Ghazal 53, Verse 10


mihrbaaniihaa-e dushman kii shikaayat kiijiye
yaa bayaa;N kiije sipaas-e la;z;zat-e aazaar-e dost

1) would/should one make a complaint of the kindnesses of the enemy?
2) or would praise be expressed, of the pleasure of the affliction of the friend/beloved?


kiije is an archaic form of kiyaa jaa))e (GRAMMAR)


bayaan : 'Declaration, assertion, affirmation; explanation, exposition, description, relation, disclosure, unfolding, circumstantial indication or evidence'. (Platts p.205)


sipaas : 'Praise, thanksgiving'. (Platts p.634)


la;z;zat : 'Pleasure, delight, enjoyment; sweetness, deliciousness; taste, flavour, relish, savour; --an aphrodisiac; an amorous philter'. (Platts p.955)


aazaar : 'Sickness, disorder, disease, infirmity; trouble, affliction; injury, outrage'. (Platts p.45)


== Nazm page 49

Bekhud Dihlavi:

Complaint should be made of the enemy's cruelty-mixed 'kindnesses', or gratitude should be expressed for the beloved's tyranny. (93-94)



This is the fifth and last verse in a five-verse verse-set that begins with {53,6} and is discussed by the commentators there.

This final verse in the verse-set plays on the ambiguous at best (or hypocritical and cruel at worst) 'kindly' behavior of the Other about which we've heard in the earlier verses of the verse-set. Here the speaker has called him the 'enemy', so that it will resonate with 'friend/beloved' in the second line. A complaint is perhaps to be made about his behavior-- but to whom?

The complaint could perhaps be made to the Other himself (about his own 'kindnesses'); or just possibly to the beloved (about the Other's 'kindnesses'). The lover is talking to himself, making plans for future actions-- if indeed he will ever carry them out. The vagueness of kiijiye , which is often used for generalized suggestions addressed to one or more unspecified persons, leaves the degree of his resolve unclear.

As so often, we're deep into the realm of paradox: complaint about the 'kindnesses' of an enemy, praise for the pleasure of the pain inflicted by the 'friend'. After all, the joy of the torments of passion is at the heart of the ghazal world. On the phrase la;z;zat-e aazaar , see {112,4}.

Note for grammar fans: Here's a very clear juxtaposition of kiijiye , the polite imperative of karnaa , with kiije , an archaic form of the subjunctive kiyaa jaa))e , also from karnaa . I used to think that kiije was simply a (metrically convenient) shortened form of kiijiye , since that possibility looks plausible at first glance. But it's not, and I thank Peter Hook for providing the correct explanation. A careless kaatib might make the two forms look similar, but a meter-knower can never be fooled: notice that they scan differently (long-short-flexible versus long-flexible); this scansion difference is maintained systematically wherever either one appears.