shahr se yaar savaar hu))aa jo savaad me;N ;xuub ;Gubaar hai aaj
dashtii va;hsh-o-:tair us ke sar-tezii hii me;N shikaar hai aaj

1) when/since the beloved set out from the city, in the environs there's a good deal of dust today
2) the wild/desert creatures, wild animals and small birds are prey to only/emphatically her 'sharp-headedness', today



savaad : 'Blackness; black colour; blackening; soot; smoke; black clothing; the black or inner part of the heart, the heart's core; the rural district (of any province or town), environs (of a city), suburbs'. (Platts p.691)

S. R. Faruqi:

savaad = environs, surrounding areas
va;hsh = wild animal
:tair = small bird

He has given the meter so much differentiation [tanavvu((] that at first glance it fools one into thinking that this isn't the same meter as that of the previous ghazal [{1589}] and other very famous ghazals.

Then, in the first line the narrativity of ardor and praise is extremely excellent. The beloved's swift movement has kicked up dust, the surroundings have been more or less hidden in this dust. The word savaad also means 'blackness' and 'a group of buildings or people'. For example, savaad-e a((:zam -- that is, 'big city' (the great Mecca), or 'a quantity of people', or a city or buildings that can be seen dimly in the distance, or some person who is dimly visible from afar, or the suburbs of a city that look black in the distance; these are also called savaad , as in this peerless and famous verse of Yaganah's:

dhuvaa;N saa jab na:zar aayaa savaad manzil kaa
nigaah-e shauq ke aage thaa qaafilah dil kaa

[when the environs of the halting-place became visible like smoke
before the eye of ardor was the caravan of the heart]

In the present verse, the word savaad seizes hold of all these usages. There's the clamor of the beloved's setting out; the surroundings are dark with dust. Because the speaker is happy at heart, or by way of additional praise, he says that since all the birds and beasts of the jungle are hers alone, today there will be a hunt with the tips or the sharp edges of her eyelashes. The word sar-tezii is used for the sharp-pointedness of something, but especially for the sharp-pointedness of eyelashes and fingernails. See


In the verse a number of words, and their constructions, are very fresh. The suggestion that the beloved will hunt, and that the lover's heart is warm with happiness, is also very fine. The rule is that we feel as proud of the achievements of someone we love, as we would of our own achievements.

Mir has also expressed a reflection of this theme in the second divan [{698,11}] (with tiir meaning 'desert, field'):

muddat se jargah jargah sar-e tiir hai;N ;Gazaal
kam ho gayaa hai yaaro;N kaa shauq-e shikaar kyaa

[for some time there have been herds of gazelles all over the field
as if the friends' relish for the hunt has become less?!]

Abbasi [in an earlier edition] has read sar-e tez . That is probably on an analogy with the present verse. It's clear that here it's not the place for sar-e tez .



This ghazal is the second of a set of two about which SRF makes special claims for an over-all 'musical' effect; see


for his discussion. Because of these special whole-ghazal claims, as a case study I am examining all the verses of this ghazal, including those SRF omits from his commentary.

The first line of this verse is the only line of 'Hindi meter' I know in which every single possible substutition of two short syllables for one long syllable has been made. On this unusual instance see A Practical Handbook of Urdu Meter, *Mir's meter*. The effect is to render the first line exceedingly choppy and repetitive-feeling; it's not very 'flowing' to read, though it does perhaps have a jolting charm of his own. Probably this is part of what SRF means when he says Mir has given it such 'differentiation'.

The jumpy, thumpy repetition of / = - - / the whole line through (except of course for the last, shortened foot) also adds to the sound effects of yaar , savaar , savaad , ;Gubaar .