INDEX OF
TECHNICAL TERMS

 
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THIS GLOSSARY IS IN ENGLISH ALPHABETICAL ORDER. MORE TERMS AND INFORMATION WILL BE ADDED TO IT AS THE COMMENTARY PROGRESSES.

STUDY MATERIALS: *SETS* — SELECTED VERSES GROUPED ACCORDING TO COMMON VOCABULARY OR STRUCTURE

STUDY MATERIALS: *GRAMMAR NOTES* — SOME HELP FOR STUDENTS (AND ALL OF US ARE STUDENTS)

ba;hr (meter) — For practical purposes, see the list of meters used for this site; it includes links to 'A Practical Handbook of Urdu Meter'. A ‘short meter’ [chho;Tii ba;hr] is a particularly important source of influence on the structure of a ghazal. == {21,1}; {21,13}; {27,1}; {35,1}; {54,5x}, constraining; {77,4}, words accord with foot-breaks; {85,1}; {91,3}, special effects; {96,4}, Ghalib's metrical choices; {115,1}, internal line-breaks, cheat-syllables; {170,3}; {197,2}, metrical wit. == Awkward scansions: {4,4}; {15,1}. Unusually long 'cheat syllable': {26,3}.
bait ul-;Gazal (high point of the ghazal) — ‘The ‘fruit’ [;haa.sil] of the ghazal, the verse that would be declared to be the best verse of some ghazal’. [dars-e balaa;Gat 151-52] == {26,6}; {26,7}; {100,6}; {111,8}; {115,8}; {120,10}; {124,5}, ;haa.sil-e zamiin ; {173,2}; {173,4}, of 'ground'; {193,1}; {201,8}; {202,6}; {208,2}; {208,11}; {219,8}, ;haa.sil-e zamiin ; {228,6}
bhartii (padding) — The use of unnecessary words simply to fill up all the (metrically required) space in the line. For discussion, see {17,9}.
buland-parvaazii (high-flyingness) — {5,4}; {18,1}; {85,4}
daliil (proof) — [info from Dars] {1,3}; {32,2}; {199,1}
diivaan (divan) — A collection of (some of) a single poet’s work, normally compiled by the poet himself. Within it poems are grouped into genres; ghazals are then alphabetized by the last letter of the refrain (or the rhyme if there is no refrain), but within each letter-group ghazals are arranged only according to the poet’s choice. Ghalib's divan circulates in a published, printed form curated by the poet himself. == {1,1}; {18,5}; {61,5}; {182,3x}
do-la;xt (two-part) — [do we need this one?] == {17,7}; {19,6} with def.; {126,6}; {167,6}
fard (individual verse)— A verse presented in isolation, as a kind of mini-ghazal. Asterisks mark those that apparently were originally composed as ‘individuals’; the rest were selected from longer ghazals for divan publication. == {2}; {23}; {52}*; {55}*; {65}; {74}; {82}; {84}; {84,8x} {93}; {103}*; {109}; {128}; {135}*; {144}*; {144,1}; {150}; {156}
;Gazal (ghazal) — [give Azad's def?] == {15,1}*, do-;Gazlah and formally identical ghazals; {26,10}; {37,2}, a macaronic ghazal; {46,6}, with a list of other genres too; {53,11}; {60,4}*, Nazm's advice for composition; {85,1}, ;Gazal-e musalsal ; {92,2}, sih-;Gazalah ; {111,1}, Ghalib boasts about it; {111,9}; {117,12}; {163,1}, Ghalib boasts about it; {167,5}, vs. na:zm ; {234,8}
;hamd (praise [of God]) — The first verse in a poet’s volume is traditionally expected to be one that praises God. == {1,1}; {91,2}
;husn-e ta((liil (elegance in assigning a cause) — 'ta((liil means 'to establish a reason' or 'to express a reason'. ;husn-e ta((liil is to give a fine and superior example of that action. If a reason is expressed for something such that even if it’s not real, it has in it some poetic richness and subtlety, and it has some affinity with reality and nature as well, then that is called ;husn-e ta((liil.’ (— dars-e balaa;Gat, pp. 49-50) == {1,1}; {1,3}; {1,5}; {6,3}; {16,7x}; {47,3x}; {48,5}; {48,7}; {48,10}; {49,2}; {58,7}; {60,5}; {61,1}; {74,1}; {75,4}; {75,7}; {80,8}; {111,1}; {111,11}; {130,3}; {140,6}; {143,3}; {143,4}; {147,1}; {196,2}; {208,4}; {210,4}
iihaam — Derived from the root vahm, the term literally means ‘to put into deception’. It refers to special kinds of punning. Mir defines it as a case when a poet uses a word with two meanings, one of which is well-known and one obscure, and leads the hearer to think initially of the well-known meaning, but it’s really the obscure meaning that the poet intends, so that he practices a kind of ‘misdirection’. The term is also used more loosely, for other kinds of wordplay that rely on double meanings and initial misdirection.  == {11,2}; {13,1}, both activated; {17,9}; {19,7}; {21,7}; {27,10x}; {31,2}; {34,4}; {34,8}; {49,5}; {56,5}*; {58,5}; {60,11}; {61,02}; {62,7}, petrified phrases; {62,10}; {68,4}; {69,1}; {71,7}; {91,10}; {91,11}; {98,11}**, me vs. Nazm; {100,3}; {108,6}; {114,4}; {115,3}; {120,3}*, on 'double activation' verses; {120,6}; {155,2}*; {156,2x}; {158,4}; {166,7x}; {182,1}; {191,7}*, Ghalib boasts; {196,6}; {208,3}; {208,7}; {217,5}; {234,7}
inshaa))iyah — A form of speech that is non-falsifiable— usually interrogative, exclamatory, vocative, subjunctive, hypothetical. It is defined in opposition to ‘informative’ [;xabariyah] speech. == {1,1}, with Faruqi's definition; {17,8}; {20,11}*, {34,7}; {51,10x}, both lines; {53,2}, both lines; {62,6}, {71,7}, {72,7}, {107,7}; {111,1}; {126,3}; {158,9}; {160,2}*; {166,5}; {178,10}; {208,5}
inti;xaab (selection) — An anthology or, literally, ‘selection’ of verses, either by one poet or by various poets of the anthologist’s choosing; some explanatory comments about the poets and poetry are often included. Ghalib referred to his published Urdu divan as an inti;xaab . == {4,8x}; {39,7x}; {82,3x}; {104,3x}, poor choice; {149,5}
i.slaa;h (correction) — The evaluation, criticism, and improvement that an Ustad performs on the poetry of a shagird. == {155,3}; {161,1}; {177,2}; {180,7}
isti((aarah (metaphor) — The term is often used rather loosely, since in the ghazal world it is sometimes hard to distinguish from the simile. == Some examples:{8,6x}, a double one; {10,1}, a 'reversed metaphor' [isti((aarah-e ma((kuus]; {24,3}; {30,3}; {34,1}; {34,7}; {45,2}; {50,5x}, too clear; {59,6}, discussion of poetics; {76,4x}, bizarre; {77,7}; {79,4x}*; {98,7}*, partial statement is best; {105,2}; {111,13}, root is exaggeration; {120,1}, contrasted with tam;siil ; {128,2x}, two jammed together; {146,1}; {152,3}*; {153,2}*; {153,8}
i.zaafat — This grammatical construction, borrowed from Persian, is very common in classical ghazal. Here is C. M. Naim's account of how it works. == {16,1}; {29,5x}; {56,2}, too many; {80,3}, complex; {81,8x}, 'loss of the izafat' [faq-e i.zaafat]; {109,5x}, grouping of three izafats is crucial; {173,8}, izafat of identity; {194,4}, too much Persian; {226,2}, noun-adjective-adjective == on noun compounds or 'reversed izafats' [i.zaafat-e maqluub] see {129,6x}.
kaifiyat (mood) — [def, srf?] == {5,6}; {17,2}; {17,8}*; {18,3}; {33,6}; {35,1}; {37,1}; {49,10}, used in verse; {58,8}, about Mir’s verse; {78,1}; {116,5}; {140,6}**; {145,1}; {156,2x}; {187,2}; {190,6}*; {210,5}; {211,1}
kinaayah (implication) — [def] == {19,1}; {36,3}**; {36,5}; {39,2}; {40,1}; {52,1}; {52,1}; {53,6}; {62,4}; {73,2}; {99,9}**; {106,3}; {107,2}**; {111,8}; {120,9}; {121,4}, def.; {126,3}; {130,2}*; {133,4}; {140,2}; {142,4x}; {151,2}; {159,4}*, Ghalib explains; {160,4}; {170,6}; {186,2}; {189,4}; {197,1}; {210,7}
kulliyaat (kulliyat) — A volume containing a poet's complete works, in all genres. == {92,2}
laff-o-nashr ('collecting and scattering')— 'In Rhetoric, “collecting and scattering”, a figure corresponding to the Chiasmus of the classics'. (Platts p.958) == {77,3}; {115,7}; {169,8}
laf:z-e taazah ('fresh word') — {17,2}**, the famous 'fresh word' quote; {23,2x}; {43,7}; {48,2}*; {137,4x}*; {153,4}; {154,1}; {155,4x}; {158,8}*; {164,9}*, commentators argue; {177,8}*, specificity; {196,2}
ma;h;zuuf (omitted)— This is a complaint made almost exclusively by Nazm: that some word has been (undesirably) omitted. == {12,1}; {17,7}; {19,6}; {20,3}; {24,7}; {27,2}; {33,7}; {35,3}; {35,4}; {36,7}; {37,1}: {42,4}; {53,5}; {59,7}* (as a virtue); {64,2}; *{72,7} (as a virtue); {88,1}; compare {95,3}; *{95,5}; {96,4}; {97,3}* (as a virtue); {97,5} (as a virtue); {97,8} (as idiomatic); {136,1}; {141,3}; {234,9}
ma((nii-aafiriinii (meaning-creation)Faruqi’s definition is the best and simplest. == {4,8x}; {15,10}; {20,8}; {28,1}; {27,3}; {34,5}; {38,6}; {43,3}; {43,6}; {74,1}; {77,1}**; {91,7}; {119,7} (Ghalib); {120,10}; {134,2}**, {166,1}; {228,2}; {231,5}
maq:ta(( (closing-verse) — Literally, ‘point of cutting off’. A verse that both includes the poet’s pen-name and appears as the last verse— or sometimes next-to-last, especially at the start of a verse-set, as in {48,9}, {131,6}, and {189,9}.) == {31,3} (none); {41,8}, echoes opening-verse; {75,7} (none); {89}, no opening or closing; {92,7}; {123,10}, used in verse; {123,11}, amusing substitution
mar;siyah (elegy) —  [cf. dars-e balaa;Gat pp. 140-42]== {66,1}; {86,9}; {99,1}; {139,1}**, an example; {145,5x}
ma;snavii (masnavi) —  [def] == {71,1}; {100,9}; {167,6}
ma:tla(( (opening-verse) —  In a ghazal, an (optional but extremely common) introductory, pattern-setting verse that has the rhyme (and refrain, if any) at the end of each of its two lines. == Ghazals with an extra opening-verse: {4,2}; {10,2}; {14,2}; {21,2}; {24,2}; {121,2}; {212,5x}; {146,3x} == {126,1}, ;husn-e ma:tla(( (used for an excellent verse that follows the opening-verse)
ma.zmuun (theme) — pl. ma.zaamiin. [def] == {1,1}; {17,2}* with famous 'fresh word' quote; {17,4}; {18,5}; {29,4}*, in verse; {29,6x}, in verse; {29,9x}*, in verse; {88,5x}, in verse; {108,1}*, in verse; {108,6}*, in verse; {111,13}; {136,2}*, in verse; {156,2x}*, in verse; {169,13}*, in verse; {192,4}, badly artificial; {192,6x}, poorly developed
ma.zmuun-aafiriinii (theme-creation) — The invention of new themes, is a form of originality much admired in the ghazal world. == {15,9}; {17,4}; {36,6}; {39,4}; {88,1}; {91,7}; {111,13}; {120,10}; {140,4}; {167,6}; {192,5}
mi.sra(( (line) — (how much explanation?) == {60,4}, def. of mi.sra(( lagaanaa (joining lines); {115,1}; {125,10}, mi.sra((-e ;tar;h , or ‘pattern line’ (for a mushairah); {167,6}; {201,1}; {204,5}; {223,1} on 'joining lines'. On the term pesh mi.sra(( : M{1450,6}
mu((aamilah-bandii (description of an affair) — (def) == {3,3}, literal use; {91,7}; {119,5}, literal use; {125,1}; {144,1}; {148,2}; {149,5}; {153,3}; {167,6}
mubaali;Gah (exaggeration) — (def) == {29,6x}; {50,8x}**; {94,3x}; {111,13}; {111,15}; {195,2}*
munaasibat (affinity) ; also munaasib , ‘suitable, harmonious’. [DEF]. See also muraa((at un-na:ziir. == {5,6}; {18,1}; {21,10}; {23,1}; {31,1}; {33,7}; {45,6x}; {48,10}*; {69,2}; {69,4x}; {75,3}; {111,11}; {143,6}; {145,6x}; {152,2}; {181,7}
muraa((at al-na:ziir (affinity) — Two words with a connection in their meanings, but not one of opposition and comparison (— dars-e balaa;Gat, pp. 56-57). See also munaasibat. == {1,1}; {69,2}; {95,2}; {112,5}; {114,2}; {117,3}
musalsal (continuous) — A ghazal that is meant to be read as a unified whole, with all its verses intact and in the order given on the page. Such ghazals tend to be narrative; they often have titles. == {15,1}; {57,1}; [{85,1}]; [{139,1}]; {181,1}*; {233,1}
mushaa((irah (mushairah) — A gathering of poets and patrons for recitation, appreciation, and literary discussion. In mushairah performance a poet recited the first line of a verse, then paused while the listeners responded; only after that did he go on to recite the first line followed by the second line. For more information and references, see Nets of Awareness, Chapter 5. == {14,1}; {14,9}; {43,6}; {43,7}; {111,1}; {201,1}; {208,1}; :tar;hii mushaa((irah (patterned mushairah) — [def] == {26,10}
mu;xammas (mukhammas) — ‘Every stanza includes five lines. In the first stanza, all five lines rhyme. In the later stanzas, the first four lines rhyme, but the fifth line breaks the rhyme. It can be repeated, or else its rhyme can be that of the first stanza.’ For more details, see dars-e balaa;Gat , p. 148. == {115,1}
naazuk-;xayaalii (delicacy of thought)Faruqi’s definition is nicely illustrated with a verse from Ghalib. == {4,8x}; {28,1}; {38,6}; {39,1}; {45,2}; {48,10}; {67,4x}; {68,8x}; {75,4}; {147,4x}; {147,6x}; {184,5x}; {192,4}, criticism
qaafiyah (rhyme) — In a ghazal, the rhyming syllable at the end of the second line of each two-line verse. It is most usually (though not always) followed by a refrain. == {4,2}; {9,7}, radical spelling adjustments; {24,2}; {26,8}; {49,2}; {51,10x}, same in both opening- and closing-verses; {60,4}; {95,1}*, vowel sounds; {108,2}; {114,1}; {123,4}, constraining; {125,1}, pronunciation skewed; {125,7}; {125,10}; {145,3}, qaafiyah-e shaa))igaan ('rhyme for free'); {163,1}, pronunciation skewed; {167,6}; {172,4x}; {174,4}; {196,8x}; {198,2}; {208,1}; {210,2}; {223,1}; {223,3x} (three repetitions). On qaafiyah-e ma((muulah ('contrived rhyme') == [{8,1}]; [{26,8}]; {26,9}*, definition and discussion; {35,1}; {136,7}; {234,7}; {234,10}
qa.siidah (ode) — A poem with a ‘purpose’ [maq.sad]. The term generally refers to poems in praise of something or someone— often a patron. == {14,2}; {46,6}; {74,1}; {92,7}; {95,1}; {167,6}; {168,1}; {178,1}; {181,1}
qaul-e mu;haal (paradox) — {23,1}; {23,4x}; {70,2}; {75,3}; {84,1}*; {97,1}; {102,3}; {111,11}; {111,14}; {112,3}**; {114,2}*; {115,6}; {121,4}*; {126,7}; {153,1}; {163,6}; {164,8}; {169,1}; {183,4}; {183,8}; {196,7}*; {189,5}; {198,2};
qi:t((ah (verse-set) —  Literally, ‘cutting, section’. Within a ghazal or qa.siidah , a series of verses meant to be read as a connected sequence. Its first verse is traditionally marked with the letter qaaf ; its final verse is not marked. Here, Arshi’s ‘official’ verse-sets are marked with an asterisk; many other ‘informal’ ones are also discussed. A qi:t((ah also sometimes appears as a separate poem == {15,2}; {15,13}, marked, {37,1}; {46,6}; {48,9}, marked; {49,4}*, marked; {53,6}*, marked; {59,6}; {70,1}; {71,8}; {84,6x}; {89,1}; {91,5}*, marked; verses enjambed; {91,7}; {95,1}, marked (betel nut one); {97,11}; {107,3}; {110,5}; {123,9}*, marked; {127,1}; {131,6}*, marked; {134,1}; {139,1}; {150,2x}; {162,4}*, marked; {164,4}; {164,9}*, marked; {169,6}*, marked; {177,9}*, marked; {181,1}*; {186,4}*, marked; {189,9}*, marked; {198,1}; {208,1}; {209,6}; {209,9}; {215,6}; {234,8}
rab:t (connection) — The quality of internal relationship, parallelism, and self-reference within a single verse, especially between its two lines. == {10,7}; {25,1}; {42,10x} (in the verse); {44,5x} (in the verse); {60,4}*, Nazm’s discussion of marbuu:t lines; {60,10}; {62,9}, Ghalib uses the term; {71,3}; {81,13x} (in the verse); {99,3}; {126,6}; {141,3}; {146,4x} (in the verse); {155,1}; {163,1}; {166,7x}, through wordplay; {167,6}*, more from Nazm; {197,3x} (in the verse)
radiif (refrain) —  In a ghazal, the identically repeated word or words at the end of the second line of each two-line verse, after the rhyme. A radiif is extremely common but not compulsory; an example in which radiif is preserved: {49}. == {49,1}; {53,11}; {58,1}*, refrains in translation; {83,1}, limiting; {85,1}; {116,1}; {167,6}
ravaanii (flowingness) — [fluency] == {8,4x}; {44,1}; {62,10}
ri((aayat (wordplay) — [give def] == {15,18x}; {23,1}*; {34,3}; {38,6}; {41,4}; {41,6}; {41,10x}; {42,2}; {43,7}; {44,1}; {48,10}*; {53,8}; {58,5}; {61,5}; {69,2}, as a sign of vulgarity; {71,2}; {76,3x}, most primitive verse; {77,4}; {81,12x}; {88,1}; {110,1}; {120,3}*, 'doubly activated'; {128,3x}, bad repetition; {166,7x}*, disapproval; {172,3|; {180,1}
rubaa((ii (quatrain) —  A four-line poem in one or more of a group of traditionally prescribed meters, usually rhyming AABA. == {46,6}; {120,1}; {141,1}
sahl-e mumtana(( (‘unattainably simple’) — The kind of verse that makes you think you can go home and do the same thing. But you can’t. == {3,4}; {4,6}, {20,8}; {95,6}, in slightly altered form; {95,6}*; {97,10}, in slightly altered form; {155,2}; {179,2}
.san((at (verbal device) — A general term of broad meaning, including a whole range of stylistic and rhetorical possibilities; these are usually analyzed into devices of word ( laf:zii ) and of meaning ( maa((navii ). == {1,1}; {5,1}; {18,3}; {37,2}, macaronic; {42,6}; {49,11}; {53,5}; {56,5}; {59,5}; {59,9}; {60,11}; {69,1}; {69,2}; {75,7}; {89,1}; {98,2}; {111,13}; {126,6}; {131,1}, Nazm explicates; {152,2} == The device called 'doubt about derivation' [shubh'h-e ishtiqaaq]: {57,11x}*, {58,3}
shar;h (commentary) — A systematic analytical discussion and explanation of all or some of the verses of a poet’s diivaan . == {34,3}; {49,11}; {69,1}; {84,8x}; {119,7}
shi((r (verse) —  A distich or two-line verse, treated in the ghazal as an independent poetic unit; both lines must be in the same meter and must make a complete poetic effect of their own, without regard to the rest of the poem. The second line must end in the rhyme and refrain (if any). In Persian, the term bait is more commonly used for the verse. == {14,1}; {53,11}; {60,4}*, Nazm's advice for composition; {114,7}; {126,1}, bait ; {149,5}; {150,2x}, in verse; {167,6}*, autonomy
tajaa;hul-e ((aarifaanah (feigned ignorance) — [def] == {1,1}: {46,7}; {98,6}*; {162,1}**; {162,4}
takraar (repetition) — For discussion and examples (including more general instances of padding), see {17,9}; see also 'repetition' on the SETS page.
tam;siil (allegory) — {47,1}; {78,2}; {98,7}; {102,3}; {120,1}*; {166,4}; {174,8}; {199,3}*
:tar;h (pattern) — Specification of meter, rhyme, and refrain, such that any two ham-:tar;h or 'pattern-sharing' ghazals will be formally identical (for discussion see {15,1}), and their verses could be commingled undetectably. == {8,5x}; {26,10}; {89,1}; {123,5}*; {209,1}
tarii;x (chronogram) — See the abjad system. == {202,9}
tar.sii(( (parallelism) — ‘Making the words of a clause of rhyming prose, or of verse, conformable in their measures, and agreeing, in their latter parts, with the corresponding words of the corresponding clause (cf. mura.s.sa(( )’. (Platts p.318) == {22,5}*; {22,6}; {26,8}; {31,1}; {34,5}; {49,11}; {62,9}; {62,10}; {63,1}; {71,2}; {71,7}**; {77,4}*, words accord with foot-breaks; {91,3}; {91,7}; {126,6}, applied to metrical feet; {194,2}
tashbiih (simile) — Although it technically means ‘simile’, the term is often casually used in cases where metaphor would be more correct. == {8,6x}, a double one; {15,3}, implicit; {23,1}; {25,6}*; {29,2}; {49,8}; {59,6}, discussion of poetics; {98,4}; {98,7}; {137,2}
tavaarud (coincidence) — The unintentional duplication of another poet’s verse. == {60,4}
ta;xallu.s (pen-name) — A literary pseudonym adopted by a poet; it is often a meaningful word, and may or may not have some connection with the poet’s real name. It is usually incorporated into the last verse of each poem (which thus became a closing-verse), as a kind of signature meant to be apparent in oral performance. == {4,11x}, integrated; {5,9x}, 'Asad' to 'Ghalib; {6,6}, integrated; {66,5}; {86,9}; {111,1}; {132,7}, integrated; in the penultimate verse: {186,4}; {203,5}. Other poets' names too were incorporated, notably that of 'Bedil'. == {36,11} (Mir); {40,5x} (used in verse); {92,7} (Mir); {92,8x} (Mir); {100,9}
ta.zaad (opposition) — [def] == {76,1}
;xayaal-bandii (inventiveness) — [Get SRF def.] == {15,1}; {61,2}
zamiin (ground) — The specification of a certain rhyme and refrain; two ghazals in the same zamiin will be similar but not necessarily identical, since their meters may differ. (Only ghazals in the same :tar;h are always formally identical.) == {11,3x}*; {29,5x}; {52,1}; {58,3}*, a ‘stony’ ground; {59,1}, a ‘stony’ ground; {92,2}; {111,1}; {115,8}; {125,1}; {125,10}, difficult?; {173,4}; {193,1}
.zil((a — A form of punning. MORE DEF. NEEDED. == {5,4}; {6,4}; {23,1}**, with definition; {34,8}; {69,2}*; {75,2}; {75,3}; {92,7}; {100,8}; {101,8}; {102,2}; {101,8}; {111,11}; {114,2}; {121,8}; {131,1}; {137,1}; {143,6}; {147,2}; {147,3}; {152,1}; {152,2}; {152,4}; {167,6}*; {182,1}


 
 
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