0 428,



ek ma;hruum chale miir hamii;N ((aalam se
varnah ((aalam ko zamaane ne diyaa kyaa kyaa kuchh

1) a single deprived one, Mir, only/emphatically ourself, went from the world
2) otherwise, what-all things the age has given to the world!



ma;hruum : 'Forbidden, prohibited; debarred, excluded (from hope, or favour); frustrated, disappointed, repulsed; denied, or refused (a gift, or good, or prosperity); deprived (of), plundered (of); deprived of the support of life; unlucky, unfortunate, wretched; unable to earn anything'. (Platts p.1008)


((aalam : 'The world, the universe; men, people, creatures; regions; ... —age, period, time, season; state, condition, case, circumstances'. (Platts p.757)


zamaanah : 'Time, period, duration; season; a long time; an age; ... —the world; the heavens; fortune, destiny'. (Platts p.617)

S. R. Faruqi:

The verse no doubt has 'mood', but its theme is apparently utterly shopworn and devoid of depth. The 'mood' too of the verse isn't very far from the 'romantic sorrow' of [Mirza Shauq's] masnavi zahr-e ((ishq :

le ke dil me;N tumhaarii yaad chale
baa;G-e ((aalam se naa-muraad chale

[having taken your memory in our heart, we went on
from the garden of the world, unfulfilled, we went on]

Momin has said, in a much better style:

tum hamaare kisii :tara;h nah hu))e
varnah dunyaa me;N kyaa nahii;N hotaa

[you did not, in any way, become ours
otherwise, in the world what does not exist/happen?!]

But Mir, by making a distinction between zamaanah and ((aalam , has created an additional point in his verse. Here, by ((aalam is meant the physical world of dust and brick in which we live; and by zamaanah , the principle of history and time that operates in the world. But here there may also be an allusion to the famous 'divine hadith' attributed to God, 'Do not abuse the age/world, for the age/world is from Me'. Thus the zamaanah provides to the ((aalam the necessities and blessings of life. And the ((aalam delivers these goods and blessings to the people, or divides them among them. Thus the speaker has no complaint against the zamaanah ; rather, everything was there in the world, but nothing of it reached us.

It should be understood that among hadith specialists, there's the suspicion that the above hadith is not 'divine' [that is, directly God-sent]. But here we're not considering that. Ordinary people in any case believe it to be a divine hadith. The basic point is that Mir probably had this divine hadith in mind and thus did not abuse the age. Rather, he has put the whole blame on the head of the world-- that the world did not convey to us the goods and property that had been collected by the age.

It's also clear that the 'deprivedness' that is mentioned in the verse can be a spiritual deprivation. It can also be the deprivation of the lover (for union the simile of 'wealth' is used; for wisdom and mystical knowledge too the simile of 'wealth' is common). And this 'deprivation' can also be of worldly wealth and property.

There's also the possibility that in the first line ((aalam might mean the world, and in the second line ((aalam might mean the people of the world. For example, we say falaa;N kii shaadii me;N saaraa ((aalam ;Tuu;T pa;Raa . Now the meaning becomes that we alone left the world disappointed; otherwise, the age gave a great deal to the rest of the people of the world.

Sauda and Mir both have composed ghazals of fourteen or so verses in this 'ground', but Sauda has omitted the rhyme-word of diyaa , while in Mir's ghazal the verse with this rhyme turned out to be the masterpiece of the ghazal [;haa.sil-e ;Gazal]. Mus'hafi has composed fifteen verses, and the truth is that Mus'hafi's ghazal is much better than Sauda's. The rhyme-word of diyaa , Mus'hafi has versified in a new aspect. The verse isn't very good, but it would be unfair not to do justice to its 'search':

ham ne hii qadr nah kii daulat-e dunyaa kii dare;G
varnah ham ko bhii falak ne thaa diyaa kyaa kyaa kuchh

[only/emphatically we didn't value the wealth of the world, alas!
otherwise, to us too, what-all things the sky gave]



If we look closely at ((aalam and zamaanah , their range of meanings is so nearly identical that they differ mostly in emphasis (see the definitions above). Broadly speaking, ((aalam means 'world' first and 'age' second; zamaanah means 'age' first and 'world' second. Apart from possible reference to that hadith, what does it mean to exclaim at how many things the 'age' has given to the 'world'? It would make just as much sense to exclaim at how many things the 'world' has given to the 'age', since neither of these abstractly vague exclamations is very evocative of anything in particular.

Their chief aim, in my view, is to create just that air of universality, of generalization. Thus the contrast is maximized with the speaker, 'Mir', that one small hapless individual. For the main point, after all, is that in the midst of a vast network of abundance and gift-giving, the speaker is solitary and 'deprived'-- deprived even of his life, since in this state he has left the world.