaikh Muhammad Ibrahim ‘Zauq’ (1788-1854) was a contemporary and rival of Ghalib’s; Zauq preceded Ghalib in the prestigious post of royal Ustad, and Bahadur Shah always liked Zauq better. == {7,7}; {15,11}; {19,1}; {22,3}; {34,7}; {38,6}; {46,6}; {77,8}; {78,6}; {91,8}; {97,3}; {151,4}; {178,10}; {202,6}; {231,5}
Zuhuri /  :zuhuurii A famously complex Persian poet (d.1615), cherished in India and ignored at home, who became the poet laureate of Sultan Ibrahim 'Adil Shah of Bijapur. == {92,7}; {100,9}
Zulaikha /  zulai;xaa When Yusuf was a slave in Egypt, Zulaikha was his owner’s wife; because of her slave’s great beauty, she fell in love with him. The whole story is told in the Quran, 12:23-32. == {111,5}; {145,9x}; {145,14x}; {194,5}; {204,5}

 
 
 
 — Ghalib index page — sitemap — FWP’s main page —