Delhi under the later Mughals (1707-1857)

REGIONAL MAPS: Delhi was surrounded by the Sikhs, the Jats, the Marathas, and the Navab of Avadh, with the Afghans looming to the northwest-- and the British on the move
Aurangzeb's first successor was Shah Alam I (r.1707-12); after a bloody succession struggle, Jahandar Shah reigned only during a brief period in 1712-13; *a full dynastic list*; *a detailed Mughal family tree*
Muhammad Farrukh-siyar reigned from 1713 to 1719; his brief and turbulent rule was commemorated in the city of *Farrukhabad* (1713)
The year 1719-20 saw an astonishing turnover: Rafi ud-Darjat, Rafi ud-Daulat, Nikusiyar, and Muhammad Ibrahim all died almost as soon as they took the throne
Next came Muhammad Shah (r.1719-48), who had a relatively long reign-- but it wasn't at all peaceful
He couldn't prevent the terrible massacre and sack of Delhi (1738-39) by Nadir Shah, who carried off, along with much else, the fabled Peacock Throne
Ahmad Shah ruled from 1748-54, and was succeeded by Alamgir II (r.1754-59) and Shah Jahan III (r.1760)
As the empire declined, the last Mughal tomb built in Delhi (1753-4) was built by a regional ruler, Navab Shuja ud-Daulah of *Avadh*, for his father, Safdar Jang
Imperial status didn't save Shah Alam II (r.1760-1806) from being captured and blinded by the Afghan chieftain Ghulam Qadir
As other ambitious adventurers and looters then took their turns, the later Mughals' control even over Shajahanabad itself became steadily less secure

Some European depictions of the later Mughals; *Racinet* too did a whole set
Delhi cultural styles remained highly Islamicized
Delhi's traditional craftsmen continued to be famous for their skills

Akbar Shah II (r.1806-37) holds court, receiving not just the usual courtiers, but British officers as well
By the early 1800's, the Mughal emperor had no real armies at all--only a palace guard prepared more for pageantry than for military action
Portraits of the last Mughal emperor, Bahadur Shah (r.1837-57)
(Meantime, just next door: a look at Muhammad Shah Qajar of Iran, r.1834-48)
The Mughal throne came down with a tremendous crash, when the British retook Delhi after the rebellion of 1857
"Mirzas of the Imperial Family," 1878

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