== GRAMMAR NOTES ==

(SOME STUDY MATERIALS)

Normal Urdu/Hindi grammar is relatively easy and straightforward. But Ghalib’s verses make life difficult for everybody. Even if you’re a modern native speaker, there will probably be aspects of Ghalib’s grammar that you’ll need to study. (Modern English speakers need to do a bit of work when they read Shakespeare, too.)

If you’d like more systematic help, check out the Urdu/Hindi resource page—especially the Naim grammar materials made available there.

divider

COMMON GRAMMAR and USAGE PATTERNS (some examples for practice)

AANAA == {97,3}; {142,1}
AAP as polite 3rd person pronoun == {4,7}; {210,5}
AAP as oneself == {17,3}; {92,7}
AGAR colloquially omitted from if/then == {36,1}; {111,5}; {122,1}
‘ALWAYS’ CONSTRUCTION == {46,6}; {151,1}; {151,6}; {151,9}; {214,14x}; {215,1}; {215,4}
APNAA and its ambiguities == {15,12}
AUR PHRASES== {3,1}; {62}; {66}; {86,4}
BAAT, colloquially omitted == {59,2}
BAH spelled as BAA for meter == {94,2}
BHII == {112}; {132}; {158,5}; {173,4}; {175,3}; {189,3}
CHAAHIYE and its complexities == {81,11x}; {188,3x}; {189}
COMPOUND VERBS == {5}, {19,5}; {20,2}; {25}; {27,6}; {36,6}; {46,2}; {46,4}; {48}; {90,5}; {137,1}; {201,4}
CONTINUATIVES == {20,1}
CONTRAFACTUAL == {20}, {31}, {32}; {61,4}; {62,6}; {62,9}; {66,7}; {99,5}; {177,1}?; {179,3}
DEKHNAA (look at, see)== {106,1}; {106,4}; {120,5}; {125,5}*; {153,1}
DIRECT DISCOURSE == {140,2}*
DISTRIBUTIVE FORMS== {10,11}; {15,12}; {16,1}
EXCLAMATIONS == {2,1}; {7,7}; {17,8}
FUTURE == {25}
FUTURE IMPERATIVE =={141,7}; {176,5} (subj.); {196,4}
FUTURE SUBJUNCTIVE == {14,4}; {46}; {88}; {89}; {99,1}; {124,1}; {163,1}
HII == {115,1}
IMPERATIVE == {56}, {79}
INFINITIVE == {1,2}; {17}, {48}
INFINITIVE as neutral imperative == {111,16}; {147,3}
INTERROGATIVE == {85}
INTRANSITIVE VERSUS TRANSITIVE) == {26,8}; {52,1}; {72,3}; {170,3}; {191,1}; {191,8}
IS versus US == {173,2}
IZAAFAT == {16,1}*; {49}, {53}, {80}; {96,3} and {97,8}, doubled final consonant; {173,8}, equational
JAANNAA for ‘consider’ == {16,5}
JAB KIH == {53,8}; or JO KIH, {39,4}
JAB TAK with NAH == {38,4}; {214,1}
JO for JAB == {12,2}
KAA vs. KE PAAS == {140,4}
KAHIIN as ‘lest’ indicator == {106,3}; {121,7}; {151,7}; {191,3}
KAR CONSTRUCTION == {60}; KE instead: {29,4}, {29,6x}, {53,9}; {49,7}; {56,5}; {72,4};
KAR CONSTRUCTION as adverbial == {53,9}
KAR DELETION == {58,7}
KAASH == {31,3}; {43,3}; {132,4}; {162,3}; {179,2}; {191,3}; {202,5}; {208,12}
KE of possession as not agreeing == {57,2}
KHONAA as both trans. and intrans. == {153,6}
KIH == see the examples on the SETS page
KO in place of KE LIYE == {140,1}; {174,10}
KO, grammar problems: {35,6}
LAGNAA and LAGAANAA == {105,1}
LAGNAA with OBLIQUE INFINITIVE == {4,5}
MAANNAA as either trans. or intrans. == {125,8}
MILNAA == {97,1}
NAH...NAH == {3,3}; {20,9}; {119,8} (second one omitted)
NAH spelled as NE for meter == {98,4}; {169,2}; {169,11}
NE vs. non-NE FORMS == {153,9}
NEGATION complexities == {87,3}
NOUN COMPOUNDS == {129,6x}
OBLIQUE PLURAL AS INCLUSIVE == {219,1}
OMISSION OF SUBJECT == {97,3}
OMISSION OF INITIAL AGAR/JAB == {57,3}; {59,8}; {62,1}; {62,4}; {62,5}; {62,10}; {125,3}
PA;RNAA == {80,2}
‘PASSIVE OF IMPOSSIBILITY’ == {205,4}
PAST PARTICIPLE or PERFECT TENSE? == {115,2}*
PAST PARTICIPLE, ADJECTIVAL == {4,5}; {7,2}; {87,7}; {97,9}; {126,11}; {131,4}, with hu))e omitted; {137,2}, jale hu))o;N ; {142,1}, with hu))ii omitted; [{160,3}, with hu))ii omitted]
PAST PARTICIPLE, ADVERBIAL == {16,3}; {19,4}; {59,1}*, with ba;Gair ; {70,3}, with hii ; {77,5}, {80,2}, with hu))e omitted; {115,2}, with hu))e omitted; {151,4}; {151,7}, with ba;Gair ; {233}
PAST PARTICIPAL, NOMINATIVE == {174,5}
PERFECT (INTRANSITIVE) == {3,4}; {5}; {6}; {14}, {34}, {35}, {41}, {164,9} (discussed in connection with participle)
PERFECT (TRANSITIVE) == {4}; {18,5}; {19,7}; {29}
PERFECT used for subjunctive == {35,9}*
PERFECT == skewed correlation with English == {38,1}*
PHIR == {4,5}
POLITE IMPERATIVE used for subjunctive == {10,2}; {68,9x}; {91,2}; {116,5}; {127,3}; {130,1}; {153,4}; {157,5}; {178,9}; {220,1}
POSSESSIVE as both ‘of’ and ‘belonging to’== {41,6}*
POSTPOSITIONS == {57}, {59}, {61}, {64}, {72}, {78}; {87,7}
POSTPOSITIONS == GHOSTPOSITIONS == {160,3} (adverb of time)
PRESENT HABITUAL == {61,6}, with hai omitted; {86}
PRESENT HABITUAL TO EXPRESS FIRM RESOLVE == {119,10}
PRESENT PARTICIPLE, ADVERBIAL == {53,9}
PRESENT PARTICIPLE, ADVERBIAL, DOUBLED == {48,7}; {52,1}; {72,3}; {97,4}
PRESUMPTIVE == {10,11}*; {111,1}; {178,5}; {232,9}
RELATIVE PRONOUNS, JAB-TAB == {173,3}
RELATIVE PRONOUNS, JITNAA-UTNAA == {98,5}
RELATIVE PRONOUNS, JO-VUH == {6,3}; {10,1}
RESTRUCTIVE vs. UNRESTRICTIVE clauses == {229,6}
SAA/SE/SII == {14,5}; {22,1}; {86,4}
SAKNAA == {3,6}; {7,6}; {20,3}; {89}
SAMAJHNAA as ‘to believe’ == {90,3}
SE == {58,7}; {103,2x}; {190,1}
SINGULAR VERB after plural subjects == {64,3}
SUBJECT OMITTED == {138,6}; {220,1}
SUBJUNCTIVE (two senses) == {191,7}
SUNNAA as both ‘hear’ and ‘listen to’ =={51,7x}; {186,3}; {199,3}
VOCATIVE == {84,2x}
YAA / YAA as ‘now’ and ‘then’ == {139,6}; {176,7}; {177,7}
YUUN == {30,1}

divider

IDIOMATIC EXPRESSIONS

IDIOMS == Also, see the many complex examples linked on the SETS page.

a;hvaal as singular == {57,4}
baat
colloquially omitted == {59,2}
bai;Thnaa
in liye bai;Thaa == {132,6}
balaa
== {58,1}
banaa))e nah bane etc. == {191,8}
bas == {210,1}
bhalaa == {21,11}
bhuule se == {151,8}
bhii == sometimes it doesn’t mean either ‘too’ or ‘even’— {232,9}
chhuu;Taa == kisii se chhuu;Taa = something was reluctantly, under duress, left by X. == {85,6}
dekhaa jaanaa as ‘endure’ == {153,1}
dekhiye as ‘let’s see’ == {98,4}
farmaanaa for karnaa == {19,1}; {19,2}; {25,6}
goyaa == {5,1}
haa;N as ‘indeed’ == {36,4}; {66,5}
ho kar as ‘by way of’ == {49,5}
hotii aa))ii hai == {86,1}
hii sahii == {9,4}; {91,4}; {148}
jaatii hai ko))ii == {7,5}
jo in non-relative uses == {20,9}
jo kih == {39,4}
kahaa;N yih, kahaa;N vuh == {27,2}; {85,7}; {219,9}
kahe ba;Gair etc. == {59,1}
kahii;N as ‘somehow’ == {193,3}
kar bai;Thnaa == {90,5}
kisii ko kuchh kahnaa == {86,3}
ko))ii == special emphatic negative use, {7,5}; {119,9}, {148,7}
ko))ii == idiomatic non-oblique uses: {66,1}
ko))ii batlaa))o , etc. == {46,7}
kuchh idioms == {89,2}
le chalnaa == {231,9}
lo for ‘just look at this!’ == {99,5}
ma((luum == {4,3}*
ma((nii as singular == {57,4}
passive for absolute impossibility == {153,1}; {205,4}
rahaa for rahe (futr. subj.) == {102,1}
sahii and its special uses with nah and hii == {9,4}
to == {193,1}
vuh to mean aisaa == {14,6}; {20,6}; {22,2}; {23,1}; {31,2}; {49,4}; {68,9x}; {84,6x}; {84,7x}; {84,8x}; {101,3}; {107,6}; {123,8}; {153,4}; {184,2}*; {184,3}; {197,2}; {214,7}; {214,10}; {223,6x}; {229,4}; {230,4}; {234,3}
vuhii to mean aisaa hii == {6,11x}; {36,4}
yih to mean aisaa == {10,1}; {11,2}; {40,5x}; {58,2}; {84,5x}; {153,4}; {201,2}; {210,7}; {217,1}; {226,3}; {229,8x}
;xaak idioms == {114,1}
yak- as a Persianized idiom-former == {11,1}
;zaraa == {177,2}; {193,5}; {207,3}

divider

ARCHAISMS

aave;Nge for aa))enge, etc. == An archaic form of the future and subjunctive. == {9,9x}; {19}; {59,3}; {61,5}; {68,3}; {73,1}; {84,5x}; {85,6}; {86,9}; {90,3}; {117,3}; {120,7}; {126,3}; {143,6}; {145,5x}; {147,1}; {173}; {192,4}; {195}; {196,5}: {201,2}; {204,10}; {205,8}; {207,3}; {209,3}; {224,1}; {225,1}

bin aa))e etc. == {191,2}

dekhaa chaahiye for dekhnaa chaahiye == {1,3}

dekhe se for dekhne se == {174,5}

future imperative examples:
== second person, with tum :
rahyo == {92,4}
rakhyo
== {14,1}; {177,13}
samajhyo == {171,2}
==second person, with tuu : diijiyo == {186,1}
==second person, with aap : huujiye == {72,5}

== third person:
aa))iyo == {176,5}
aa jaa))iyo == {141,7}
dikhaa))iyo == {229,8x}
huujiyo == {77,3}
huujo == {190,6}
khaa))iyo == {196,4}
liijo == {83,2}

Note by Prof. Peter Hook (Nov. 2009): The - o ending for the third person imperative derives (most probably) from Skt. -atu as in bhavatu ‘So be it’ (‘Let’s move on to the next topic’) and is still productive in Marathi and Shina. The -j- in huujo is a survival of a (reconstructed) passive form *bhuuyyatu used in later times as a 3rd-person (or a polite) imperative in place of bhuuyataam ‘May it be...’ or ‘Please be...’.

guzre for guzarne == {49,3}

hii forms == {90,5}; {210,2}

hote tak == {78}

hu))e par == {16,5}; {114,2}

jaa))e hai for jaataa hai, etc. == Note by Prof. Peter Hook (April 2003): ‘The jaa))e hai , jaa))o ho , jaa))uu huu;N , jaa))e;N hai;N pattern is an ‘archaic present’, an alternate but now obsolescent form of the present habitual. The pattern is still found in standard Marwari and Gujarati ( jaa))uu chhuu , jaa))o chho , jaa))e chhe ). Undoubtedly it must also survive in many rural dialects spoken in UP, MP, Haryana, and Rajasthan. Whether jaa))e hai is older than jaataa hai is hard to say. It might represent a conflation of Eastern jaa))e (still used in some places in UP in its ancient OIA present habitual sense and in some frozen phrases and formulae) with the more westerly jaataa hai , a later (MIA?) innovation.’ Note by Christina Oesterheld (December 2004): ‘Helmut Nespital has discussed the emergence of the “old present” in Urdu poetry in “The linguistic structure of Hindavi, Dakkhini, early Urdu and and early Khari Boli Hindi” (Berliner Indologische Studien, Band 11/12, Reinbek: Dr. Inge Wezler Verlag für Orientalistische Fachpublikationen, 1998, pp.195-218). Another source is Stuart McGregor, “The Language of Indrajit of Orcha: A Study of Early Braj Bhasa Prose“ (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1968).’ == {13,6}; {17,2}; {17,4}; {27,5}; {42,9x}; {48,9}; {49,6}; {49,7}; {51,2}; {53,8}; {57,9}; {58,8}; {60,5}; {60,8}; {64,2}; {67,3}; {69,1}; {72,6}; {75,3}; {75,7}; {77,5}; {78,2}; {80,8}; {81,2}; {86,4}; {92,2}; {93,3x}; {101,7}; {116,2}; {116,9}; {120,7}; {131,6}; {149,2}; {149,3}; {151,3}* {152,4}; {153} (most verses; in {153,5} it's used together with the modern form); {158,4}; {167,4}; {170,3}; {177,10}; {178,10}; {185,1} (though not necessarily); {187,1} de hai ; {190,1}; {193,2}; {193,6x}, kahve hai ; {196,6}; {199,1}; {201,3}; {205}; {208,8}; {208,9}; {210,5}; {228,5}; {233,8}; {233,10}; {233,12}; {233,13}; {233,14}

kisuu kii , etc. == {186,3}; {187,3x}

kam hu))e pah == {16,5}

ke tale for ke niiche == {101,7}

kiije == According to S. R. Faruqi, it’s an archaic short form of kiijiye . According to some members of the Urdulist, it’s a still-current short form of kiijiye . The linguist Peter Hook derives it from the Sanskrit kriyate ‘(it) is done’, probably like this: kriyate => kiryati => kijjadi => kijjai => kiije . He says, ‘The changes include metathesis, analogical leveling, perseverative as well as anticipatory assimilation, voicing of intervocalic stops, compensatory lengthening, monophthongization, and syncope. Together with the changes in form there was a change in function from passive voice and present tense to passive subjunctive (or—sometimes—imperative)’ (Oct. 2009). Examples include {4,1}; {5,4}; {9,6}; {53,10}*; {119,1}; {119,7}; {123,4}; {125,3}; {132,6}; {140,3}; {148,2}; {177,10}; {182,1}; {192,2}; {201,8}; {202,7}; {209,7}. Ghalib also uses diije in two verses: {68,3}, {209,8}; all parties would maintain their own similar analyses as in the case of kiije . He never uses liije or piije . I’m still investigating this question; stay tuned for updates. For date from Mir, see *the Mir grammar page*.

ko == {107,3}, discussion

leve == {73,1}

Persianisms of an extreme kind == nigaare in {109,6x}

polite imperative as pa;Rhye == {26,10}

raah chalto;N ke saamne == [{99,2}]

saa;N for saa (?) == {194,5}

talak == {15,13}; {19,1}; {19,2}; {25,8}; {53,7}; (76,1}*; {140,3}*; {207,4}

tis par == {139,11}

varnah replaced by vagarnah == {15,15}

divider

Unusual script/scansion incongruities (for the more common ones, see the *meter book*)

anaa al-ba;hr : {21,8}
buu' al-havas
: {115,6}; {158,6}
taassuf
: {37,6x}
jur))at
: {4,4}; {35,6}; {188,2}
((alii ul-ra;Gm
: {51,3}
ma((aal : {174,8}
muunis : {42,5}

divider

 —  ghazal index — sitemap — Ghalib index —