INDEX OF
PROPER NAMES

background
 

Adam / aadam In Islamic as in Judeo-Christian religious tradition, the name of the first man. His creation was not approved by the angels (Qur'an 2:30-34). == {96,3}; {98,2}; {219,3} // {371x,5}
Ala'i / ((alaa))ii 'Ala ul-Din Ahmad Khan, with the pen-name of Ala'i, was a friend of Ghalib's and the son of one of his patrons, the Navab of Loharu. // {413x,9}
'Ali / ((alii The Prophet’s cousin and son-in-law. See also Bu Turab. == [{98,1}]; {140,7x}; {141,5}*; {216,1}, as saaqii-e kau;sar // {28,10}, as saaqii-e kau;sar ; {73, maqta }, as ;haidar ; {88,10}; {103,8x}, as saaqii-e kau;sar ; {142,6x}; {242x,6}, as saaqii-e kau;sar ; {300x,5}, as ;haidar ; {349x,9}; {358x,6}; {365x,5}; {373x,3}, as duldul-savaar ; {381x,6}, as shaah-e najaf ; {387x,5}; {397x,7}, as saaqii-e kau;sar ; {416x,11}, as saaqii-e kau;sar
'Ali Bahadur / ((alii bahaadur Navab Ali Bahadur was the ruler of the state of Bandah [baa;Ndah], and a patron of Ghalib’s. == {99,10}
Allah (God) / all;aah An invocation of God, often exclamatory, more formal than ‘Lord’. == {48,4}; {61,9x}; {121,5}; {162,2}; {167,7} // {381x,6}; {382x,1}
Anonymous — A bystander of some unspecified kind who offers a (usually sympathetic) comment, to or about the lover, almost always in the closing-verse (because of the presence of the pen-name). == Some examples: {7,7}; {15,15}; {20,11}; {22,9}; {25,9}; {32,3}: {71,10}; {72,7}
Anqa / ((anqaa A bird from Arabic story tradition; in the ghazal world, his single defining trait is his not-there-ness. Whenever you try to catch him, he’s gone. == {1,4}*; {5,3}; {95,1}; {145,1}; {214,13x} // {326x,2}; {386x,7}
Arif / ((aarif Ghalib’s brother-in-law, whose early death evoked the melancholy ghazal {66}. == {66,5}
Asad / asad The poet’s early pen-name, before he changed over to ‘Ghalib’. His own comment on the change: {219,1} == {71,10}, Asadullah Khan; {129,7x}, Asadullah Khan; {137,6x}; {138,9x}; {139,13x}; {140,6}; {141,7}; {141,8x}; {142,6x}, Asadullah Khan; {155,3}*, Ghalib on early verses; {158,9}, Asadullah Khan // {239x,6}, also word 'Ghalib'; {255x,10}, also a 'Ghalib' verse; {258x,8}, also a 'Ghalib' verse; {357x,1}*, Asadullah Khan
Atish / aatish Khvajah Haidar 'Ali ‘Atish’ (1777-1847) was a well-known ghazal poet. == {89,1}; {92,7}; {97,1}; {164,9}; {164,9}; {167,6}; {191,9}; {203,4}; {234,1}
Azurdah / aazurdah Mufti Sadr ud-Din Khan ‘Azurdah’ (1789-1868), scholar, Islamicist, and poet, was a close friend and confidant of Ghalib’s. == {38,6}; {90,3}; {97,10}; {144,1}; {234,7}
Babar 'Ali Khan / babar ((alii ;xaan // {427x7}
Bahman / bahman One of the legendary kings in the Shah-namah. == {120,12}
Bahzad / bahzaad A famous Persian painter. == // {310x,3}; {440x,2}
Banat un-Na'sh (Daughters of the Bier) / banaat un-na((sh The constellation of the Pleiades. == {111,3}
Barbud / baarbud The name of a famous Persian musician. == {177,8}
Bedil / bedil Mirza 'Abd ul-Qadir 'Bedil' (1642-1720) (wiki) was a famous Indian-born Indo-Persian poet whom the young Ghalib greatly admired. On Ghalib and Bedil: a *volume edited by Shaukat Mahmud*. == {6,3}; {8,5x}**, discussion; {12,7x}*; {28,4x}; {29,7x}; {29,10x}; {44,3x}; {86,7}; {100,9}, Calcutta change; {120,1}; {128,4x}; {155,3}**, famous 1812 verse; {178,5}; {184,5x}; {199,6x}, perhaps; {224,4x}; {234,9} // {280x,7}; {348x,8}, be-dilaa;N ; {350x,1}*; {353x,7}; {357x,1}*; {372x,5}; {429x,9}; {434x,11}; {435x,8}
Brahmin / barhaman The Brahmin, as a symbolic high priest of Hinduism; his distinctive mark is the sacred thread [zunnaar]. == {60,8}; {120,8}; {121,9x}; {174,6}; {204,7}
Bu Turab/ buu turaab Literally, the 'father of dust'. A title of Hazrat 'Ali. == {98,11} // {286x,7}
Bulbul (Nightingale)/ bulbul , ((andaliib The drab-colored bulbul is the sweet singer of the garden, and the archetypal lover of the rose. == {33,3}**; {54,6x}; {58,8}; {65,2x}, ((andaliib ; {77,3}; {80,1}; {94,5x}; {111,9}; [{126,5}]; [{145,2}]; {187,2}, ((andaliib ; {199,3}; [{202,5}]; {210,4}; {211,7x}; {217,7x}; {228,5}*, ((andaliib , discussion; {228,8}, ((andaliib ; {230,5}; {231,5}. The only other garden bird who appears in the divan is the turtledove [qumrii], in {152,2} and {230,5}. // {237x,6}, ((andaliib ; {275x}, ((andaliib ; {276x,4}; {284x,5}; {294x,5}; {295x,3}; {302x,1}; {302x,5}; {303x,3}; {306x,7}; {310x,2}; {322x,5}, ((andaliib (the famous one); {374x,3}; {397x,6}, rose doesn't hear; {412x,7}; {415x,5}; {433x,3}; {428x,1}; {428x,3}; {437x,1}
Dagh / daa;G Navab Mirza Khan ‘Dagh’ (1831-1905), a famous ghazal poet. == {30,1}; {87,3}; {96,2}; {101,5}; {111,10}; {189,10}; {191,7}; {197,2}; {208,11}; {219,2}
Darab / daaraab One of the legendary kings in the Shah-namah. == {120,12}
Darban (Doorkeeper) / darbaa;N The lover has one too, but of course the only one who really counts is the beloved’s. See also Pasban. == {10,7}; {31,3}; {111,12}; {151,2}; [{202,7}]; {233,15}
Dard, Mir / miir dard Khvajah Mir ‘Dard’ (1720-85), a famous Sufi and ghazal poet. == {9,7}; {38,6}; {60,8}; {95,2}; {98,3}: {103,2x}
Darvesh / darvesh A wandering religious mendicant who is expected to live on the alms given by the pious; see also Faqir. == {24,3}; {162,9}
Delhi /  dillii The city. == {19,7}; {138,9x}; {139,13x}; [{149,3}], usages // {290x,7}, 'still far' proverb; {421x,6}; {438x,9}
Dijlah (Tigris) / dijlah The Tigris River, in Iraq. == {22,8}
Divali / divaalii The Indian festival of lights == // {329x,4}
Egypt /mi.sr {204,4}
Eid / ((iid The great Muslim festival that occurs at the end of the daytime-fasting month of Ramzan, and is inaugurated by the sight of the crescent moon. == {107,5}; {226,3} // {365x,3}; {374x,1}, moon of Muharram; {411x,4}
Faqir / faqiir A wandering Muslim ascetic, who ideally lives on alms from the pious and generous; see also Darvesh. == {96,6}; {139,1}; {160,1}; {165,5x}; {199,6x}
Farangi / farangii A 'Frank', or European, or Englishman. == {407x,4}
Farhad / farhaad In Persian story tradition, a stone-mason who fell in love with the princess Shirin, the beloved of Khusrau. Farhad is also known as Kohkan. The gist of his story, including Nizami's version, is told in {1,2}. == {1,2}**; {36,8}; {101,2}; {105,4x}; {165,4x}; {174,7}; {200,5x} // {310x,5}; {416x,5}
Faridun / fariiduun One of the legendary kings in the Shah-namah. == {120,12}
Farishtah (Angel) / farishtah One of God’s invisible winged servants; they often assist him in monitoring the doings of humankind. See also Ruh ul-Qudus. == {36,10}; {38,6}; {98,2} // {407x,1}, israafiil
Firdausi / firdausii The author of the Shah-namah [shaah-naamah], the Persian national epic. Ghalib speaks of Firdausi (c.934-1020) as the greatest of poets. == {139,1}; {219,6}
Ghair (Other) / ;Gair The Other Man, the (true) lover’s (false) competitor for the favors of the beloved. See also Raqib. == {10,10}; {13,3}; {15,9}; {28,2}; {36,7}; {41,5}; {42,1}; {43,2}; {53,4}; {53,6}; {76,5x}; {77,7}; {83,1}, said of a foreign country; {86,1}; {87,6}; {89,2}; {98,5}; {103,1}; {112,6}; {115,2}; {115,6}, aur ; {116,4}; {116,6}; {119,3}; {119,8}; {124,1}; {126,10}; {145,14x}; {148,4}; {151,7}; {153,3}; {153,7}; {180,1}; {189,6}; {191,4}; {198,2} // {299x,4}; {312x,6}; {314x,5}; {413x,2}
Ghalib / mirzaa asadull;aa;h ;xaan ;Gaalib (1797-1869) — the poet as commentator == {1,1}, {6,1}, {6,2}; {28,1}; {34,2}; {53,1}; {57,7}*, quoted by Hali; [{75,3}]; {97,5}; {99,10}; {110,1}; {111,1}, misquotes a verse; {112,3}; {115,6}; {119,7}; {155,1}**, on G. as commentator; {155,2}; {155,3}*; {159,4}; {160,1}; {167,3}; {169,1} (2 comments); {183,5}; {191,7}*; {193,1}; {209,4}; {216,1}; {230,5}, quoted by Hali. In other cases, the poet quotes verses in his letters == {26,1}; {38,5}; {41,1}; {46,1}; {46,2} (2 instances); {46,6} (7 instances); {62} (2 instances of most of ghazal); {70,3} (2 instances); {85,8} (2 instances); {95,1}; {111,1-2}; {115,1}; {124,1}; {126}; {126,1 & 8}; {127,3}; {135,1}; [{139}] (?); {142,2}; {150,1}; {151,1}; {154,1}; {157,4}; {160,2}; {160,6}; (2 instances); {161}: 2 instances, various verses; {162,3}; {163}; {177,2}; {177,13}; {178,1} (2 instances); [{180,6}]; {180,7} (2 instances, with one word changed); {189,8} (3 instances); {191,1}; {191} (2 instances); {201}; {205,8} (echoed in a Persian letter); {208}; {208,12}; {209,1} (2 instances); {216,1}, 2 instances, various verses; {219,1}; {228,10}, 2 instances; {229,7}; {231,3} and two more verses
Ghazali / ;Gazaalii Ghazali Mashhadi (1526-1572), Akbar's Persian poet laureate. == {182,3x}
Gul-chin (Flower-picker) / gul-chiin He is another version of the Hunter, and a danger to all the inhabitants of the garden. == {101,7}; {145,15x}; {175,2}; {199,1}
Hamzah / ;hamzah The hero of the Persian/Urdu romance called qi.s.sah-e ;hamzah or daastaan-e amiir ;hamzah. I have written about this romance. == {22,7}. == A major feature of Hamzah's world is the :tilism or 'enchantment', which appears in: {3,9x}; {29,3}; {82,4x}*; {128,2x}; {142,4x}; {157,7}; {173,11}**; {203,2}; {221,4x} // {335x,3}; {378x,7}; [{398x,3}]
Hind / hind A general term for (North) India. // {96, last . v.}; {155, last . v., also Isfahan}; {291x,3}
Hindi / hindii The word literally means ‘pertaining to Hind’, or ‘Indian’. It was often used by Ghalib and his contemporaries as a name for their own language, which they also called 'Rekhtah' or, less often, 'Urdu'. == {4,8x}; {88,3}; {148,10}; {150,1}; {178,1} {189,2}; {189,2}; {161,1}; {194,5}; {228,4}; {228,10}
Hindustan / hinduustaan The name referred most centrally to the Mughal heartland of the Punjab, the Delhi region, and the Gangetic plain; sometimes it included Bengal and the Deccan, and sometimes it didn’t. == {129,4x}; {138,6}*, on 'Hindu' as 'black'; {150,1} // {291x,1}
Huma / humaa The king-maker bird of Persian story tradition: anyone upon whom his shadow falls is destined to wield royal power. == {49,3}*; {79,6x}; {84,6x}; {220,3x}
Hur (Houri) / ;huur A celestial damsel of the kind that will be available to (male) believers in Paradise. See Quran 44:54 and 52:20. == {100,6}; {111,7}; [{139,1}]; {159,1}; {231,2} // {413x,4}
Insha / inshaa Insha'allah Khan ‘Insha’ (1756-1817) was a lexicographer, occasional prose writer, and ghazal poet. == {190,10}; {191,5}
Iqbal / mu;hammad iqbaal Sir Muhammad Iqbal (1877-1938) , admiringly known as Allama ['the learned'] Iqbal, was not only one of the intellectual founders of Pakistan and a Persian poet of note, but also one of the greatest Urdu poets of the twentieth century. == {16,8x}; {24,6}
Iram / iramA legendarily beautiful garden in Yemen; or, in Paradise. == {96,1} // {352x,4}; {386x,7}
Isa (Jesus) / ((iis;aa In Islamic tradition, one of Jesus’s chief miracles is his ability to breathe on the dying and restore them to life (for the basis of this idea see Quran 5:113). == {9,7}; {215,1}, ibn-e maryam ; {222,1} // {242x,6}; {304x,1}; {430x,3}
Jabril (Gabriel) / jabriil The name of a Farishtah (Angel) who is also called Ruh ul-Qudus (the 'Pure Soul'). == {407x,3}; also: {407x,1}, Israfil
Jallad (Executioner) / jallaad He usually acts at the direct and even enthusiastic command of the beloved. == {62,7}; {163,5}; {176,1} // {376x, 4}; {436x,2}
Jami / jaamii A famous Persian poet (1414-92), author of an extremely influential masnavi about the love of Yusuf and Zulaikha; on this see {194,5}.
Jamshid / jamshiid A famous Persian king in the Shah-namah who proverbially owned a magic world-revealing Cup, the jaam-e jam or jaam-e jamshiid . == {33,2}; {95,2}; {100,8}; {120,12}; {174,3}; {216,5x}; {219,6}, with Nazm's critique
Jur'at / jur))aat Shaikh Qalandar Bakhsh ‘Jur'at’ (1748-1809) was an Urdu poet in ghazal and other genres. == {126,3}
Ka'bah / ka((bah The holiest religious site for Muslims; it has the form of a squarish black building, and is located in Mecca; on its origin see Qur'an 2:125-27. The Ka'bah also marks the Qiblah, or direction of prayer, for Muslims (Qur'an 2:142-50). == {22,2}; {86,5}; {108,12x}; {115,2}, ;haram ; {118,1}; {120,8}; {121,9x}; {123,10}, ;haram ; {141,5}; {143,7x}, ;haram ; {161,10}; {163,7}; {208,9}; {231,6}; {232,6}, ;haram // {245x,5}; {375x,3}; {413x,5}; {413x,5}*
Kai [Kavus] / kai A famous king in the Shah-namah who had a flying throne. == {196,9x}
Kalb-e 'Ali Khan / kalb-e ((alii ;xaan Nawab Kalb-e 'Ali Khan of Rampur was a patron of Ghalib's. // {330x,1}
Kausar / kau;sar The name of a fountain and river in Paradise, from which all other rivers are believed to flow; see Qur'an 108:1. See also 'Ali. == {98,1}; {216,1} // {103,8x}; {397x,7}
Khizr / ;xi.zr Khvajah Khizr is an important figure in Islamic folk tradition. More information about him is given in {68,1}. == {12,7x}; {24,9x}; {68,1}; {151,4}; {159,6}*; {166,7x}; [{174,9}]; {215,9}; {234,3} // {244x,1}; {266x,3}; {271x,6}; {282x,4}; {348x,3}; {403x,1}; {425x,5}
Khizr Sultan / ;xi.zr sul:taan This young prince (1831-57), a son of Bahadur Shah Zafar, was also a shagird of Ghalib’s — {174,9}
Khuda (Lord) /  ;xudaa A reference to God, of a slightly less formal kind than ‘Allah’ would provide. See also Rab. == {7,7}, ;haq ; {79,2}; {83,1}; {83,2}; {86,8}; {88,4}; {106,2}; {107,6}; {112,5}; {112,7}; {112,9}; {115,8}; {117,6x}; {120,2}; {120,4}; {124,6}; {132,7}; {137,5x}; {141,3}; {141,4}; {150,1}; {162,4}; {176,4}; {199,4}; {205,2}; {209,11}*; {215,5}; {216,4x}; {225,4x}; {228,2}; {229,3}; {230,11}; {234,10} // {348x,5}; {360x,9}
Khusrau / ;xusrau Khusrau Parvez was the husband of Farhad’s beloved Shirin. He is identified with the historical Khusrau II (r.590-628), the last king in the Sasanian dynasty. == {101,2}; {120,12}, kai;xusrau ; {121,8}; {165,4x}; {200,5x} // {304x,2}; {312x,2}, horse Gulgun
Kohkan / kohkan ‘Mountain-digger’, an epithet for Farhad. == {1,2}; {3,6}; {42,6}; {67,5x}; {121,2}; {204,2}; {204,3} // {229, 2nd v.}; {304x,2}; {328x,1}; {356x,7}
Laila / lail;aa The beloved of Majnun. == {18,3}; {42,2}; {95,1}; {104,1}; {139,1}; {145,8x}; {147,7x}; {166,2}; {175,4}; {208,10}; {214,2}; {223,5x} // {246x,2}; {256x,5}; {377x,4}; {385x,1}
Lucknow / lakhna))uu For information on Ghalib’s visit to the city in 1827, see Russell and Islam, pp. 46-47. == {123,9}; [{149,3}], usages
Majnun / majnuun In Arabic story tradition, the classic mad — literally, ‘jinn-possessed’ — lover of Laila. His real name was Qais. Here is Nizami's famous version of his story: Peter Chelkowski et al, 1975: pp. 49-68. == {6,1}; {6,10x}; {18,3}; {23,1}; {35,10}; {42,2}; {44,4x}; {61,3}; {139,1}; {140,6}; {145,8x}; {147,3}; {147,7x}; {159,5}; {166,2}; {208,10}; {211,6x}; {214,2}; {223,5x}; {228,7} // {256x,5}; {287x,5}; {296x,4}; {328x,7}; {371x,2}; {379x,2}; {385x,1}; {434x,5}
Malak ul-Maut (Angel of Death) / malak ul-maut The one among the Angels whom God sends to claim human souls when the appointed death-hour has arrived. == {66,7}
Mani / maanii A famous Central Asian miniature painter. == {184,1} // {165,4x}; {184,6x}; {399x,5}
Mansur / man.suur The famous Sufi of 10th-century Baghdad who was executed for the heresy of repeatedly and publicly proclaiming an al-;haq, 'I am God/Truth'. == {21,8}; [{28,5x}]; {100,4}; {128,1}; {204,2}
Masiha (Messiah) / ma.sii;haa A name for Jesus/Isa; more generally, any rescuer or healer. == {55,1}; {95,1}; {208,2}
Mir / mu;hammad taqii miir Muhammad Taqi ‘Mir’ (1722-1810) was Ghalib’s great predecessor, and only real rival, as an Urdu ghazal poet; see 'A Garden of Kashmir' == {1,1}; {4,8x}; {6,4}; {19,1}; {20,10}; {22,2}; {31,1}; {36,11}**, in verse; {44,1}; {54,1}; {68,1}; {75,3}; {81,3}; {86,2}; {92,7}**, in verse; {92,8x}**, in verse; {111,1}, in letter; {111,10}; {115,5}; {116,6}; {131,1}; {137,2}; {154,4}; {161,7}; {170,5}; {217,2}; {227,1}; {234,8} == Also: here’s an index of references to Ghalib within 'A Garden of Kashmir'; each of them is hyperlinked back and forth with the appropriate Ghalib verse in 'A Desertful of Roses'.
Mirza Yusuf / mirzaa yuusufGhalib’s younger (and only) brother (born 1799/1800), who went mad in 1826 and remained so until his death from a fever in 1857. == {202,9}
Momin / mominHakim Momin Khan ‘Momin’(1800-52) was Ghalib’s contemporary and a well-known Delhi ghazal poet. == {1,1}; {5,1}*, famous verse; {6,7x}; {56,1}; {78,3}; {86,9}; {87,10}; {89,1}; {99,3}; {119,3}; {125,1}; {126,7}; {153,6}; {159,2}; {177,1}; {177,6}; {179,2}*, special verse; {199,1}; {204,9}; {208,8}; {217,2} // {307x,7}
Muhtasib / mu;htasibA member of an early Islamic form of vice squad. == {269x,2}
Murgh (Bird)/ mur;G The lover may be imagined as a Bird who is trapped or snared, and thus deprived of access to his beloved garden. == {101,7}; {112,7}
Musa (Moses) / muus;aa Hazrat Musa, the Islamic counterpart of Moses, experienced on Mount Tur the unbearable glory of God’s presence (Quran 7:143). == {36,5}; {53,2}; [{231,7}] // {259x,5}
Mu'tamad ul-Daulah / mu((tamad ul-daulah A patron of Ghalib's. == {123,14x}
Najaf / najaf The Iraqi city, sacred to Shi'a Muslims, where Hazrat 'Ali is buried. == {123,10} // {329x,5}
Nakhshab, Moon of / mah-e na;xshab A proverbial magic feat, in the form of an artificial moon that rose and set; see verse commentary for further information. == {38,2}
Nakirain (Recording Angels) / nakiirain The two angels, Munkar [munkar] and Nakir [naakir], who visit a dead Muslim in the grave, sit on his shoulders, and interrogate him about his good and bad deeds. == {163,4}
Nal, Daman / nal , damanNala and Damayanti, lovers in a popular Indian story going back to the Mahabharata. // {356x,7}
Namah-bar (Messenger) / naamah-bar He carries letters and messages, usually (but not always) from the lover to the beloved. See also Qasid. == {14,9}; {46,4}; {106,1}; {137,5x}*; {159,4}; {160,4}; {176,4}; {201,1}; {242x,3}; {267x,4}, naamah-rasaa;N ; {299x,4}, naamah-rasaa;N ; {375x,6}
Namrud (Nimrod) /  namruud [get info] == {26,6}
Nasih (Advisor) / naa.si;h The Advisor is always right in a prudential, worldly sense, and is always trying to straighten the lover out; but naturally the lover never listens to a word he says.== {4,7}; {19,3}; {19,5}; {20,5}; {60,8}; {61,8}; {109,6x} // {383x,6}
Nasikh / naasi;x Shaikh Imam Bakhsh ‘Nasikh’ (1776-1838) was a well-known ghazal poet, and a friend and correspondent of Ghalib’s. == {92,2}; {92,7}; {98,11}; {111,1}; {111,9}; {112,9}; {123,9}; {163,4}; {167,9}
Naiyar / naiyar Arif’s friend, Navab Ziya ud-Din Ahmad Khan ‘Naiyar’ (1821-85), a ghazal poet who also used the pen-name ‘Rakhshan’ [ra;xshaa;N]. == {66,8}
Pari / parii In Persian story tradition, members of the Pari race (the word is a cognate of ‘fairy’) are born of fire, can fly, and are exceptionally beautiful. They are female; males are called pariizaad. Paris tend to fall in love with mortal men, but since children of Adam (aadmii) are made from dust, these affairs are always problematical. == {14,4}; {43,1}; {56,7x}*; {153,8}; {162,5}; {223,2}; {227,4x} // {256x,1}; {295x,3}; {341x,8}; {350x,4}; {352x,4}; {379x,5}; {388x,3}
Parizad (Pari-born) / pariizaad In Persian story tradition, these are males of the Pari race; though the term seems sometimes to apply to female Paris too. == {95,1}; {111,7}
Parvanah (Moth) / parvaanah The Moth is an archetype of the lover (and mystic), as he helplessly circles the candle and finally, embracing his glorious doom, flies directly into the flame. == {40,6x}; {45,5}; {64,7x}; {73,5x}; {75,4}; {81,3}; {81,10x}; {166,3}; {188,3x} // {257x,4}; {258x,1}; {258x,6}; {269x,4}; {275x,6}; {284x,5}; {333x,2}; {360x,4}; {366x,2}; {405x,4}
Pasban (Gatekeeper) / paasbaa;N Who else could guard the beloved’s house so zealously, and treat the lover so demeaningly? See also Darban. == {43,4}; {127,2}; {234,7} // {302x,1}; {369x,6}
Persian == {37,2}*, a (mostly) macaronic Persian-Urdu ghazal; {109,2x}, maximal Persianization; {109,6x}, nigaare ; {190,11x}, excessive; {352x,4}, example
Personifications Some especially conspicuous examples of abstract (semi-)personifications, often addressed with the vocative ay : 'Desert' in {3,1}; 'Opening' in (8,2}; 'Kindness' in {15,2}; 'Self-adornment' in {15,3}; 'Weeping' in {17,2} and {87,2}; 'Ardor' in {27,1}; 'Suspiciousness' in {34,4}; 'Satisfaction' and 'Arrangement' in {54,3}; 'Sky' in {66,5}; 'Relish of Enchainedness' in {72,1}; 'Incompleteness of the Fire-shedding Breath' in {76,2}; 'the Card-player of Thought' in {81,2}; 'Tyranny-invention' in {101,1}; 'Longing-stride' in {137,1}; 'Crowd/rush of Hopelessness' in {157,4}; 'Laggingness' in {157,5}; 'Pleasure of Freedom' in {158,2}; 'Existence' in {212,5x}; 'Blister' in {352x,1}; 'Thought of Union' (which engages in wine-drinking) in {404x,1}. (On Ghalib’s special penchant for pluralized abstractions see {1,2}.)
Portuguese / partugaalii There is one reference to 'Portuguese wine', sharaab-e partugaalii == "389x,4}
Prophet There is one clear reference to the Prophet Muhammad, though he is not named. == {14,10} // {369x,8}, as mu.s:taf;aa
Qais / qais The real name of Majnun. == {3,1}; {6,1}; {95,1}; {104,1}; {175,4}; {204,2} // {246x,2}; {269x,3}; {277x,6}; {377x,4}
Qaisar / qai.sar'Caesar' in Arabic. == {290x,6}, 'and fa;Gfuur ' (emperor of China)
Qarun / qaruun The Biblical Korah, who also appears in the Qur'an. == {262x,4}
Qasid (Messenger) / qaa.sid The messenger who goes back and forth between lover and beloved. See also Namah-bar. == {40,2}; {97,4}; {104,4x}; {152,7}; {159,4}; {205,3} // {246x,3}; {267x,4}
Qiblah / qiblah The direction of prayer (toward the Ka'bah in Mecca); or the niche [mi;hraab] in a mosque that points toward it. == {86,5}*; {100,10x}; {131,1}; {131,8}; {164,3}
Qumri (Ring-dove) / qumrii The dust-colored Ring-dove is a lover of the cypress tree [sarv], and wears a 'neck-ring' [:tauq] that is an adornment and/or a sign of servitude. == {54,1}**, on the neck-ring; {117,3}; {217,4}; {230,5}*; {307x,2}; {319x,2}; {354x,2}; {373x,4}; {400x,2}; {410x,5}
Qur'an / quraan Ghalib occasionally quotes passages. == {91,6}
Rab (Lord) /  rab A reference to God, of a slightly less formal kind than ‘Allah’ would provide. See also Khuda. == {4,8x}; {6,2}; {6,10x}; {14,1}; {39,2}; {43,2}; {44,5x}; {46,4}; {62,2}; {68,1}; {110,3}; {111,10}; {124,7}; {129,5x}; {136,2}; {149,9x}; {153,3}; {166,5}; {168,3}; {173,6}; {179,3}; {186,1}; {192,3}; {203,1}; {203,3}; {217,7x}; {224,3x}; {229,8x}; {230,10} // {307x,6}; {321x,6}; {347x,3}
Raqib (Rival) / raqiib The (true) lover’s (false) competitor for the affections of the beloved. See also Ghair. == {6,1}, as ‘enemy’; {26,2}; {26,4}; {43,1}; {56,4}; {65,1}; {76,1}; {80,4}, ;hariif; {80,5}; {97,7}; {99,3}; {111,5}; {115,6}; {124,2}; {184,1}; {201,1}; {211,8x}, ;hariifaa;N ; {216,2}; {233,7}, heart vs. eye // {314x,1}; {326x,5}, ;hariifaa;N ; {375x,2}; {396x,7}
Rekhtah / re;xtah Ghalib referred to his language most often as Rekhtah or 'Hindi'. The rigid division into ‘Urdu’ and ‘Hindi’ is basically a late-nineteenth-century innovation. == {36,5}; {36,11}**, SRF discusses; {51,4}; {92,7}; {111,1}; {111,2}; {116,10}; {119,7}; {155,3}, famous early Bedil praise; {163,1}; {201,1}; {208,1} // {357x,1}*
Rizvan / ri.zvaa;N The keeper of a special garden (also called Rizvan) in paradise. == {10,1}; {31,3}; {35,9}
Ruh ul-Qudus / ruu;h ul-quduus The ‘Pure Soul’, a title of the Farishtah (Angel) named Jabril (Gabriel). == {91,11}
Saiyad (Hunter)/ .saiyaad The beloved can appear as a Hunter, with the lover as her prey. == {23,4x}; {68,7x}; {71,4}; {101,7}; {145,11x}; {184,4x}; {232,3} // {261x,2}. Often reference is made to her pursuit of the lover as her 'prey' [.said] == {15,14}, {36,3}; {45,2}; {72,1} // {267x,1}; {297x,6}; {310x,7}; {323x,1}; {364x,5}; {376x,2}
Samandar (Salamander) / samandar For information about this fire-dwelling creature, see the commentary on {38,7}. == {38,7}; {56,6}
Saqi (Cupbearer) / saaqii The beautiful, temperamental, coquettish youth who serves the drinkers in the wine-house. For saaqii-e kau;sar , see Ali. == {12,2}; {18,1}; {21,6}; {30,1}; {47,2}; {57,7}; {87,9}; {97,5}; {132,6}; {137,6x}; {159,3}; {169,5}; {169,8}; {169,10}; {175,3}; {188,4x}; {193,4}; {216,1}; {221,1}; {226,4}; {232,2} // {239x,5}; {267x3}; {276x,2}; {294x,4}; {360x,7}; {376x,6}; {385x,3}; {400x,6}; {436x,3}
Sauda / saudaa — Mirza Muhammad Rafi ‘Sauda’ (1706?-81) was famous for his work in a number of Urdu literary genres, including the ghazal. == {4,8x}; {56,1}; {92,2}; {92,7}; {111,1}; {154,4}; {202,6}; {231,5}
shagird (pupil) / shagird The shagird or pupil is defined by his relationship to an Ustad, a master who has agreed to accept him, correct his verses, and generally instruct him in the art of Urdu poetry, especially the ghazal. == {35,8}; {66,8}; {150,1}
Shah (King) /  shaah In most cases the dates make it clear that the reference is to Bahadur Shah ‘Zafar’ (1775-1862; r.1837-57); for a few verses the current ruler was his predecessor, Akbar Shah II (r.1806-37). == {14,1}, shaahinshaah ; {110,8}; {120,12}; {121,8}, ;xusrav ; {124,7}, baadshaah ; {125,10}, ;hu.zuur ; {138,6}, farmaa;N-ravaa-e kishvar-e hinduustaan ; {174,9}; {177,8}; {177,9}, shahinshaah ; {178,10}; {180,6}; {181,7}; {218,1}, shahryaar ; {204,1}; {218,2}, baadshaah // {250x}, an ode
Shaikh / shai;x The Shaikh is a general emblem of complacent piety. He disdains the lover for ignoring the letter of the law, and the lover disdains him for ignoring its spirit. == {38,6}; {60,8}; {108,12x}, sneering; {204,7}; {121,9x}
Sheftah / navaab mu.s:taf;aa ;xaan sheftah Navab Mustafa Khan Sheftah (1806-69), poet and tazkirah writer, was an excellent friend and frequent correspondent of Ghalib's. == {86,9}; {97,13}
Shirin / shiiriin In Persian story tradition, the wife of Khusrau; she was also famously the beloved of Farhad.== {42,6}; {121,8}; {174,7} // {328x,1}; {416x,5}
Sikandar (Alexander) / sikandar Alexander the Great, the world-conqueror, was misled by Khizr and deprived of the Water of Life. == {166,7x}; {215,9} // {271x,6}, sadd-e sikandar ; {286x,7}, sadd-e sikandar ; {411x,3}
Sulaiman (Solomon) / sulaimaan An ideal type of the divinely guided king; see for example Qur'an 27:15-44, 38:30-40. == {95,1}; [{104,4x}], hoopoe; {120,12}; {192,7x}; {208,2}, throne; {216,5x}, seal // [{244,2}], hoopoe; {369x,8}, throne; {392x,1}, seal; {411x,3}; {416x,6}; {433x,2}
Tajammul Husain Khan / tajaamul ;husain ;xaan The Navab of Farrukhabad, a potential patron for Ghalib. == {234,9}
Talib Amuli / :taalib aamulii A Persian poet (d.1626) who was the poet laureate of Jahangir. == {17,2}* the famous 'fresh word' quote; {216,1}
Tur / :tuur the mountain on which Hazrat Musa experienced the presence of the Lord. (Quran 7:143; 28:29-30) == {40,4x}; {53,2}; {60,11}; {231,7} // {293x,3}; {333x,6}}; {369x,2}
Ustad / ustaad The Ustad is a recognized master of the art of poetry; he may or may not choose to accept and train shagirds == {11,3x}*; {15,15}; {34,2}; {36,11}*, in verse; {38,6}; {59,1}; {101,4}, in verse; {167,6} // {294x,4}, in verse
Vahshat / ;Gulaam ((alii ;xaan va;hshat Ghulam 'Ali Khan ‘Vahshat' was a friend and shagird of Ghalib's. == {86,9}
Va'iz (Preacher) / vaa((i:z As the voice of orthodoxy, the Preacher is even more irritating to the lover than the Shaikh, and for his part naturally considers the lover a hopeless reprobate. == {60,8}; {92,6}; {163,5}; {219,9}; {229,7}; {231,3} // {413x,6}
Yaqub (Jacob) / ya((quub The father of Hazrat Yusuf; he wept for his lost son until he ruined his eyes. == {61,2}; {111,1}; {111,4}; {204,4}, piir-e kan((aa;N // {340x,2}; {407x,2}
Yusuf (Joseph) / yuusuf Hazrat Yusuf, the Islamic counterpart of the Biblical Joseph, was one of the Prophets; his story is told at length in the Quran, Sura 12. See also Yaqub, and Zulaikha. == {10,9}; {36,6}; {61,2}; {94,5x}; {111,4}; {111,5}; {202,9} (also about Ghalib's brother Mirza Yusuf); {204,4}; {226,8x} // {323x,6}; {393x,1}
Zafar / bahaadur shaah :zafar The last nominal Mughal emperor, Bahadur Shah ‘Zafar’ (1775-1862; r. 1837-57) was a ghazal poet himself; he was a willing patron of Zauq, and after Zauq’s death a grudging patron of Ghalib. == {49,5}**, on misattributions; {90,5}; {111,1}; {163,1}; {163,2}; {163,9}; {164,14}; {217,2}; {231,9}
Zafar Iqbal / :zafar iqbaal Zafar Iqbal (1933-) is a modern Pakistani ghazal poet. == {86,7}
Zahid (Ascetic) / zaahid The Ascetic is a renunciant, always preaching the joys of the life to come and deprecating the pleasures of this world; he considers the lover self-indulgent, and the lover considers him shallow. == {10,1}; {85,2}; {109,5x}; {133,3}; {186,6x}, contempt; {196,6}; {203,1}; {224,3x} // {282x,6}; {341x,5}; {371x,5}; [{392x,3}]
Zamzam / zamzamThe name of a special sacred well in Mecca, near the Ka'bah. == {180,4}; {232,6}
Zauq / ;zauq Shaikh Muhammad Ibrahim ‘Zauq’ (1788-1854) was a contemporary and rival of Ghalib’s; Zauq preceded Ghalib in the prestigious post of royal Ustad, and Bahadur Shah always liked Zauq better. == {7,7}; {15,11}; {19,1}; {22,3}; {34,7}; {38,6}; {46,6}; {64,8x}; {77,8}; {78,6}; {91,8}; {97,3}; {151,4}; {178,10}; {202,6}; {211,8x}, an allusion?; {231,5}
Zuhuri / :zuhuurii A famously complex Persian poet (d.1615), cherished in India and ignored at home, who became the poet laureate of Sultan Ibrahim 'Adil Shah of Bijapur. == {92,7}; {100,9}
Zulaikha / zulai;xaa When Yusuf was a slave in Egypt, Zulaikha was his owner’s wife; because of her slave’s great beauty, she fell in love with him. The story is told in the Quran, 12:23-32. Another famous version of the story is told by the great Persian poet Jami in the fifteenth century. For discussion, see {194,5}. == {94,5x}; {111,5}; {117,5x}; {145,9x}; {145,14x}; {194,5}** on her dreams; {226,8x} // {299x,2}; {343x,1}; {359x,3}



 
 
 
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