Biogfile Archives

January 14, 2005

Röntgen, Julius

Röntgen, Julius (1855–1932). Composer, conductor, and pianist, who studied composition with Friedrich Lachner, harmony and counterpoint with Moritz Hauptmann and E. F. Richter, and piano with Louis Plaidy and Carl Reinecke. He lived in Amsterdam from 1877 to 1925, and was the Director of the Amsterdam Conservatory from 1912 to 1924. He was accompanist to the German baritone Julius Stockhausen, also to the Dutch baritone Johannes Messchaert (whose interpretations Schenker greatly admired), and cellist Pablo Casals.

At Weinberger's request, Schenker asked Röntgen whether he would collaborate in practical editions of works of the classics (letter, Vienna, March 15, 1901), to which Röntgen replied affirmatively (March 18, 1901). Schenker's letter of thanks for his undertaking the work (April 13, 1901, in which he advised Röntgen to demand "a higher honorarium than usual" because his "intellectual property" is greater than that of "run-of-the-mill editors"), and Röntgen's letters of April 22, 1901, September 23, 1908, and February 10, 1915 are quoted in Federhofer, Nach Tagebüchern, pp.189–94.

Röntgen “was on friendly terms with Schenker, who for his part spoke well of his playing. The two had at any rate already been acquainted for several years” by 1901 (Federhofer: Nach Tagebüchern, p.189). Later, however, Schenker spoke disparagingly about his editing. Of J. S. Bach's works, Röntgen edited for UE the Little Preludes and Fugues, the Two- and Three-part Inventions, French Suites, English Suites, Partitas, Italian Concerto, D-minor Concerto, and Chromatic Fantasy and Fugue (all in 1902), and the Well-tempered Clavier (in 1907).

See the correspondence between Röntgen and Schenker (OJ 13/27; 72/12 (portrait); Nederlands Muziek Instituut C 176-01

Also mentioned in:

OC 52/386, March 23, 1901 (Weinberger to S)

WSLB 14, August 19, 1908 (S to Hertzka/UE)

WSLB 20, September 28, 1908 (S to Hertzka/UE)

OC 52/26, September 29, 1908 (Hertzka/UE to S)

WSLB 21, September 30, 1908 (S to Hertzka/UE)

OC 52/399-401, December 18, 1908 (Hertzka/UE to S)

OJ 5/16, [5], December 21, 1908 (S to Hertzka/UE, draft)

WSLB 31, December 22 1908 (S to Hertzka/UE)

CA 96-98, May 26, 1909 (S to Cotta)

WSLB 40, June 26, 1909 (S to Hertzka/UE)

WSLB 41, July 1, 1909 (S to Hertzka/UE)

WSLB 50, December 22, 1909 (S to Hertzka/UE)

WSLB 57, April 11, 1910 (S to Hertzka/UE)

OC 52/49, April 11, 1910 (Hertzka/UE to S)

November 6, 2005

Mandyczewski, Eusebius

Mandyczewski, Eusebius (1857–1929). Romanian musicologist working in Vienna, studied at Vienna University taking courses with Hanslick and Nottebohm, became a friend of Brahms, and was appointed archivist of the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde. He also taught history of music and organology at the Vienna Conservatory, and was on the administration there. He was a member of the Brahms circle. His name is particularly associated with the Schubert collected edition, to which he contributed the ten volumes of Lieder; he was also joint editor of the Brahms collected edition, and contributed three volumes to the Haydn collected edition. ( NGDM ) Some correspondence between S and him exists of a purely businesslike nature (OJ 12/49), and he was a signatory to the letter regretting the resignation of Moriz Violin from the Vienna Conservatory.

Mentioned in:

CA 76, April 24, 1908 (Schenker to Cotta)

WSLB 14, August 19, 1908 (Schenker to Hertzka)

OJ 1/7, p.94, November 24, 1908 (Diary entry by Schenker)

WSLB 35, January 8, 1909 (Schenker to Hertzka)

OC 52/919, January 11, 1909 (Hertzka to Schenker)

OJ 5/18, 9, April 9, 1932 (Schenker to Jonas)

OJ 5/18, 21, December 18, 1932 (Schenker to Jonas)

Löwe, Ferdinand

Löwe, Ferdinand (1865–1925). Austrian conductor, pupil of Bruckner, a member of the circle of friends around Bruckner, and associated with editing the latter’s symphonies. He was a teacher of piano, choral singing, and music education at the Vienna Conservatory 1884–1922, and Director 1919–22 (after the enforced resignation of Wilhelm Bopp). In 1909, S speaks of him as known to him personally “but not sadly not artistically close to me” (Federhofer, Nach Tagebüchern, p. 207). Why S calls him “Director” in WSLB 14, August 19, 1908, is unknown.

Mentioned in:

OJ 9/32, [4], September 1, 1908 (Cotta to Schenker)

WSLB 66/67, October 19, 1910 (Schenker to Hertzka)

OJ 5/18, 9, April 9, 1932 (Schenker to Jonas)

OJ 5/18, 21, December 18, 1932 (Schenker to Jonas)

Schalk, Franz

Schalk, Franz (1863–1931). Austrian conductor at the Vienna Court Opera from 1900 on, from 1918 joint director with Richard Strauss, from 1924 to 1929 sole director. He conducted operas and music dramas by, among others, Richard Strauss and Wagner. A pupil of Bruckner, and was associated with editing the latter’s symphonies. ( NGDM ) Schenker was several times in his company in 1907–08 (diary, March 19, 1907; January 15; February 24, 25, 1908), but later had less than favourable things to say about his conducting (Federhofer, Nach Tagebüchern, pp. 67, 73, 85, 232, 269, 301).

Mentioned in:

WSLB 14, August 19, 1908 (Schenker to Hertzka)

OJ 5/16, [3], November 9, 1909 (Draft letter to Hertzka = WSLB 47)

WSLB 47, November 9, 1909 (Schenker to Hertzka)

OJ 5/18, 9, April 9, 1932 (Schenker to Jonas)

OJ 5/18, 21, December 18, 1932 (Schenker to Jonas)

Foerster, Josef Bohuslav

Foerster, Josef Bohuslav (1859–1951). Czech composer, writer and teacher, husband of Bertha Foerster-Lauterer (née Lautererová), singer at the Vienna Court Opera. The two moved to Vienna from Hamburg in 1903, where he taught composition at the New Vienna Conservatory; the couple returned to Prague in 1918 with the creation of Czechoslovakia. S came to know Foerster in 1903, and one letter from Foerster to S survives, dated September 10, 1908, acknowledging receipt of Beitrag zur Ornamentik from UE, and thanking S (OJ 11/5: Federhofer, Nach Tagebüchern, p.105).

Mentioned in:

WSLB 14, August 19, 1908 ("who himself gives instruction in the best circles, and is a strong supporter of me")

Grunsky, Karl

Grunsky, Karl (Carl) (1871-1943). Writer on music and leading music critic, strong supporter of Wagner and Bruckner. Grunsky published his influential Musikästhetik in 1907, which went through many editions; and a number of articles on the music dramas of Wagner in 1906-1908, e.g. "Die Rhythmik im Parsifal", Richard Wagner-Jahrbuch (1908), 276-370. See also his contributions to Bruckner's Symphonien erläutert mit Notenbeispielen (Berlin: Schlesinger, n.d.). Federhofer speaks of "a dispute between Schenker and Grunsky" in 1908, regarding Halm and Bruckner ( Nach Tagebüchern, p.134).

See his correspondence with Schenker 1908-10 (OJ 5/15, 11/29; 59/6)

Also mentioned in:

OJ 12/27, [10], December 12, 1907 (Cotta to S) (concerns Grunsky's desire to know the identity of the author of Harmonielehre )
Diary OJ 1/6, pp.53-54
CA 71, December 16, 1907 (S to Cotta)
OJ 9/31, [17], December 18, 1907 (Cotta to S)
CA 73, January 3, 1908 (S to Cotta)
Diary OJ 1/7, p.58, January 6, 1908
WSLB 12, July 22, 1908 ("a very well known writer on music and reviewer")
WSLB 14, August 19, 1908

Rudorff, Ernst

Rudorff, Ernst (1840–1916). German pianist, teacher and composer, member of the Brahms circle.; was professor at the Berlin Hochschule für Musik 1867-1910; was involved in the collected edition of Mozart's and Chopin's works, and a member of the editorial committee of the Denkmäler Deutscher Tonkunst. S sent him copies of his Harmonielehre, J. S. Bach, Chromatic Fantasy & Fugue, Kontrapunkt I, and Beethovens Neunte Sinfonie, and they corresponded vigorously between January 1908 and August 1912; in thanking S for the first of these work, Rudorff remarks: “When I put together what you have told me of your plans as a whole with what I have now read in your Harmonielehre, I believe and hope that you are the long-awaited one destined to hurl the burning torch into the Tower of Babel [i.e. Wagner’s world]. “ (OJ 3/37, 3). The two men disagreed strongly on the merits of Gluck, whom Rudorff rated highly, but agreed in their critiques of Wagner and Bruckner; they were in agreement that a "disintegration" was taking place "socially and morally," and that an artistic regeneration was unlikely to occur (Federhofer, pp.205-06).

See his correspondence with Schenker 1908-1912 (c. 25 letters: OJ 5/35, 13/37; 59/15) and with Elisabeth Rudorff 1909-1917 (OJ 13/36)

Also mentioned in:

WSLB 14, August 19, 1908 (S to Hertzka/UE)
OJ 12/27, [7], September 18, 1908 (Cotta to S)

d'Albert, Eugen

d’Albert, Eugen Francis Charles (1864–1932). German composer and pianist, born in Scotland, studied at the New Music School, London (1874–). He was rated highly as a pianist by Rubinstein, knew Liszt, Richter, Brahms (a member of whose circle he was), and Hanslick, and established an international career as a virtuoso concert pianist. His career as a composer began around 1893; by 1908, he had written eight operas, all performed, and a number of orchestral works, piano pieces, chamber works, and Lieder. By his death, he had written 20 operas, musical comedies, music dramas, etc. (ex NGDM ).

D'Albert and S corresponded from at least 1894; S wrote an article on d'Albert in Die Zukunft (October 6, 1894), pp.33-36 (OJ 20/2; Federhofer, ed., Essayist und Kritiker, pp.115-21); and among S's possessions is a photographic portrait of d'Albert inscribed: "To Dr. Heinrich Schenker, a true friend, as a memento of Eugen d'Albert. Frankfurt/a/M, October 6, 1998." See also Federhofer, Nach Tagebüchern, pp.55-68.

D'Albert had already written a letter of recommendation for Harmonielehre to Brockhaus on November 7, 1905, and it was intervention with Cotta that persuaded the company to adopt the book, having initially rejected it. S began to distance himself from D'Albert around 1907, and after 1914 the two men drifted out of touch without a formal break.

See the correspondence between d'Albert and S 1894-1914 (OJ 9/6, 59/3; 70/6).

Also mentioned in:

NMI C 176-01, April 13, 1901 (Schenker to Röntgen)

Federhofer, pp.64-5 (recomm. to Brockhaus re Harmonielehre )
OJ 9/31, [2], November 14, 1905 (Cotta to d'Albert re Harmonielehre )
OJ 9/31, [3] November 15, 1905 (Cotta to S re ")
CA 61, Decmber 27, 1906 (S to Cotta)
OJ 12/27, [3], December 29, 1906 (Cotta to S)
WSLB 86, November 30, 1911 (S to Hertzka/UE)
OC 52/69, December 1, 1911 (Hertzka/UE to S)
WSLB 876, December 3, 1911 (S to Hertzka/UE)
WSLB 120, June 9, 1912 (S to Hertzka/UE)
WSLB 235, December 29, 1914 (S to Hertzka/UE)
OC 52/420, undated, 1918 (S note)
WSLB 14, August 19, 1908 (S to Hertzka/UE)

Fischer, Jakob

Fischer, Jakob (1849-1933). Composer and singing teacher, also teacher of music education in the teacher-training course at the Vienna Conservatory. Tittel has him as teacher of "piano method" ( Klaviermethodik ) at the Conservatory 1901-24.

See letters from Fischer to Schenker 1908-13 (OJ 11/3)

Also mentioned in:

OC 52/17, March 11, 1905 (Weinberger to S: complimentary copy)
WSLB 14, August 19, 1908 (S to Hertzka/UE: complimentary copy)

Burkhardt, Max

Bur( c )khard(t), Max. Possibly the Berlin music critic and writer on music Max Burkhardt (1871-1934), who studied at the Leipzig Conservatory and settled in Berlin in 1906 as a teacher and writer. His books include Führer durch Richard Wagners Musikdramen (Berlin, 1909), Führer durch die Konzertmusik (Berlin, 1911), and Johannes Brahms: Ein Führer durch seine Werke (Berlin 1912). He was also a conductor, and composer of operas, choral works, etc.

Mentioned in:

WSLB 14, August 19, 1908 (S to Hertzka/UE: complimentary copy)

( Baker's )

November 7, 2005

Violin, Moriz

Violin, Moriz (1879-1956). concert pianist and composer, winner of the Brahms Prize in composition of the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde in 1894, and a founding member of the Violin-Fischer-Klengel trio in Vienna and the Violin-Van den Berg-Buxbaum trio in Berlin. He taught in the piano Ausbildungsklasse at the Vienna Conservatory from 1908 (or 1909) to 1912, in which year he resigned from the Conservatory staff in protest at the way in which the new administration was forcing established professors into retirement, treating other members of staff, and at their not appointing Schenker to a professorship in theory. He published his letter of protest as a 34-page pamphlet (OJ 70/49a); a letter regretting his resignation was signed by 53 of his colleagues (OJ 70/59).

In 1931, Violin established a private music school devoted to Schenker's theory: the Schenker-Institut, in Hamburg, at which he taught piano and Felix Eberhard von Cube theory. Violin fled Hamburg with the rise of Nazism c.May 1933 (see, e.g. OJ 9/34, [37], May 11, 1933, Cube to Schenker), leaving Cube to continue until the institute was closed down in 1934. In 1939 Violin moved to the USA, settling in San Francisco. His papers survive in the Oswald Jonas Memorial Collection at the University of California, Riverside.

Violin, nicknamed "Fiorello", "Floriz" and "Florizello", was Schenker's oldest and closest friend. Their friendship began in 1896 and ended with S's death in 1935. He gave performances of S's piano compositions, and he and S gave the first performance of S's Syrian Dances for two pianos on January 26, 1900. Federhofer maintains that S's pseudonym for his Instrumentations-Tabelle, "Artur Niloff", is in part an approximate anagram of "Violin".

Violin's booklet Über das sogenannte Continuo (Vienna: UE, 1910) was originally written as a program note for a "historical concert" that was to take place in the Conservatory (Akademie) in 1910 but was cancelled.

See Violin's voluminous correspondence with Schenker (the two wrote to each other almost every day) (OJ 6/1-8, 7/1-4, 8/1-5; 14/45-46; Violin's obituary for S, "Zur Erinnerung an Heinrich Schenker" OJ 70/54). His correspondence with Cube survives in part as OJ 70/2 and 70/11.

Also mentioned in:

WSLB 14, August 19, 1908 (S to Hertzka/UE: complimentary copy)

WSLB 25, November 9, 1908 (S to Hertzka/UE: complimentary copy)

OC 52/28, November 11, 1908 (Hertzka/UE to S: complimentary copy)

WSLB 44, October 18, 1909 (S to Hertzka/UE)

WSLB 53, February 15, 1910 (S to Hertzka/UE)

WSLB 66/67, October 19, 1910 (S to Hertzka/UE: complimentary copy)

OC 52/62, January 19, 1911 (Hertzka/UE to Violin)
WSLB 118, June 4, 1912 (S to Hertzka/UE)

vC 33, November 10, 1930 (Schenker to Cube)

vC 34, December 5, 1930 (Schenker to Cube)

OJ 9/34, [24], April 25, 1931 (Cube to Schenker)

OJ 9/34, [25], May 9, 1931 (Cube to Schenker)

vC 36, June 6, 1931 (Schenker to Cube)

vC 38, June 30, 1931 (Schenker to Cube)

OJ 5/18, 33, December 21, 1933 (Schenker to Jonas)

OJ 5/18, 43, June 24, 1934 (Schenker to Jonas)

OC 44/9, October 27, 1934 (Jonas to Schenker)

OJ 10/18, [12], June 28, 1935 (Elias to Jeanette Schenker)

OJ 10/18, [13], August 1, 1935 (Elias to Jeanette Schenker)

Niemann, Walter

Niemann, Walter (1876-1953). German composer, pianist, and writer on music, who had graduated from the Leipzig Conservatory in 1898 with a dissertation on mensural notation. Of his many books, in 1907 he published a history of keyboard music, and he later published a book on virginal music (1920). He was critic of the Leipziger neueste Nachrichten, 1907–17, where he was outspoken and sometimes vitriolic. Max Reger (of whom S was himself a harsh critic) threatened to sue him for libel. Niemann denounced the "pathological" and "sensuous" music of Richard Strauss, Mahler and Schoenberg (again, objects of S's continuous hostile criticism). ( NGDM )

Kahn, Marianne

Kahn, Marianne. Pupil of Schenker's from at least 1907 (diary: September 23) until at least 1932. She appears in the Lesson Books 1913-31 (OC 4/2-4) and there are lesson notes for her 1931-32 (OC 16/35-37); and there is a letter from Schenker to her from 1934 (OC 44/23).

Mentioned in:

WSLB 14, August 19, 1908 (S to Hertzk/UE, compl. copy of Beitrag )

WSLB 66/67, October 19, 1910 (Schenker to Hertzka (UE): compl. copy of Chromatic Fantasy & Fugue )

OC 52/483, December 21, 1923 (Elias to Schenker)

OJ 10/18, June 19, 1935 (Elias to Jeanette Schenker)

OJ 10/18, [12], June 28, 1935 (Elias to Jeanette Schenker)

OJ 10/18, [13], August 1, 1935 (Elias to Jeanette Schenker)

Davydoff, Sonja

Davydoff, Sonja. Russian concert pianist, occasional pupil of Schenker's (diary April 6, 1906: "Mrs Davidoff performs the chamber concerto studied with me, in Petersburg"), wife of the Ukrainian lyric tenor Alexandr Davidoff (1872-1944)

Mentioned in:

WSLB 14, August 19, 1908 (S to Hertzka/UE: "wife of the famous tenor, pupil of mine, first-class concert pianist in Russia, who does a lot for me.")

November 13, 2005

Organization ... Artists

Organization of Creative and Performing Artists (Organisation producirender und reproducirender Künstler). Hertzka was evidently invited to support the cause of this organization "jointly with Dr. Harpner" (June 2, 1912), which Schenker and others tried to get off the ground in 1912. Others involved included the singer Eduard Gärtner, the pianists Leopold Godowsky, Moriz Rosenthal and Moriz Violin, and others at least being approached were the pianist Theodor Leschetitzky, Alfred Grünfeld, the conductor Bruno Walter, and the conductor/composer Eugen D'Albert. The Dr Harpner (Harper?) frequently named could perhaps be a lawyer?

In a letter to S of November 10, 1912, Moriz Rosenthal wrote: “When we last saw each other, we were entrusted by Mr Hertzka of UE with drafting some paragraphs for the statutes of an organization of creative and performing artists (producirender und reproducirender Künstler)”. Some indication of the purpose of the organization can be gained from his remark: "Such an alliance ( Bund ), which must of course be an alliance of 'upright persons', would certainly be the only possibility of creating healthy conditions (Federhofer, Nach Tagebüchern, pp.195-96).

Mentioned in:

WSLB 116, June 2, 1912 (S to Hertzka)
OC 52/427, June 3, 1912 (Hertzka to S)
WSLB 114, June 4, 1912 (S to Hertzka)
WSLB 120, June 9, 1912 (S to Hertzka)
WSLB 121, June 13?, 1912 (S to Hertzka)

Rosenthal, Moriz

Rosenthal, Moriz (1862–1946). Galician (Ukrainian) concert pianist. Like Schenker (who was also born in Galicia), he was educated in Lemburg (L’vov), and like him studied piano with Chopin’s pupil and assistant Karol Mikuli (from 1872). He moved to Vienna with his family in 1875. At one point he retired from music to study philosophy at Vienna University. He emigrated to the USA in 1938, living in New York. ( NGDM ).

Schenker and he knew one another from at least 1894, when their correspondence begins, and when Rosenthal already addresses Schenker as “Dear Sir and Friend”; they quite possibly knew each other from Lemburg days. On November 10, 1912, Rosenthal wrote to Schenker to say that he had heard nothing more of the “organization for creative and performing artists” (OJ 13/29, [9], quoted Federhofer, Nach Tagebüchern, pp.195–96.).

His letters to Schenker are preserved as OJ 13/29, [1]-[12.]

He is also mentioned in:
WSLB 118, June 4, 1912 (S to Hertzka)
WSLB 120, June 9, 1912 (S to Hertzka)
WSLB 121, June 13?, 1912 (S to Hertzka)

Godowsky, Leopold

Godowsky, Leopold (1870–1938). Polish pianist, one of the greatest virtuosos of his day. Born in Vilnius (now in Lithuania), he studied with Rudorff (close friend of Schenker) at the Berlin Hochschule für Musik in 1884. He was based in London 1886–1890, and in the USA 1890–1900 (during which time he became a US citizen), thereafter returning to Berlin. In 1909, he moved to Vienna, where he led the Klavier Meisterschule at the Vienna Akademie für Musik und darstellende Kunst until 1914, at which point he returned to the USA. A stroke in 1930 ended his career, and he died in New York. ( NGDM )

There were at least two points of contact between Schenker and Godowsky. On February 6, 1910, S expressed concerned that Godowsky had been allowed to see the proofs of his edition of the J. S. Bach Chromatic Fantasy & Fugue when he himself had not yet seen them. (Hertzka explained that no proofs had yet been produced, and Godowsky’s assistant had merely glimpsed the pile of manuscript for the work at the Universal Edition office: WSLB 51 and OC 52/424, February 6-7, 1910). Second, in June 1912 Godowsky was apparently involved in an abortive attempt to form an “organization of creative and performing artists” along with Moriz Rosenthal, Schenker and others.

No correspondence between Schenker and Godowsky is known to exist.

He is mentioned in:
WSLB 51, February 6, 1910 (Schenker to Hertzka)
OC 52/424, February 7, 1910 (Hertzka to Schenker)
WSLB 118, June 4, 1912 (Schenker to Hertzka)
WSLB 120, June 9, 1912 (Schenker to Hertzka)
WSLB 121, June 13?, 1912 (Schenekr to Hertzka)

Gärtner, Eduard

Gärtner, Eduard (). Bass vocalist who performed some of Schenker’s songs, and sang under Schenker’s baton. Gärtner was also sometimes accompanied by Schenker (programme notes survive in OJ 35/5 for Lieder evenings on January 26, 1900; March 19, 1902, and a chamber concert on January 13, 1911). He was involved in the abortive attempt by Schenker and others to set up an "organization of creative and performing artists". He was also a regular recipient of complimentary copies of Schenker's publications.

Gärtner's correspondence with Schenker survives as OJ 5/12 (Schenker to Gärtner), 11/17 (Gärtner to Schenker).

He is mentioned in:

NMI C 176-01, April 13, 1901 (Schenker to Röntgen)

WSLB 25, November 9, 1908 (Schenker to Hertzka: complimentary copy)
OC 52/28, November 11, 1908 (Hertzka to Schenker: complimentary copy)
WSLB 118, June 2, 1912 (Schenker to Hertzka: organization)
WSLB 120, June 9, 1912 (Schenker to Hertzka: organization)
WSLB 228, September 27, 1914 (Schenker to Hertzka: complimentary copy)

and in Schenker's diary:
OJ 1/5, p.27, November 15, 1906 (complimentary copy)
WSLB 120, June 9, 1912 (Schenker to Hertzka: organization)

Harpner, Dr

Harpner, Dr. Perhaps Gustav Harpner (1864–1924), lawyer: see Österreichische Biographisches Lexikon 1815–1950, vol.2 (Lfg 7), p.190. There is also a Stefan G. Harpner who had correspondence with Oswald Jonas 1963-65, 1970, using the letterhead of UE Vienna (OJ 36/23; 36/139), and a letter of 1970 from him to Joseph Stein using the letterhead of Theodore Presser Company, PA (OJ 71/15), but this seems a much less probably identification.

Involved in the abortive attempt by Schenker and others to set up an “organization for creative and performing artists”.

No correspondence with Schenker is known to survive.

Mentioned in:

WSLB 116, June 2, 1912 (Schenker to Hertzka, organization)
WSLB 118, June 4, 1912 (Schenker to Hertzka, organization)
WSLB 120, June 9, 1912 (Schenker to Hertzka, organization)
WSLB 121, June 13?, 1912 (Schenker to Hertzka, organization)

also in:
OC 3/1, p.19v, February 15, [1912?] (Lesson Book)

Weisse, Hans

Weisse, Hans (1892–1940). Austrian music theorist, composer; pupil of Schenker’s. In 1931 he moved to New York specifically to teach Schenker’s theory at the David Mannes School of Music. Weisse also took a PhD in music with Guido Adler at Vienna University, writing a dissertation on the waltz.

His correspondence with Schenker survives as OJ 5/45 (Schenker to Weisse), OJ 15/15-16 (Weisse to Schenker), OJ 71/40 (Weisse to O. Vrieslander re: a Schenker Festschrift), OJ 72/24 (portraits)

He is mentioned in (not all of these documents may yet be available on the website):

WSLB 116, June 2, 1912 (Schenker to Hertzka)

OC 52/427, June 3, 1912 (Hertzka to Schenker)

WSLB 118, June 4, 1912 (Schenker to Hertzka)
OC 52/493, June 8, 1912 (Hertzka to Schenker)

WSLB 120, June 9, 1912 (Schenker to Hertzka)

OC 52/105, November 9, 1912 (Hertzka to Schenker)
WSLB 235, December 29, 1914 (Schenker to Hertzka)
OC 52/505, January 2, 1915 (Hertzka to Schenker)
OC 52/166, January 9, 1915 (Hertzka to Schenker)

OJ 1/16, p. 577, January 27?, 1917 (Diary entry)

OJ 1/16, p. 577, January 28, 1917 (Diary entry)

OC 52/563recto, April 3, 1922 (Hertzka to Schenker)

OJ 12/6, [1], February 1, 1928 (Jonas to Schenker)

OJ 5/18, [G]. February 14, 1928 (Schenker to Jonas)

OJ 12/6, [3], March 3, 1928 (Jonas to Schenker)

OJ 9/34, [19], July 18, 1929 (Cube to Schenker)

vC 26, July 22, 1929 (Schenker to Cube)

vC 31, November 1, 1930 (Schenker to Cube)

vC 32, November 7, 1930 (Schenker to Cube)

vC 33, November 10, 1930 (Schenker to Cube)

OJ 9/34, [22], November 22, 1930 (Cube to Schenker)

OJ 5/18, 2, November 26, 1930 (Schenker to Jonas)

OJ 12/6, [5], November 28, 1930 (Jonas to Schenker)

vC 34, December 5, 1930 (Schenker to Cube)

OJ 5/18, 3[b], December 9, 1930 (Schenker to Jonas)

OJ 9/34, [23], February 10, 1931 (Cube to Schenker)

OJ 12/6, [31], April 15, 1931 (Jonas to Schenker)

OJ 70/11, [2], undated (April 1931) (Cube to Violin)

WSLB 431, April 17, 1931 (Schenker to Hertzka)

OJ 12/6, [9], April 17, 1931 (Jonas to Schenker)

OJ 5/18, 5, April 19, 1931 (Schenker to Jonas)

vC 37, June 12, 1931 (Schenker to Cube)

vC 38, June 30, 1931 (Schenker to Cube)

WSLB 442, November 1, 1931 (Schenker to Hertzka)
OJ 5/18, 24, March 22, 1933 (Schenker to Jonas)

OJ 5/18, 41, April 23, 1934 (Schenker to Jonas)

OJ 5/18, 59, October 16, 1934 (Schenker to Jonas)

Also mentioned in:

OC 3/1, Lesson Book, February 22, 1912 (performance)

[ Baker's (1971), Federhofer, Nach Tagebüchern, communication from John Rothgeb, and other sources]

November 14, 2005

Walter, Bruno

Walter, Bruno (1876–1962). German conductor, who worked at the Vienna Court Opera with Mahler from 1901, became an Austrian citizen in 1911, premiered Mahler’s Ninth Symphony in Vienna in 1912, but left Vienna in 1913 for Munich and elsewhere, returning in 1933 but leaving for the USA in 1939.

Walter later claimed to have been influenced by the “deeply perceptive theorist and music philosopher Heinrich Schenker” (Walter, Thema und Variationen (Frankfurt, 1947), p.37; Federhofer, Nach Tagbüchern, p.264). Schenker is also mentioned in his article "Stehen wir an einem Wendepunkt?" (unidentified periodical of around 1931: OC 2/82). He was peripherally involved in the abortive attempt by Schenker and others to set up an "organization of creative and performing artists" in 1912.

No correspondence between Walter and Schenker is known to survive; there is correspondence with Moriz Violin (OJ 70/44).

He is mentioned in:

WSLB 118, June 4, 1912 (Schenker to Hertzka)
WSLB 120, June 9, 1912 (Schenker to Hertzka)
March 12, 1916 (Schenker to Vrieslander)

He is also mentioned in:
OC 1/6, p.32, January 27, 1907 (diary)
Other diary entries are cited in Federhofer, pp.264-66, dated: March 5, 1916; September 8, 1917; October 26, 1929; May 24, 1931; May 25, 1931.

Leschetizky, Theodor

Leschetizky, Theodor (1830–1915). Galician (=Polish) pianist, teacher and composer. Born, like Schenker, in Galicia, moved to Vienna in 1840, where he studied with Czerny and Sechter. After teaching in St. Petersburg, he returned to Vienna in 1878, where he taught and was active as concert pianist and conductor. ( NGDM; Federhofer, Nach Tagebüchern, p.236). He was in support of an attempt by Schenker and others in 1912 to found an "organization of creative and performing artists".

No correspondence with Schenker is known to survive.

He is mentioned in:
WSLB 118, June 4, 1912 (Schenker to Hertzka)
WSLB 120, June 9, 1912 (Schenker to Hertzka)

December 8, 2005

Kopfermann, Albert

Kopfermann, Albert (1846-1914). German librarian and curator. He joined the Royal Library, Berlin in 1878, and was made Professor and Director of its Music Division in 1908, a post which he held until 1914 (when succeeded by Wilhelm Altmann). (Georg Kinsky became his assistant at the Library in 1908, and then in 1909 became curator at the Heyer Musikhistorisches Museum in Cologne.) He edited several previously unknown compositions, a Beethoven Adagio for Mechanical Clock, WoO 33 No. 1 (1902) and the spurious Mozart violin concerto in D, K. 271a/271i (1907). He published relatively little, and had a reputation for kindness and for tireless efforts on behalf of other scholars that is reflected in Schenker's own remarks about him to other people.

The correspondence between Schenker and him concerned entirely the Beethoven source materials in the Library's collections, and particularly the obtaining of photographic copies (some of which are preserved in OC). The letters from Kopfermann to Schenker survive as: OC B/174–179 (October 31, 1912 to December 22, 1913)--consult under calendar for "Librarians, Archivists, Curators").

Kopfermann at one point wrote a letter to Schenker that the latter planned to use as a supporting letter in his application to the Heyer Museum re: Beethoven Op.111.

Kopfermann is mentioned in:

OJ 1/11, p. 263, October 31, 1912 (Diary entry by Schenker)

OJ 1/11, p. 263, November 2, 1912 (Diary entry by Schenker)

OJ 1/12, p. 435, October 5, 1913 (Diary entry by Schenker)

OJ 1/12, p. 449, October 20, 1913 (Diary entry by Schenker)

OJ 1/12, p. 452, October 23, 1913 (Diary entry by Schenker)

WSLB 186, undated (between October 30 and November 2, 1913) (Schenker to Hertzka)
WSLB 187, undated (Schenker to Hertzka, complimentary copy of LfS ... 109
WSLB 193, November 21, 1913 (Schenker to Hertzka)
WSLB 195, November 21, 1913 (Schenker to Hertzka: letter from Kopfermann enclosed)

WSLB 203, April 15, 1914 (Schenker to Hertzka)

WSLB 204, April 18, 1914 (Schenker to Hertzka)

OC 52/441, April 20, 1914 (Hertzka to Schenker)

WSLB 205, April 22, 1914 (Schenker to Hertzka)

WSLB 213, May 17, 1914 (Schenker to Hertzka)

Heyer Musikhistorisches Museum, Cologne

Heyer Musikhistorisches Museum, Cologne. founded by Wilhelm Heyer (1849–1913) in 1906, rich in composers' autograph MSS. From 1909 to 1927, its curator was Georg Kinsky (1882-1951), who catalogued (1910-16) it and organized lectures and concerts. The Museum was disbanded in 1927.( NGDM )

In 1926 the Musikhistorisches Museum Wilhelm Heyer, Köln, was purchased by the state of Saxony with F. Hinrichsen and moved to the Karl-Marx-Universität, Leipzig. In 1927, Heyer collections other than instruments (music; books; autographs, etc.) were sold at auction. During World War II the University collection was transferred to the Grassi-Museum where about forty percent was destroyed. The Musikinstrumenten-Museum was established in 1954 at the the Karl-Marx-Universität, Leipzig. (ÖLN)

Mentioned in:
WSLB 203, April 15, 1914 (Schenker to Hertzka, re: access to source-material for Beethoven Op. 111)
WSLB 210, May 2, 1914 (Schenker to Hertzka)

December 16, 2005

Dahms, Walter

Dahms, Walter (1887-1973). German writer on music. He was music critic of the Kleines Journal (1912) and the Neue Preussische Kreuz-Zeitung, and wrote for, among other publications, the Ostdeutsche Rundschau, the Allgemeine Musik-Zeitung, the Münchner neueste Nachrichtungen, and the Musikus-Almanach, at least between 1913 and 1928. He published biographies Schubert (1912), Schumann (1916), Mendelssohn (1919), and other books include Die Offenbarung der Musik: Eine Apotheose Friedrich Nietzsches (1922), and Musik des Südens (1923).

Dahms became one of Schenker's strongest supporters and advocates. He first came to Schenker's attention in May 1913. His review of Schenker's Chromatic Fantasy & Fugue edition (July 15, 1913) pleased the latter, several other reviews at that time drew attention to Schenker's ideas, and his review of LfS ... 109 "Beethoven redivius", December 31, 1913, and the cordial response from Schenker that it evoked, encouraged him in April 1914 to express the desire (reported in WSLB 202) to move from Berlin to Vienna in order to become a pupil of Schenker. He did study briefly with Schenker's pupil Otto Vrieslander (who was based in Munich) c.1919, but decided to discontinue this and sought Schenker's advice on further study. Schenker regularly arranged for him to receive complimentary copies of his publications, from LfS ... 109 to Meisterwerk III. In 1918, he was involved with Vrieslander, Halm and Hermann Roth in an attempt to launch a Festschrift for Schenker's fiftieth birthday, through UE.

Dahms was conservative in outlook, and applauded Schenker's uncompromising pronouncements on contemporary music and shared his German nationalist and anti-democratic political views (though he disagreed with him hotly over Germany's militarism).

Over 100 letters survive from Dahms to Schenker in OJ 10/1 (1913 to 1931). There are also many references to him in Schenker's diary.

Letters in which he is mentioned (not all of these documents may yet be available on the website):

WSLB 160, June 7, 1913 (Schenker to Hertzka)

WSLB 178, September 5, 1913 (Schenker to Hertzka: complimentary copy)

WSLB 181, September 24, 1913 (Schenker to Hertzka)

WSLB 197, January 4, 1914 (Schenker to Hertzka)

WSLB 198, January 6, 1914 (Schenker to Hertzka)

WSLB 202, April 1, 1914 (Schenker to Hertzka)

OC 52/142, April 2, 1914 (Hertzka to Schenker)

WSLB 227, September 24, 1914 (Schenker to Hertzka: complimentary copy)

OC 52/159, September 25, 1914 (Hertzka to Schenker)

OJ 12/6, [1], February 1, 1928 (Schenker to Jonas)

vC 21, November 20, 1928 (Schenker to Cube)

See also Dahms "Beethoven Redivivus," December 31, 1913

[Baker's (1971); Federhofer, Nach Tagebüchern, communication from John Rothgeb, and other sources]

Roth, Herman

Roth, Herman (1882-1938). German writer on music. A pupil of Riemann (1905), he worked as a music critic in Leipzig (1907-10) and Munich (1910-20), taught at the Conservatory in Baden Baden (1921-24) and at the Hochschule für Musik in Stuttgart (1925-35), then as a music critic in Hamburg (1932-35), settling finally in Berlin. His work as a critic included remarks on LfS ... 109 and Harmonielehre in 1914 (both = OC 2/p.38) and a later personal view of Schenker in 1931 (=OC 2/p.84).

His books include Heinrich Kaspar Schmid (Munich, 1921), and Elemente der Stimmführung (Stuttgart, 1926). He also edited works by J. S. Bach, Handel and C. P. E. Bach--see list below. He also translated opera libretti.

Schenker and Roth (already a friend of Schenker's pupil Otto Vrieslander) evidently became acquainted in 1912. In 1914, Schenker recommended UE to publish editions that Roth had produced of Handel cantatas, stating that Peters had already published a previous edition (see list below), and that it was a highly professional piece of work (WSLB 202, April 1, 1914). Schenker also praised Roth's edition of the J. S. Bach Passacaglia in C minor, seeing in it his own ideas. There are many entries concerning Roth in Schenker's diary. 1932 saw a break in their good relations, apparently for personal reasons.

Some 85 letters from Roth to Schenker survive in OJ (13/30), one in OC (24/8), and one from Schenker to Roth (OJ 5/33). Together, they cover 1912 to 1933.

Roth is mentioned in (not all of these documents may yet be available on the website):

WSLB 149, March 18, 1913 (Schenker to Hertzka)
WSLB 202, April 1, 1914 (Schenker to Hertzka)
OC 52/142, April 2, 1914 (Hertzka to Schenker)
WSLB 228, September 27, 1914 (Hertzka to Schenker, complimentary copy of LfS ... 110 )
OC 52/166, January 9, 1915 (Hertzka to Schenker)
OJ 5/18, 1, October 7, 1930 (Schenker to Jonas)
OJ 12/6, [15], September 5, 1932 (Jonas to Schenker)
OJ 12/6, [35], July 25, 1934 (Jonas to Schenker)
OJ 5/18, 48, July 29, 1934 (Schenker to Jonas)
OJ 12/6, [48], February 17, 1938 (Jonas to Jeanette Schenker)

[ Baker's (1971), Federhofer, Nach Tagebüchern, communication from John Rothgeb, and other sources]

Editions published by Peters (Leipzig) were:

Bach, J. S.: Kantaten. Klavier-Auszüge mit Gesang, 10 cantatas edited by H. Roth (Ed. Nos. 3350-3359, pubd 1911-12)

Bach, J. S.: Magnificat, ed. K. Straube, piano/organ accomp. by H. Roth (Ed. No. 3392, not before 1906)

Bach, J. S.: Lieder, 25 geistliche, aus dem Schemellischen Gesangbuch für 1 Singstimme und basso continuo, piano/organ accomp. by H. Roth (Ed. No. 3392, pubd 1922) [copy as OJ 25/1, with annotations by Heinrich and Jeanette Schenker]

Bach, C. P. E.: 30 Geistliche Lieder für eine Singstimme und Klavier, ed. H. Roth with detailed instructions as to ornamentation (Ed. No. 3748, pubd 1922)

Handel: Gesänge für eine Frauenstimme. Aus Opern und Oratorien ausgewählt, ed. with keyboard accomp. by H. Roth (Ed. No. 3493, pubd 1916).

[Information kindly supplied by C. F. Peters, Frankfurt/Main]

December 21, 2005


Bohm. Perhaps Karl Bohm (1844-1920), German pianist, composer of salon pieces for piano and also songs. He features in an anecdote about Brahms and Simrock that Schenker reports.

Referred to in:

OJ 5/16, [2], May 1914 (draft, Schenker to Hertzka)
WSLB 211, May 5, 1914 (Schenker to Hertzka)

Schnabel, Artur

Schnabel, Artur (1882-1951). Austrian pianist. Having moved with his family to Vienna in 1889, he studied piano there with Leschetizky and music theory with Mandyczewski. He moved to Berlin in 1900, and between 1925 and 1933 taught at the Hochschule für Musik in Berlin. He left Berlin only when Hitler came to power in 1933, moving first to Switzerland and in 1939 emigrating to the U.S., eventually returning to Europe.

He was celebrated especially as an interpreter of Beethoven and Schubert, and made many recordings; but also played contemporary music (he took part in one of the early performances of Schoenberg's Pierrot lunaire ), and composed in a modernist idiom. His publications include My Reflections on Music (Manchester, 1933), Music and the Line of Most Resistance (Princeton, 1942) and My Life and Music (London, 1961).

Schenker mostly recorded unfavorable or mixed comments about his playing in his diary. For example, on January 28, 1909: "Concert by A. Schnabel: errors; loud, without shading; lack of principal accents and principal breathing-points"; on November 4, 1929: "[Diabelli Variations]: basically a pianist devoid of the elements of what composers and performers would consider art." Schenker also made adverse remarks on Schnabel's Beethoven editing (WSLB 211).

Only one letter, from Schabel to Schenker, survives (OJ 14/14).

He is mentioned in:
OJ 5/16, [2], May 1914 (draft, Schenker to Hertzka)
WSLB 211, May 5, 1914 (Schenker to Hertzka)

( Baker's, NGDM, Federhofer Nach Tagebüchern, and other sources)

Flesch, Carl

Flesch, Carl (Karl) (1873-1944). Hungarian virtuoso violinist and teacher. He studied at the Vienna Conservatory 1886-89 (contemporaneously with Schenker), then in Paris, and made his debut in Vienna in 1895. He was a professor at the Amsterdam Conservatory 1903-08, then settled in Berlin. Among his pedagogical publications are Urstudien (1911), and Die Kunst des Violin-Spiels (Berlin, 1923). He was famous also as a chamber player, including playing recitals with Artur Schnabel, and in the Schnabel-Flesch-Becker piano trio.

Flesch recalls him in his memoirs from Conservatory days:

"Towering way above us 'ignoramuses' was a young, half-starved, visionary university student who was doing music on the side. This was Heinrich Schenker, who was later to enjoy high repute on account of his unique musical theories and his all-encompassing practical and theoretical musicality." (Erinnerungen eines Geigers (Freiburg and Zurich: Atlantis Verlag, 1961), p.31; quoted Federhofer, Nach Tagebüchern, p.11.)

There appears to be no correspondence between the two men. Schenker once speaks disparagingly of his editions (WSLB 211).

Mentioned in:
OJ 5/16, [2], May 1914 (Schenker to Hertzka)
WSLB 211, May 5, 1914 (Schenker to Hertzka)

( Baker's; NGDM; Federhofer Nach Tagebüchern, and other sources)

January 4, 2006

Schweitzer, Albert

Schweitzer, Albert (1875-1965). Alsatian organist, writer on music, especially that of J. S. Bach, also theologian, philosopher, and medical doctor. He studied organ playing under Widor in Paris, and music theory under Heinrich Bellermann in Strasbourg. He was a crucial figure in the new movement toward historical organ building in the early 20th century, with an important article presented to the IMG in 1909. He spent much of his life from 1913 on at the missionary hospital that he founded in Lambaréné, in Africa. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1952.

His best-known book on music is J. S. Bach, le musicien-poète (Leipzig, 1905); German translation, greatly enlarged, as J. S. Bach (1908). This work is much concerned with interpretation and issues of authentic performance. Schweitzer also, with others, produced a complete edition of Bach's organ works (1912-14, 1954-67).

Schenker knew Schweitzer's book in the German translation from its publication in 1908, and quoted from it not infrequently: in Tonwille5, p. 27 (trans., 165-66), in relation to Bach's practice of copying the works of other, lesser composers; in his own essay on the opening chorus of the Matthew Passion in Tonwille10 = IV/4, p. 10 (trans., 133-34), on the interpretation of that chorus; in his own essay on the Prelude to Bach's solo violin Partita No. 3 in E major in Meisterwerk1, pp. 88-92 (trans., 48-50); and he mentions him in passing in Meisterwerk3, p. 14 (trans., 3). In these passages he expresses agreement with much of what Schweitzer says, taking issue with him at the same time. Schenker kept six newspaper clippings of articles about Schweitzer from between 1923 and 1928 (OC 12/20; C/3, 116, 500, 504, 505).

There is no known correspondence between Schenker and Schweitzer.

Schweitzer is mentioned in:
WSLB 35, January 8, 1909 (Schenker to Hertzka)
OJ 12/11, undated, 1927 (Paul von Klenau to Schenker, quoted in Federhofer, Nach Tagebüchern, p.171)

[ NGMD1 & 2; Baker's (1971); Federhofer, Nach Tagebüchern ]

January 22, 2006

Frimmel, Theodor

Theodor Frimmel (1853–1928). Austrian scholar. Trained in medicine, he was assistant curator at the Vienna Hofmuseum 1884–93, later taught art history at the Vienna Athenäum and was director of a gallery. His works by this time included Beethoven und Goethe: eine Studie (1883), Neue Beethoveniana (1888) and Ludwig van Beethoven (1901) and were later to include two volumes of Beethoven letters (1910–11) and his Beethoven-Handbuch (1926). ( NGDM )

In 1907, Frimmel approached Schenker about contributing to his new Beethoven-Jahrbuch, which however lasted only two issues (1908, 1909) without Schenker having supplied anything.

Substantial correspondence from Frimmel to Schenker exists as:

OJ 11/10, 1902-1927 (28 items)
OC 24/20, August 1, 1921

A copy of his later Beethoven-Forschung, vol. 9 (1923) exists in Schenker’s library, OJ 34/2, with an inscription from the author, and Schenker clipped an article of his from the Wiener Zeitung, February 13, 1921 in his scrapbook, OC 2/59.

There were copies of Beethoven-Forschung for 1911–18 and Ludwig van Beethoven, 4th, edn in the sale of Schenker's personal library ( Musik und Theater. Enthaltend die Bibliothek des Herrn Dr. Heinrich Schenker, Wien, Antiquariat Heinrich Hinterberger ).

Frimmel is mentioned in the following items currently on the website:

OC 52/17, March 11, 1905
OJ 1/5, p.68, January 30, 1908
CA 75, February 8, 1908
OJ 1/5, p.71, February 8, 1908
CA 76, April 24, 1908
CA 94, April 8, 1909
OJ 12/27, [11], October 4, 1909

January 23, 2006

Brünauer, Dr.

Brünauer, Dr. Robert Brünauer was a piano pupil of Schenker’s over a period spanning at least 1912 to 1932 (Lesson Books: OC 3/1–4), and personal lesson notes exist for him for 1931–32 (OC 16/19–24, 47). Brünauer was a chocolate manufacturer, and made Schenker an offer of 5,000 Kroner should he need it; he also introduced Schenker to the artist Viktor Hammer (Federhofer, Nach Tagebüchern, pp.38–9). He is mentioned in Schenker’s diary from 1906: Schenker visits his home, and is in his company at the home of others.

Correspondence between Robert Brünauer and Schenker survives:

OC 52/638, July 25, 1924 (receipt for purchase by Brünauer)
OC 52/636, February 19, 1925 (Brünauer to Schenker)
OC 44/16, August 8, 1934 (Brünauer to Schenker)
OC 44/15, September 20, 1934 (Brünauer to Schenker)

A letter from Otto Vrieslander to Brünauer also exists (OJ 71/37).

A reply by Brünauer to an article by Walter Riezler ( Die Musik, April 1930) survives in typescript carbon copy, entitled “Die Urlinie. Eine Entgegnung,” (OJ 21/24, with annotation in Jeanette Schenker’s hand). Works by Robert Brünauer survive also as OC 41 (Waltz, Op.39/1) and OC 42 (arrangement of a keyboard piece by C. P. E. Bach, with Schenker’s ).

January 27, 2006

Wöß, Josef Venantius von

Josef Venantius von Wöß (1863–1943). Viennese organist, choirmaster, and composer, chief music editor at UE from 1908 to 1931. He studied at the Conservatory, 1880–82. From 1889, he was a proofreader for the firm of Waldheim-Eberle (which UE later used extensively as one of its printers). His work at UE involved especially preparing for publication the Bruckner symphonies and vocal scores by Mahler, Bruckner, Janacek and others, and making piano arrangements of Mahler’s symphonies 3, 4, 8, 9, and Das Lied von der Erde.

His compositions include three operas, much vocal church music, and chamber works, and his writings include Deutsche Meister des Liedes (Vienna, 1910); Gustav Mahler, Das Lied von der Erde: thematische Analyse (Leipzig, 1912); Die Modulation (Vienna, 1921).

Communications from von Wöß to Schenker are:

OJ 15/25, .... 1906
OC 52/56, September 9, 1910
OC 52/57, September 15, 1910

Von Wöß is mentioned in, among other documents:

OJ 5/16, [4], December 25, 1908 (Schenker to Hertzka, draft unsent)
OC 52/42, November 5, 1909 (Hertzka to Schenker)
WSLB 47, November 9, 1909 (Schenker to Hertzka)
WSLB 53, February 15, 1910 (Schenker to Hertzka)
WSLB 63, August 8, 1910 (Schenker to Hertzka)
OC 52/58, September 5, 1910 (Hertzka to Schenker)
WSLB 66/67, October 19, 1910 (Schenker to Hertzka)
OC 52/426, October 29, 1910 (Hertzka to Schenker)

(NGDM1980 and 2001, and Baker’s1971, and other sources)

January 29, 2006

Mahler, Gustav

Mahler, Gustav (1860–1911). Austrian-Jewish composer and conductor. Born in Bohemia, Mahler came to Vienna to study at the Conservatory, 1875–78, with Julius Epstein (piano), Robert Fuchs (composition), and Franz Krenn (theory). After a series of appointments in other cities, he served as Music Director (Kapellmeister) of the Vienna Hofoper for a turbulent ten years, 1897–1907, where he raised the standard of the opera house to among the finest in Europe, and established himself particularly as a conductor of Mozart and Wagner, later also of Richard Strauss, Puccini, Pfitzner and others, numbering among his assistant conductors Bruno Walter and Franz Schalk. After his enforced resignation, partly out of anti-semitism, in 1907 he was succeeded by Felix Weingartner. He was also Director of the Philharmonic Concerts 1898–1901. From 1907, he worked in New York at the Metropolitan Opera House and also as conductor of the New York Philharmonic, returning to Vienna for the last few months of his life.

Federhofer comments: “We do not know what kind of relationship [Schenker] had with Mahler ..., for Schenker expressed his views only briefly and very rarely regarding his works and achievements as a conductor. He valued him as a conductor, but he rejected his works” (Nach Tagebüchern, p.62). Schenker described a performance of Smetana’s Dalibor in 1897 as “excellent, and under G. Mahler’s direction, to whom we take this opportunity to pay tribute also for his truthful performances of the Nibelungen tetralogy, the Marriage of Figaro, Don Giovanni, Czar und Zimmermann, etc.” (Federhofer, Essayist, p.358).

Many entries in S's diary either comment directly on Mahler as an artist or individual compositions or describe events relating to Mahler. These include:

1898 : OJ 1/3, p.7
January 3, 1907 : OJ 1/6, p.32
May 22, 1907 : OJ 1/6, p.41
May 26, 1907 : OJ 1/6, p.42
May 27, 1907 : OJ 1/6, p.42
?Sept/Oct 1907 : OJ 1/4, p.27 = OJ 1/6, p.50

The only item of correspondence is an undated letter of thanks from Mahler to Schenker, probably in response to Schenker's signing of a published open letter to him when he was under pressure to resign from the directorship of the Hofoper:

?May 23, 1907 : OJ 12/48

Mahler is referred to in correspondence:

WSLB 47, November 9, 1909 (Schenker to Hertzka)
WSLB 53, February 15, 1910 (Schenker to Hertzka)
WSLB 66-67, October 19, 1910 (Schenker to Hertzka)
WSLB 103, March 15?, 1912 (Schenker to Hertzka)
OJ 5/16, [2], May 1914 (Schenker to Hertzka)

Surprisingly, there is no reference to Mahler in the unpublished Niedergang der Kompositionskunst (c.1905—09)—Schenker’s first sustained public attack on Wagner and his legacy in Bruckner, Wolf, and Richard Strauss. In Der Tonwille, Schenker refers to Mahler's "touchings-up" of Beethoven's Ninth Symphony (Heft 8-9, p. 54; Eng. trans., vol. II, p. 122), which had previously been the subject of a brief aside in his 1901 article “Beethoven-‘Retouche’” (Federhofer, Essayist, p. 266).There is one reference to him in Das Meisterwerk in der Musik, vol. 3, p.18 (Eng. trans., p.6).

(Federhofer, Nach Tagebüchern; Federhofer, Essayist; NGDM )

February 9, 2006

Weingartner, Felix

Felix Weingartner (1863–1942). Austrian conductor, also composer, and author. His career as a conductor began in 1884, and he held a series of appointments, successively at Königsberg, Danzig, Hamburg, Mannheim, and Berlin (1891–1907), and then succeeded Mahler after the latter had been forced out as director of the Vienna Hofoper in 1908, himself resigning in 1911 in the face of opposition from critics and the public, but retaining control of the Vienna Philharmonic concerts until 1927. Thereafter he held post in other cities until being appointed director of the Vienna Volksoper (1919–24). He again directed the Vienna Hofoper (Staatsoper) 1935–36. Despite his early association with Liszt, he has been considered principally a conductor of Classical composers, notably Beethoven.

As a composer he wrote seven operas, six symphonies, two symphonic poems, and much chamber music. As an author he wrote books on interpretation of the repertory (Mozart, Beethoven, Schubert, Schumann), on conducting, and memoirs. His Ratschläge für Ausführungen der Symphonien Beethovens (Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel, 1906) is cited in the “Secondary Literature” sections of the Ninth Symphony: Rothgeb trans., pp. 20 (“serious substantive efforts ... acquits himself to good advantage”), 51–3, 88, 104 (“makes the effort, which cannot be valued highly enough, to supplement the dynamic shadings on the basis of the sense of the composition ...”), 119–20, 135–6, 159–60, 176, 182 (“gives accurate guidance ... several corrections ... they are to be considered perfectly appropriate”), 222, 285 (“astute suggestions concerning stage arrangement ... good instinct”), 307–08 (“arrives at the only correct solution”), 316–19 (“rightly objects—it is just a pity that no reason is given!”), 330. Later, Schenker included the Ratschläge in his discussion of the Fifth Symphony in Der Tonwille, 5 (1923), and elsewhere in 3 (1922) criticizing him for conducting an all-French program (Eng. trans., vol.1, pp. 136, 198–201, 221).

Early in his career, Schenker had written “Bülow–Weingartner” in 1895 (ed. Federhofer, Essayist, pp.171–75), a review of an article by Weingartner entitled “Ueber das Dirigiren” (1895), itself a reflection on an article by Wagner of the same title. There is no correspondence between Weingartner and Schenker, but several articles and concert programs survive in OC and OJ. For comments in Schenker's diary, see Federhofer, Nach Tagebüchern ..., pp. 267-68.

Weingartner is mentioned in letters, including the following:

WSLB 47, November 9, 1909 (Schenker to Hertzka: “fools like Mahler, Weingartner, Mottl”)

WSLB 77, June 21, 1911 (Schenker to Hertzka)
WSLB 113, May 18, 1912 (Schenker to Hertzka)
WSLB 149, March 18, 1913 (Schenker to Hertzka)
OC 52/570, August 30, 1920 (Kalmus to Schenker)

OJ 9/15, [3], June 6, 1933 (Bienenfeld to Schenker) (offers a meeting with Weingartner)

( NGDM; Baker’s 1971; and other sources)

February 13, 2006

Hirschfeld, Robert

Robert Hirschfeld (1857–1914). Austrian music critic and historian. He completed a PhD at University of Vienna in 1884 with a dissertation on the 14th-century music theorist Johannes de Muris, and in the same year launched a series of concerts of Renaissance music in Vienna; when his former teacher Eduard Hanslick ridiculed these, he attacked him in a pamphlet ( Das kritische Verfahren E. Hanslicks ) of 1885. Hirschfeld was also sympathetic to Wagner. From 1893/94, he was editor of the periodical Wiener Philharmoniker: philharmonische Concerte, and wrote reviews for, among other journals, the Illustriertes Wiener Extrablatt, the Wiener Abendpost, the Neue Musikalische Presse, and the Österreichische Rundschau. He was particularly hostile to Mahler, as conductor, director of the Hofoper, and symphonist. With Richard Perger, he wrote a history of the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde (1912).

There is no known correspondence between Hirschfeld and Schenker. However Hirschfeld is mentioned in Schenker’s diary, which shows him frequently in animated discussion, and even “controversy,” with Schenker, and is referred to quite often in his letters to others, including:

OJ 1/4, p.10 : December 22, 1902 : diary
OC 52/17 : March 11, 1905 (Hertzka to Schenker: complimentary copy of Handel Organ Concertos)
OJ 1/5, p.25 : November 10, 1906 : diary (R.H.’s ignorance of the demands of art)
CA 56 : November 22, 1906 (Schenker to Cotta: complimentary copy of Harmonielehre )
CA 58 : November 24, 1906 (Schenker to Cotta: complimentary copy of Harmonielehre )
OJ 1/5, p. 30 : December 17, 1906 : diary
OJ 1/6, p.38 : April 13, 1907 : diary (two entries)
OJ 1/6, p. 42 : May 26, 1907 : diary (R.H.’s denunciation of open letter to Mahler, and two other entries on same page)
OJ 1/7, p. 86 : April 3, 1908 : diary
OJ 1/7, pp. 92–93 : November 15, 1908 : diary (adverse review by R.H. of the Instrumentations-Tabelle )
OJ 5/16, [3] : November 9, 1909 (Schenker to Hertzka (draft) : "Hirschfeld's ultra-orthodox Wagnerianism")
WSLB 47 : November 9, 1909 (Schenker to Hertzka: “Hirschfeld’s ultra-orthodox Wagnerianism”)

( NGDM2; Baker’s 1971; Federhofer, Nach Tagebüchern; other sources)

(See Leon Botstein, Music and Its Public: Habits of Listening and the Crisis of Modernism in Vienna, 1870-1914 (PhD diss.: Harvard University, 1985).)

February 20, 2006

Robert, Richard

Richard Robert (1861-1924). One of Vienna's leading piano teachers around the turn of the century, his pupils including Clara Haskill, Rudolf Serkin, George Szell, Theo Buchwald, Vally Weigl (Pick), Hans Gál, Alfred Rosé, Wilhelm Groß, Rudolf Schwarz, and Victor Zuckerkandl; also music critic and composer.

Robert knew Brahms personally, and became President of the Vienna Tonkünstler-Verein. He had studied at the Vienna Conservatory (Akademie für Musik und Darstellende Kunst), but did not teach there; he gave courses at the New Vienna Conservatory (Neues Konservatorium der Stadt Wien, founded 1909), of which he was briefly director. He edited the journal Musikalische Rundschau from 1885 to 1891, and was later music critic for the Wiener Sonn- u. Montags-Zeitung the Illustriertes Wiener Extrablatt.

There is a small amount of correspondence from Robert to Schenker: OJ 13/26 (1902, 1910, 1914), and the diary records a letter dated May 25, 1909.

Robert is mentioned in, among others, the following letters:

CA 60, December 3, 1906 (Schenker to Cotta: complimentary copy of Harmonielehre )
OJ 12/27, [2], December 4, 1906 (Cotta to Schenker)
WSLB 51, February 6, 1910 (Schenker to Hertzka)
OC 52/424, February 7, 1910 (Hertzka to Schenker)
WSLB 52, February 7, 1910 (Schenker to Hertzka)
WSLB 66/67, October 19, 1910 (Schenker to Hertzka: complimentary copy of CF&F )
WSLB 149, March 18, 1913 (Schenker to Hertzka)
WSLB 213, May 17, 1914 (Schenker to Hertzka): complimentary copy of LfS 110 )
WSLB 228, September 27, 1914 (Schenker to Hertzka)

Schenker also mentions Robert in his diary (OJ 1/6, p.45).

(Federhofer, Nach; NGDM 2001; La Grange, Mahler, vol.3; other sources)

February 22, 2006

Batka, Richard

Richard Batka (1868–1922). Austrian music critic and librettist of Czech descent, who wrote in German. After studying and working in Prague, he moved to Vienna in 1908, where he worked as librettist, editor, and music critic, notably with the Wiener Fremdenblatt (a copy of his article on Massenet in which survives in Schenker’s papers (OC C/373), and a concert review (OC, 2/p.22). He also taught history of opera at the Vienna Conservatory 1909–14. His numerous book publications include Aus der Opernwelt: Prager Kritiken und Skizzen (Munich, 1907) and Allgemeine Geschichte der Musik (Stuttgart, 1909–15).

No correspondence between Schenker and him is known.

He is mentioned by Schenker in:
WSLB 53, February 15, 1910 (Schenker to Hertzka)

(Grove Dictionary of Opera; Ernst Tittel, Die Wiener Musik Hochschule; Max Graf, Composer and Critic; other sources)

Ochs, Siegfried

Siegfried Ochs (1858–1929). German choral conductor, composer, and editor. In 1882, he founded the Philharmonischer Chor in Berlin, which became one of the leading choruses in Germany, and merged with the Berlin Hochschule der Musik in 1920. He specialized in performances of choral works by Schütz, Bach, Handel, Beethoven, Schubert, and Brahms. Hmade editions of J. S. Bach cantatas, the St. Matthew Passion, arrangements of German folksongs, etc., and also made recordings.

Two letters from Ochs to Schenker survive (OJ 13/7: 1898, 1903)

Ochs is mentioned in letters by Schenker, including:

WSLB 53, February 15, 1910 (Schenker to Hertzka)

( NGDM ; Baker’s 1971)

April 14, 2006

Dunn, John Petrie

John Petrie Dunn (1878–1931). Scottish pianist, theorist, and writer on music, who studied with Friedrich Niecks at Edinburgh University and later with Samuel de Lange (theory) and Max Pauer (piano) at the Stuttgart Conservatory. In 1909 he was appointed acting director of the Kiel Conservatory but returned to Britain in 1914, serving and being wounded in World War I. After the war, he settled in Edinburgh (Scotland), where he worked as piano teacher and concert artist, later teaching music theory at Edinburgh University 1920–31. His books include Ornamentation in the Works of Chopin (London, 1921).

Though never a pupil of Schenker’s, Dunn became a disciple of his on the basis of his study of Schenker’s writings, and Schenker took pride in the fact that his theory was being taught in Edinburgh. Dunn prepared an abbreviated English translation of Schenker’s Kontrapunkt that remained unpublished.

There survive a copy of one letter from Schenker to Dunn dated July 8, 1928 (OC 30/122–124), eight letters from Dunn to Schenker, 1926–30, and two from Dunn’s widow dated 1931 together with a clipping and typed German translation of D. F. Tovey’s obituary for Dunn in The Scotsman, February 6, 1931 (OJ 10/12 and 10/13). Schenker owned two inscribed portraits, one of John Petrie, one of John Petrie and Aline (OJ 72/4), and a copy of Dunn’s A Student’s Guide to Orchestration [London, 1928] (OC 2/p. 80).

Additionally, Dunn is referred to in letters and diary entries:

OJ 3/5, p. ????, April 22, 1926 (Schenker diary)

OJ 3/5, p. ????, June 20, 1926 (Schenker diary)

vC 9, February 15, 1927 (Schenker to Cube)

OJ 11/54(?), September 18, 1927 (Hoboken to Schenker)

OJ 12/6, [2], February 9, 1928 (Jonas to Schenker)

OJ 4/1, p. 3177, February 10, 1928 (Schenker diary)

vC 15, May 28, 1928 (Schenker to Cube)

OJ 9/34, [13]. July 6, 1928 (Cube to Schenker)/a>

(Federhofer, Nach, 102–04; Baker’s (1971); Kosovsky; Lang & Kunselman)

April 21, 2006

Fischer, Edwin

Edwin Fischer (1886–1960). Swiss pianist specializing in German music from Bach to Brahms, settled in Berlin and taught at the Stern Conservatory 1905–14, later serving as conductor of the Lübeck Verein 1926–28 and the Munich Bachverein 1928–32. In 1931 he succeeded Schnabel at the Hochschule für Musik in Berlin. He was author of books on Bach and the Beethoven piano sonatas after World War II.

No correspondence between Fischer and Schenker is known. Schenker refers to him in his diary in 1920 and 1925 (see Federhofer Nach Tagebüchern, pp. 117, 229).

Fischer is referred to in:

OJ 12/6, [6], December 5, 1930 (Jonas to Schenker)

OJ 5/18, 43, June 24, 1934 (Schenker to Jonas)

( Grove2001 ; Federhofer Nach )

May 4, 2006

Marx, Joseph

Joseph Marx, Hofrath (1882–1964). Austrian composer and teacher, trained at the U. of Graz. He was a Professor of Theory and Composition at the Vienna Akademie für Musik und darstellende Kunst (i.e. Vienna Conservatory) 1914–52. Involved in the troubles there in 1918/19, during which the then Director and President were forced out of office, he served as its Director 1922–25; known as the “father of the Hochschule idea,” he became the first Rector of the institution with its elevated status as Hochschule für Musik und darstellende Kunst 1925–27. He taught also after 1947 at the U. of Graz.

Correspondence between Schenker and him exists in OJ 5/25 (1927–33) and OJ 12/51 (1924), OC 16/34 (1931), OC 18/15, 18, 19, 23 (1933). Additionally, OC contains clippings of 35 articles and reviews by him dated between December 1931 and June 1934, with one from June 1926, all from the Neues Wiener Journal, of which periodical he was presumably music critic.

Marx is mentioned in:
OJ 5/18, 7, undated [1931] (Schenker to Jonas)

OJ 5/18, 17, Nov/Dec 1931 (Schenker to Jonas)

OC 44/22, November 10, 1932 (Jonas to Schenker)

OJ 5/18, 22 January 26, 1933 (Schenker to Jonas)

(Ernst Tittel, Die Wiener Musik Hochschule (Vienna: Elisabeth Lafite, 1967), pp. 51, 57-61, 84, 97; Baker’s1971 )

May 16, 2006

Salzer, Felix

Felix Salzer (1904–1986). Born in Vienna into the Wittgenstein family (his mother, Helene Salzer, was the sister of the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein and the pianist Paul Wittgenstein), Salzer began his studies with Schenker in 1931. His earlier studies in theory and analysis were with Hans Weisse, starting in the 1920s. After Weisse’s emigration to New York in 1931, he and three other former pupils of Weisse (Trude Kral, Greta Kraus, and Manfred Willfort) became Schenker’s students, forming a “seminar” that met weekly. The published result of their studies was the Fünf Urlinie-Tafeln (New York: David Mannes Music School, 1932). On the dissolution of the seminar in 1934 he began private study with Schenker.

Salzer also studied musicology with Guido Adler at Vienna University, writing a dissertation “Die Sonatenform bei Franz Schubert,” and receiving a doctorate in 1926. He was a piano pupil of Malwine Brée (assistant to Theodor Leschetizky). In 1935 he received a diploma in conducting (with Oswald Kabasta) from the Akademie für Musik und darstellende Kunst (i.e., the Vienna Conservatory).

After Schenker’s death, Salzer taught at the newly established Schenker Institute in the Neues Wiener Konservatorium. To further the dissemination of Schenker’s ideas, he and Oswald Jonas founded the journal Der Dreiklang (nine issues, 1937–38).

In 1940, shortly after he had settled in New York, he joined the faculty of the Mannes Music School, taking over the position left vacant on Weisse’s death. He served as Director from 1948 through 1955; under his leadership the school became a degree-granting college, and he was largely responsible for developing the “Techniques of Music” curriculum, based on Schenker’s approach. He became Professor of Music at Queens College of the City University of New York in 1963; he taught there and later at the City University Graduate Center until the mid 1970s. He also continued to teach at Mannes, from 1962 to 1981.

Salzer’s major publications include Sinn und Wesen der abendländischen Mehrstimmigkeit (Vienna: Saturn-Verlag, 1935), Structural Hearing: Tonal Coherence in Music (New York: Boni, 1952; reprinted New York: Dover, 1962 and 1982), and Counterpoint in Composition: The Study of Voice Leading, with Carl Schachter (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1969; reprinted New York: Columbia University Press, 1989). He contributed important articles to The Music Forum, which he founded in 1967 with co-editor William J. Mitchell.

The Schenker/Salzer correspondence survives partly among the Salzer papers now deposited at the New York Public Library (27 from Schenker to Salzer, 1930–1934), partly in the Ernst Oster Collection at the New York Public Library (three from Salzer to Schenker, 1934, OC 44/2, 36, 37), and partly in the Oswald Jonas Memorial Collection at University of California, Riverside, Special Collections (two from Salzer to Schenker, 1932, 1934, OJ 14/1, one from Salzer to Jeanette Schenker, 1938, OJ 14/1, joint Salzer-Jonas correspondence with Jeanette Schenker, 1935, OJ 5/36, 12/6 [copy in 14/1], and correspondence between Salzer and Jonas, Oster, and Siegfried Müller, OJ 36/53, 169, 188, 214, 71/31).

Salzer is mentioned elsewhere, including in the following documents:-

OJ 4/1, pp. 3148-50 : December 11, 1927 (diary entry)

OJ 5/18, 4 : March 16, 1931 (Schenker to Jonas)

OJ 12/6, [12], June 28, 1932 (Jonas and Salzer to Jeanette Schenker)

OJ 12/6, [13] : July 14, 1932 (Jonas to Schenker)

OJ 5/18, 14, September 23, 1932 (Schenker to Jonas)

OJ 5/18, 23, February 7, 1933 (Schenker to Jonas)

OJ 12/6, [24], October 25, 1933 (Jonas to Schenker)

OJ 5/18, 41, April 23, 1934 (Schenker to Jonas)

OJ 5/18, 49, August 2, 1934 (Schenker to Jonas)

OJ 5/18, 55, September 13, 1934 (Schenker to Jonas)

OJ 12/6, [43], March 9, 1935 (Jonas to Jeanette Schenker)

OJ 12/6, [45], June 27, 1935 (Jonas and Salzer to Jeanette Schenker)

OJ 5/36, [1], July 2, 1935 (Jeanette Schenker to Jonas)

Author: Hedi Siegel

May 21, 2006

Landowska, Wanda

Wanda Landowska (1879–1959). Polish-born keyboard player who moved to Paris in 1900, specializing in performing 17th- and 18th-century keyboard music on the piano; began playing the harpsichord in 1903, since which time she campaigned for the revival of that instrument. She had published her book Musique ancienne in 1909.

Correspondence from Landowska to Schenker in OJ 12/33.

Landowska is also mentioned in:

WSLB 72, November 11, 1910 (Schenker to Hertzka)

May 25, 2006

Bamberger, Carl

Carl Bamberger (1902-87). Conductor and writer on music, born in Vienna; pupil of Schenker during the years 1920/21 to 1923/24. He conducted opera in Danzig and Darmstadt (1924–30), and in Russia (1931–35). He migrated to the US in 1937, where he was director of the orchestral and opera departments of the Mannes School of Music, New York from 1939 (among others, Carl Schachter studied conducting with him there).

His publications include the book The Conductor’s Art (1965). Preserved in Schenker's scrapbook are three articles by him: "Das Wiener Photogramm-Archiv" and "Das Schenker-Institut am neuen wiener Konservatorium," published in Musikblätter des Anbruchs issue 1 (1936) (OC 2/after p.92), and the obituary "Zum Tode Heinrich Schenkers," Wiener Musik-Zeitung April 1935 (OC 2/p.91).

Letters from Bamberger to Schenker exist in OJ 9/12 (eight letters, 1924–27) and OC (3 letters, 1934).

Bamberger is mentioned in the following letters:

OJ 10/18, [5], June 17, 1933 (Elias to Schenker)

OJ 5/18, 43, June 24, 1934 (Schenker to Jonas)


May 31, 2006

Jonas, Oswald

Oswald Jonas (1897-1978). One of the leading first-generation Schenkerian scholars and advocates of Schenker’s theory. Born in Vienna, Oswald Jonas first studied piano with Schenker's close friend Moriz Violin, who referred him to Schenker for further study. He was a pupil of Schenker during 1918/19 and 1919/20, and after 1920 with Hans Weisse; during the same period he studied Law at Vienna University (as had Schenker 1884-90), taking his doctorate in 1921. Subsequently, he taught at the Stern Conservatory in Berlin 1930-34, then returned to Vienna to help found the Schenker Institute at the Neues Konservatorium der Stadt Wien, and with Felix Salzer to found and edit the journal Der Dreiklang 1937-38 (nine issues). In 1938, he emigrated to the US, teaching at Roosevelt University in Chicago 1941-64. Thereafter, he taught for one year at the Vienna Akademie für Musik und Darstellende Kunst, then as Regents' Professor, and subsequently as adjunct professor, at the University of California, Riverside until his death in 1978.

Jonas built up a substantial library of historical editions and microfilms of manuscripts, and also acquired a large part of the Schenker Nachlaß from Erwin Ratz. These materials were deposited in the Special Collections Library at Riverside at his death.

He wrote articles, many of them on sketches and autograph manuscripts by Beethoven, Chopin, Mozart, others on Schenker and his theory, and also books, notably Das Wesen des musikalischen Kunstwerks: Einführung in die Lehre Heinrich Schenkers (Vienna: Saturn-Verlag, 1934; 2nd edn Universal Edition, 1973; English translation, 1982; 2nd edn 2005), a work that won high praise from Schenker; he also edited Schenker's Harmonielehre as Harmony, trans. Elisabeth Mann Borgese (Chicago: U. of Chicago Press, 1954), Die letzten fünf Sonaten Beethovens (Vienna: UE, 1971-72 in 4 vols, titles modified), and Der freie Satz (Vienna: UE, 1956).

Jonas and Heinrich Schenker corresponded extensively between 1918 and 1935, and correspondence continued with Jeanette Schenker until 1938: OJ 5/18 (Schenker to Jonas), OJ 12/6 and OC 44, 9, 20–22, 43, 46 (Jonas to the Schenkers).

Jonas is mentioned elsewhere in:

OJ 10/18, [6], September 22, 1933 (Elias to Schenker)

Authors: John Rothgeb and Ian Bent

Cube, Felix-Eberhard von

Felix-Eberhard von Cube (1903–88). Cube grew up in Munich and studied music privately with Otto Vrieslander, a family friend who was for a time the private librarian to the playwright Carl Sternheim, Cube’s maternal uncle. On Vrieslander’s recommendation, Cube went to Vienna in late 1923 to study with Schenker; lessons continued until early 1926. After a period of five years’ teaching at the Rheinisches Musikseminar, a provincial conservatory in Duisburg in Germany’s industrial area, he was recommended by Schenker to help Moriz Violin set up a Schenker-Institut in Hamburg in 1931. The Institute had a shaky existence for about two years, closed down in 1934 and reopened after the War as the Heinrich-Schenker-Akademie, though with only modest success, for another decade and a half.

Unswervingly loyal to Schenker and his cause, Cube attempted to put his teacher’s theories into a useful pedagogical form for German-speaking musicians, in a Lehrbuch der musikalischen Kunstgesetze, a typewritten treatise first conceived around 1934 but not finished until 1953 (and periodically augmented thereafter with further graphic analyses); an English version of this appeared in 1987 as The Book of the Musical Artwork. A second book, Todeskampf oder Wiederauferstehung der Deutschen Musik (Mortal Struggle, or the New Resurrection of German Music), is essentially a diatribe against modernism, but includes anecdotal information about his upbringing, his studies with Schenker, and his career as a teacher in Duisburg and Hamburg. Cube also wrote a quantity of chamber music, songs, and concertos, some of which were performed by North German Radio.

Cube and Schenker corresponded extensively between 1924 and 1934: OJ 9/34 (Cube to Schenker) and letters in family possession (Schenker to Cube).

Cube is mentioned elsewhere in the Schenker correspondence:

OJ 5/18, 1, October 7, 1930 (Schenker to Jonas)

OJ 5/18, 59, October 16, 1934 (Schenker to Jonas)

OJ 5/18, 60, October 25, 1934 (Schenker to Jonas)

Author: William Drabkin

June 19, 2006

Elias, Angelika

Elias, Angelika (Angi) (1882–1944). Pupil of Schenker from c. 1905 to his death in 1935, and long-time personal assistant, who prepared voice-leading graphs of works by J. S. and C. P. E. Bach, Beethoven, Brahms, and Chopin for him, many of which survive in OC and OJ, and published the article “Zwei Stücke aus Schumanns ‘Album für die Jugend’,” Der Dreiklang 7 (October 1937), 161–64. Elias was also a patron of Schenker, known to have given him 10,000 Kroner in 1917, to have offered him a yearly subvention and support for his publications. She perished in the Ravensbruck concentration camp.

Her correspondence with Heinrich and Jeanette Schenker is preserved as OJ 10/18 (1922–39), and OC 38/338, 44/18–19, 52/ 483, 631.

She is elsewhere mentioned in correspondence:
OJ 5/18, 9, April 9, 1932 (Schenker to Jonas)
OC 44/22, November 10, 1932 (Jonas to Schenker)

June 21, 2006

Deutscher Sprachverein

Deutscher Sprachverein (1885–1943). Society for the purification and cultivation of the German language, established in 1885 by the art historian and museum director Hermann Riegel. The DSV’s stated objectives were:

1. to promote the purification of the German language [and rid it] of unnecessary foreign components, –
2. to cultivate the preservation and restoration of the true spirit and essential nature of the German language, and
3. to strengthen general national consciousness in the German people by this means.

The DSV had many critics, and fell foul of the Hitler regime, its activities being limited by the latter from 1940 on, and the journal ceasing publication in 1943. It was refounded in 1947 as the Gesellschaft für deutsche Sprache.

Schenker is presumed to have been sympathetic to its aims from the fact that in 1927 and 1928 he sent postcards to Cube with the DSV’s emblem (the double eagle) and panel of stated objectives, which reads:

“Der Deutsche Sprachverein, gegründet im Jahre 1885, zählt gegen 40.000 Mitglieder und 285 Zweigvereine. / Er will die deutsche Sprache hüten und pflegen, die Liebe zu ihr wecken, ihre Reinheit und Schönheit wahren, das Verständnis für die vertiefen, das Sprachgefuhl schärfen und dadurch dem deutschen Volkstum und der deutschen Zukunft dienen. / Der Jahresbeitrag beträgt [blank] Mk; dafür erhalten die Mitglieder die Zeitschrift. / Der Deutsche Sprachverein ist kein Gelehrtenverein. Er wendet sich an alle Deutschen, die ihre reiche, schöne Muttersprache lieben, Männer und Frauen, Gelehrte und Nichtgelehrte. / Anmeldungen nehmen die Zweigvereine entgegen, für Einzelmitglieder die Geschäftsstelle des Deutschen Sprachvereins Berlin W 30, Nollendorfstraße 13/14; Postscheckamt Berlin Nr. 20894.“

The German Language Society, founded in 1885, numbers 40,000 members and 285 local chapters. / It is dedicated to protecting and cultivating the German language, to inspiring love for it, to preserving its purity and beauty, to deepening the understanding of it, to sharpening the feeling for language and thereby to serving the German people and the German future. / The annual subscription is [blank] Marks. For that, members receive the journal. / The German Language Society is not a learned society. It is intended for all Germans who love their rich, beautiful mother tongue, men and women, scholars and non-scholars. / The sister societies accept applications, for individual members the office of the German Language Society [is] Berlin W 30, Nollendorfstraße 13/14; postal check office Berlin No. 20894.

Postcards with the DSV emblem and stated objectives are:

vC 11, September 27, 1927 (Schenker to Cube)

vC 18, June 9, 1928 (Schenker to Cube)

(Information from DSV website,, and from the quoted source)

June 26, 2006

Reichsverband deutscher Tonkünstler und Musiklehrer

Reichsverband deutscher Tonkünstler und Musiklehrer (RDTM). The RDTM was founded in 1922 by adoption of the statutes of the pre-existent Zentralverband Deutscher Tonkünstler und Musiklehrer (fo. 1903)—a confederation of many separate associations going back to 1844. In 1928, it combined with the Leiter der Volksmusikschulen. In 1933, it was dissolved and absorbed into the Reichsmusikkammer; it reestablished itself in 1946 as the Verband Deutscher Tonkünstler und Musiklehrer (VDTM).

It is mentioned in the following items:

OJ 9/34, [9], October 19, 1927 (Jonas to Schenker)

OJ 9/34, [10], January 30, 1928 (Jonas to Schenker)

OJ 9/34, [22], November 22, 1930 (Cube to Schenker)

(sources: correspondence, and website:

June 28, 2006

Aufruf : November 1927

Photogrammarchiv, Vienna: Appeal for Contributions of Photographic Materials





Die Werke der Meister der Tonkunst sind uns heute in der Hauptsache nur bekannt nach den Ausgaben, die von ihnen im Umlauf sind. Diese Ausgaben sind aber meistens von anderen bearbeitet und entsprechen in mehrfacher Hinsicht nicht mehr getreu dem Original.

Während es in anderen Kunstgattungen, beispielsweise in der Literatur, ausgeschlossen scheint, die Werke anders zu verlegen, als die Dichter selbst sie geschaffen haben, fühlt sich in der Musik ein jeder berufen, in den großen Werken der Meister die nach seiner Ansicht notwendigen Änderungen anzubringen und sie in dieser veränderten Form der Öffentlichkeit zu übergeben. Das Publikum bermerkt nicht, und kann auch nicht bemerken, was für Entstellungen es sind, womit man es hier zu tun hat; wo ihm aber die Gelgenheit gegeben wird, ihrer gewahr zu werden, da bekennt es sich lieber zur Fassung des Herausgebers als zu der des Komponisten. Sogar wenn ein lebender Komponist das Wort dagegen erhebt, nimmt es eher an, er übertreibe, als daß es die Richtigkeit seiner Worte prüfte.

Man stelle sich jedoch einmal Folgendes vor: ein Verleger gibt ein Bändchen Gedichte von Goethe heraus, die ein anerkannter moderner Dichter dahin bearbeitet hat, daß er z. B. die Interpuunktionszeichen willkürlich ändert, die Zeilenordnung anders einteilt, alle Hauptbuchstaben entfernt, einige Artikel streicht und dergleichen mehr, mit der Begründung, daß die Gedichte in dieser Form unserem modernen Zeitempfinden besser entsprächen, und daß Goethe, hätte er nur den Herausgeber persönlich gekannt, sicherlich auch seiner Ansicht gewesen wäre. Ist es anzunehmen, daß irgend jemand solcherart “herausgegebene” Gedichte als solche von Goethe stammend anerekennen wird?

Aber in der Musik nimmt man ohne weiteres eine Ausgabe von J. S. Bachs “Wohltemperiertem Klavier” als authentisch an, in welcher der Herausgeber einige Fugen des zweiten Teiles an entsprechende Stellen des ersten gesetzt hat und umgekehrt, angeblich aus “technischen” oder “ästhetischen” Gründen und weil Bach “sich bei der Anordnung anscheinend lediglich durch die Tonalität beistimmen ließ, wobei jener noch ein Urteil fällt über das “ausgesprochene Mißverhältnis” der Bachschen Anordnung. Oder es werden in Ausgaben der Sonaten von Haydn, Mozart und Beethoven willkürlich Phrasierungsbögen und neue dynamische Bezeichnungen eingefügt, ja es kommt sogar vor, daß fremde Noten und inidividuell empfundene Tempibezeichnungen wie bei Chopin und Scarlatti mit dem ausdrücklichen Vermerk: “Wie ich es spiele” hinzugefügt wurden; von Balken- und Taktstrichänderungen, gelgentlicher Halbierung oder Verdoppelung des ursprünglichen Taktwertes (“aus optischen Gründen”) ganz zu schweigen.

Fürwahr, es bestünde die Gefahr, daß man, auf diesem Wege fortschreitend, eines Tages die ursprüngliche Gestalt eines Musikstückes gar nicht mehr zu erkennen vermöchte, wenn nicht zuletzt irgendwo das Autograph des Meisters über das Werk den richtigen Aufschluß gäbe. Man macht aber immer wieder die Erfahrung, daß die Herausgeber das Autograph nicht sonderlich beachten. Dies liegt nur zum Teil daran, daß es meistens nur eine Handschrift eines Werkes gibt und diese sich dann etwa an einem Orte befindet, wo sie vielleicht nicht allen zugänglich wäre. Die Hauptursache ist vielmehr, daß man das Autograph nicht ernst genug nimmt und von der Bedeutung desselben nicht überzeugt ist. Es {2} ist mir z. B. bekannt, daß Herausgeber der Gesamtausgabe eines Meisters bei der Revision die Einsichtnahme in die vorhandenen Autographen als “überflüssig” abgelehnt haben, und noch in jüngster Zeit äußerte ein angesehener Fachmann in einer großen Zeitung die Ansicht, die Handschriften Beethovens hätten als solche nur einen “Sammlerwert”.

Allerdings, wenn man die Betonung in diesem Wort auf die letzte Silbe legt, verkörpert ein Autograph tatsächlich einen derartigen Wert, daß nur Sammler, bezw. öffentliche Sammlungen, es non erstehen können. Und das ist gut so, weil dadurch die Gewähr besteht, daß das Stück geschont wird und der Nachwelt noch lange erhalten bleibt. Auch wird es meistens dort der Öffentlichkeit zugänglich sein, obgleich das noch lange nicht genügt, um die Kenntnis desselben auch weiteren Kreisen zu vermitteln.

Da aber die Handschrift für das richtige Studium der Meisterwerke die beste, ja die einzige Quelle darstellt, ist es notwendig, mittels photographischer Wiedergabe des Originals die möglichst weite Verbreitung desselben zu fördern! Zugleich bietet die photographische Aufnahme noch den Vorteil daß, falls doch allmählich durch die Zeit oder andere Ereignisse ein Autograph verloren gehen sollte, das Abbild immer wieder Gelegenheit gibt, des Meisters Intentionen zu erforschen. Das Original kann auch besser geschont werden, sobald ein getreues Abbild davon vorhanden ist.

Zu diesem Zwecke habe ich mich entschlossen, ein Archiv anzulegen, in welchem die photographischen Aufnahmen der wichtigsten Handschriften unserer musikalischen Großmeister aufbewahrt werdensollen, wo sie besichtigt werden können und wo auf Wunsch Abzüge derselben angefertigt werden, um sie Interessenten zur Verfügung zu stellen. Dieses Archiv habe ich der Nationalbibliothek in Wien gewidmet, und durch die Annahme meiner Widmung wurde ich in die Lage versetzt, mit Hilfe des Weltrufes dieses Institutes meine Arbeit unter den denkbar günstigsten Umständen beginnen zu können.

Das Archiv wird durch ein Kuratorium verwaltet werden, welches aus drei Mitgliederen besteht.

Ich schätze mich glücklich, Herrn Dr. Heinrich Schenker (Wien) bereit gefunden zu haben, einen Sitz in diesem Kuratorium einzunehmen und damit dem Archiv seine unschätzbaren Kenntnisse und Erfahrungen auf diesem Gebiete zu Verfügung zu stellen. Ist doch er es gewesen, der in Wort und Schrift stets wieder die Bedeutung der Autographen betont hat, der immer dafür eingetreten ist, sie photographieren zu lassen und sie allein der Herausgabe von Meisterwerken der Musik zugrunde zu legen; und war es, der in seiner Erläuterungsausgabe der letzten fünf Sonaten Beethovens hiervon das beste Zeugnis in Tat und Gesinung abgelegt hat. Unter seinen Auspicien ist auch der Plan, den ich hier auseinandersetze, allmählich in mir gereift und zur Tat geworden.

Ein weiteres Mitglied des Kuratoriums beizustellen, hat sich de Generaldirektion der Nationalbibliothek Wien vorbehalten. Sie entsendet Herrn Dr. Robert Haas, den verdienstvollen Leiter ihrer Musiksammlung, Privatdozenten an der Universität Wien. Seine gründlichen Kenntnisse und sein hervorragender Ruf in der Musikgelehrtenwelt werden dem Archive sehr zugute kommen.

Den Vorsitz des Kuratoriums werde ich einnehmen.

Das Kuratorium entscheidet über die Wahl der Stücke, die aufgenommen werden sollen. Einstweilen wird diese Wahl beschränkt bleiben auf die wichtigsten Werke von J. S. Bach, Händel, J. Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, Schubert und Chopin, sowie von Dom. Scarlatti, C. Ph. E. Bach, Brahms und vielleicht auch noch von Fr. Couperin. Ob auch zeitgenössische Abschriften und Erstausgaben aufgenommen werden sollen, ob ferner die Wahl noch auf andere Komponisten ausgedehnt und ob das Archiv dazu übergeben wird, Ausgaben auf Grund seiner Bestände selbst zu veranlassen, muß außer von der Entscheidung des Kuratoriums, wesentlich von den zur Verfügung stehenden Mitteln abhängen. Zunächst stele ich allein diese bei.

Wien, im November 1927 [—] A. van Hoboken


[second part of document, aimed mainly at private collectors and dealers; no letter-head]

Das Archiv für Photogramme musikalischer Meisterhandschriften an der Musiksammlung der Nationalbibliothek Wien hat den Zweck, photographische Aufnahmen von Handschriften bedeutender Meisterwerke der Tonkunst zu vereinigen. Es wird diese Aufnahmen womöglich nach dem photostatsichen Verfahren, das allerorts geübt wird, in der Originalgröße anfertigen lassen und die so gewonnenen Negative aufbewahren. Diese geben das Notenbild in weißer Schrift auf schwarzem Grunde wieder, aber nicht im Spiegelsinn, sondern manuscriptgetreu. Sie können in den Amtsräumen des Archivs in der Musiksammlung der Nationalbibliothek Wien, I. Augustinerbastei Nr. 6 (Albrechtsrampe), während der Amtsstunden (Werktags von 9 bis 15 Uhr) besichtigt werden. Sie werden grundsätzlich nicht verschickt, doch wird das Archiv auf Wunsch nach demselben Verfahren Positive anfertigen und sie Interessenten gegen einfache Vergütung der Herstellungs- und Versandkosten zukommen lassen. Das photostatische Verfahren gibt Gewähr für deutliche Wiedergabe zu verhältnismäßig niederen Preisen, sodaß die Abzüge für alle, die sich aus beruflichen oder aus anderen Gründen in die Handschriften der Meister vertiefen wollen, erschwinglich sein werden.

An alle öffentlichen und privaten Sammlungen, persönlichen Besitzer von Handschriften und an alle Antiquariate richten wir hiermit die ergebene Bitte, uns bei unserem Streben behilflich zu sein, indem sie uns die Zustimmung zur Aufnahme der in ihrem Besitz befindlichen Stücke geben. Sie werden besonders gebeten, um der Sache willen, Handschriften, die sie veräußern müssen, vorher dem Archiv zugänglich zu machen, beziehungsweise auf seine Kosten (nach vorheriger Verständigung) aufnehmen zu lassen. Auch unbekannte oder unveröffentliche Handschrifte bitten wir, für das Archiv in Abzügen zu retten, bevor sie wieder ins Ungewisse dahinschwinden. Dabei kann ein Vorbehalt der Veröffentlichung sowie der Vervielfältigung und der Verbreitung im Faksimile-Verfahren gemacht werden oder in besonders heiklen Fällen die Aufnahme vorläufig in Händen des letzten Besitzers des Autographs bleiben. Es geht hier um nichts weniger als um die Erhaltung unserer Tonkunst, da nur die Kenntnis der Handschrift die Fehler zu berichtigen vermag, die sich in die Ausgaben eingeschlichen haben. Besonders den Privatbesitzern und Händlern gegenüber sei hier noch betont, daß unserer Ansicht nach die photographische Wiedergabe einer Handschrift den Wert derselben nicht nur nicht beeinträchtigt, sonder daß vielmehr, wenn die Bedeutung einer Handschrift in weiteren Kreisen erkannt wird, diese im Werte steigen wird. Auch können die Besitzer, die aus irgendwelchen Gründen ihren Namen nicht genannt wissen wollen, stets auf unsere Diskretion rechnen. Andererseits sind wir bereit, auf Wunsch die Namen der Besitzer auf allen Abzügen ihrer Stücke zu verewigen, da der Besitz kostbarer Handschirften doch sehr ehrenvoll ist.

Wir haben uns, wenn für die Aufnahme nichts anderes vereinbart wird, vorgenommen, den Besitzern als Vergütung für die Zustimmung nicht nur einen positiven Abzug ihrer Handschrift zu überlassen, sondern auch noch den Abzug irgend eines anderen Werkes aus unseren Beständen von ähnlichen Umfang nach ihrer Wahl. Auch diejenigen, die uns eine von uns gesuchte Handschrift zur Aufnahme vermitteln, wollen Anregungen für unsere Sache werden, von welcher Seite immer, stets willkommen sein, und wir bitten Zuschriften nur an obenstehende Adresse zu richten.

Für den Anfang haben wir folgende Werke in Aussicht genommen:

J. S. Bach:
Kantate “Du Friedensfürst, Herr Jesu Christ”
Solo-Sonaten für die Violine
Das Wohltemperierte Klavier, erster und zweiter Teil

Klaviersuiten, erster Teil (soweit erhalten)

J. Haydn:
Eine Symphonie
6 Streichquartette
3 Klaviersonaten
Capriccio für Klavier

Die Zauberflöte
Symphonie in g-moll (Köch.-Verz. 550)
Klavierkonzert in A-dur (Köch-Verz. 488)

Violinkonzert op. 61
Streichquartett in f-moll op. 95
Klaviersonate op. 109

Sonate in a-moll, bekannt als op. 164
12 Deutsche samt Koda (zum Teil gedruckt in den letzten Walzern op.127;
zum Teil ungedruckt
Die Winterreise, Liederzyklus

Scherzo b-moll op. 31
Ballade a-moll op. 38
Scherzo E-dur op. 39 [sic]
Nocturne f-moll op. 55, Nr. 1
Mazurka H-dur, op. 63, Nr. 1
Walzer om cis-moll op. 64, Nr. 2
Berceuse op. 57
Alles vorbehaltlich der Zustimmung der Besitzer.

Zuletzt möchten wir noch an alle Musikstudierende und Musikbefließene appellieren, einen möglichst regen Gebrauch von dem Archiv zu machen. Sie alle, die sich mit dieser erhabenen Kunst beschäftigen, mögen davon überzeugt sein, daß die Handschriften unserer Großmeistern die erschöpfendste Quelle sind für ein gründliches Studium dieser so schwierigen Materie und daß das Respektieren ihrer autoritativen Bedeutung gegenüber allen im Umlauf befindlichen Fassungen die einzige Handhabe dafür bietet, die Kunst der Meister aus dem anarchischen Chaos zu befreien, in dem sie sich heute befindet. Es ist der höhere Zweck des Archivs, Ihnen hierbei behilflich zu sein.

Das Kuratorium:

A. van Hoboken
Dr. Heinrich Schenker
Dr. Robert Haas

*) Für die Aufnahmen der Handschriften Beethovens haben wir uns, um doppelte Arbeit zu vermeiden, mit dem Beethoven-Archiv in Bonn ins Einvernehmen gesetzt, wo bereits zu Anfang dieses Jahres ein ähnliches Vorhaben, wie wir es unterbreiten, angekündigt wurde, allerdings nur mit Beschränkung auf Beethoven.

(text transcribed by William Drabkin, 2006)

July 7, 2006

Hoboken, Anthony van

Anthony van Hoboken (1887–1983). Dutch collector and bibliographer. His private collection, amassed from 1919 onward, includes first and early editions of music from the Baroque to the late Romantic—notably over 1,000 items of Haydn—and early theory and literature (Otto Erich Deutsch was the librarian of the collection 1926–35; catalogue, ed. G. Brosche, Tutzing, 1982–98). This collection was transferred to the Austrian National Library in 1974. Hoboken’s principal publication was Joseph Haydn: thematisch-bibliographisches Wekverzeichnis (Mainz, 1957–78).

Originally trained as an engineer, Hoboken studied music in Holland, then in Frankfurt, before moving to Vienna, where he became a pupil of Schenker’s, beginning lessons on October 15, 1925 twice a week (initially Thursdays and Saturdays) and continuing through at least to June 29, 1932 (when the Lesson Books OC 3 cease).

The exhaustive preparatory work that Schenker did for all of his publications in many cases entailed acquiring photographic copies of the autographs of works to be studied. It was thus at Schenker’s instigation that, in November 1927, Hoboken announced the founding of an archive of photographic negatives and photostatic prints (at original size) of autographs of works by the masters, at the same time putting out an appeal (Aufruf) to librarians, private collectors, and dealers to make manuscripts in their possession available for photography. The collection was named the Photogrammarchiv musikalischer Meister-Handschriften, and was held in the Music Department of the Austrian National Library.

Additionally, in the latter part of Schenker’s life, Hoboken—a wealthy man—became Schenker’s principal patron, on a par with Baron Alphons Rothschild in the earlier part of his life. He subvented [paid all?] the printing costs of Das Meisterwerk in der Musik, volume II (1926), and paid those of Der freie Satz (1935). [Do we have the amounts?] Hoboken was involved in other plans, such as a monthly periodical devoted to Schenker’s theory, in late 1927, and books in honor of Schenker, none of which came to fruition. Hoboken gave the eulogy at Schenker’s funeral and published tributes to him (OC 2/pp.90/91). Schenker himself paid tribute to Hoboken at the end of the Foreword to the first edition of Der freie Satz:

"For the fact that so exalted a work should find its way into the world at all in this godless time, the author, and the whole musically-interested world, thanks the generous act of patronage of an inspired musician, a true and faithful adherent and friend of the new teaching. His name, Anthony van Hoboken, is for all time inseparably associated with this work, and the amateur for whom C. P. E. Bach wrote his Versuch in times past celebrates his resurrection."

The correspondence between Hoboken and Schenker is preserved as OJ 11/54 and OC 14/1 (H to S only); that between Hoboken and Oswald Jonas OJ 36/31 (J to H) and OJ 36/152 (H to J) and OJ 53/21.

Hoboken is referred to frequently in other correspondences, including the following:

vC 2, September 13, 1925 (Schenker to Cube)

vC 10, June 1, 1927 (Schenker to Cube: visit to Galtür)

vC 11, September 7, 1927 (Schenker to Cube: Archiv appeal; prospectus)

vC 12, November 9, 1927 (Schenker to Cube: Archiv, appeal)

OJ 4/1, p.3153, December 16, 1927 (diary entry: periodical)

OJ 9/34, [10], January 30, 1928 (Cube to Schenker: Archiv appeal)

OJ 12/6, [1], February 1, 1928 (Jonas to Schenker)

OJ 5/18, [G], February 14, 1928 (Schenker to Jonas: Archiv)

OJ 9/34, [11], April 24, 1928 (Cube to Schenker)

vC17, July 13, 1928 (Schenker to Cube)

vC 21, November 20, 1928 (Schenker to Cube)

OJ 9/34, [16], March 26, 1929 (Cube to Schenker)

vC 34, December 5, 1930 (Schenker to Cube)

OJ 9/34, [23], February 10, 1931 (Cube to Schenker)

OJ 5/18, 4, March 16, 1931 (Schenker to Jonas)

vC 35, March 28, 1931 (Schenker to Cube; Hoboken's character)

OJ 12/6, [10], March 3, 1932 (Jonas to Schenker)

OJ 12/6, [11], March 24, 1932 (Jonas to Schenker)

OJ 70/11, [2], undated (April 1931) (Cube to Violin)

OJ 12/6, [13], July 14, 1932 (Jonas to Schenker: Urlinie-Tafeln)

OJ 5/18, 11, July 18, 1932 (Schenker to Jonas)

OJ 5/18, 13, September 7, 1932 (Schenker to Jonas: Freier Satz)

OJ 5/18, 14, September 23, 1932 (Schenker to Jonas: Einführung)

OJ 5/18, 15, September 24, 1932 (Schenker to Jonas: Einführung)

OJ 12/6, [38], September 25, 1932 (Jonas to Schenker: Einführung)

OJ 12/6, [16], October 1, 1932 (Jonas to Schenker)

OC 44/22, November 10, 1932 (Jonas to Schenker: Einführung)

OJ 12/6, [17], November 27, 1932 (Jonas to Schenker: Einführung)

OJ 5/18, 17, Nov/Dec 1932 (Schenker to Jonas: Einführung)

OJ 12/6, [18], December 15, 1932 (Jonas to Schenker)

OJ 5/18, 22, January 26, 1933 (Schenker to Jonas)

OJ 12/6, [19], January 28, 1933 (Jonas to Schenker: Einführung)

OJ 5/18, 23, February 7, 1933 (Schenker to Jonas)

OJ 5/18, 24, March 22, 1933 (Schenker to Jonas)

OJ 12/6, [23], September 12, 1933 (Jonas to Schenker)

OJ 5/18, 28, October 5, 1933 (Schenker to Jonas)

OJ 5/18, 29, October 7, 1933 (Schenker to Jonas)

OJ 12/6, [46], October 31, [1933] (Jonas to Schenker)

OJ 5/18, 30, November 6, 1933 (Schenker to Jonas)

OJ 12/6, [25], December 3, 1933 (Jonas to Schenker)

OJ 5/18, 31, December 8, 1933

OJ 12/6, [26], December 10, 1933 (Jonas to Schenker)

OJ 5/18, 32, December 13, 1933 (Schenker to Jonas)

OJ 12/6, [27], December 18, 1933 (Jonas to Schenker)

OJ 5/18, 33, December 21, 1933 (Schenker to Jonas)

OJ 5/18, 35, January 9, 1934 (Schenker to Jonas)

OJ 12/6, [28], January 19, 1934 (Jonas to Schenker)

OJ 12/6, [30], March 16, 1934 (Jonas to Schenker)

OJ 5/18, 38, April 7, 1934

OJ 5/18, 40, April 11, 1934 (Schenker to Jonas)

OJ 12/6, [31], April 15, 1934 (Jonas to Schenker)

OJ 5/18, 41, April 23, 1934 (Schenker to Jonas)

OJ 12/6, [32], June 11, 1934 (Jonas to Schenker)

OJ 5/18, 43, June 24, 1934 (Schenker to Jonas)

OJ 12/6, [33], June 29, 1934 (Jonas to Schenker)

OJ 12/6, [34], July 19, 1934 (Jonas to Schenker)

OJ 5/18, 48, July 29, 1934 (Schenker to Jonas)

OJ 5/18, 49, August 2, 1934 (Schenker to Jonas)

OJ 12/6, [36], August 6, 1934 (Jonas to Schenker)

OJ 5/18, 50, August 7, 1934 (Schenker to Jonas)

OJ 5/18, 51, August 18, [1934] (Schenker to Jonas)

OJ 10/18, [9], August 23, 1934 (Elias to Schenker)

OJ 12/6, [37], August 23, 1934 (Jonas to Schenker)

OJ 5/18, 52, August 28, 1934 (Schenker to Jonas)

OJ 5/18, 55, September 13, 1934 (Schenker to Jonas)

OJ 5/18, 59, October 16, 1934 (Schenker to Jonas)

OJ 5/18, 60, October 25, 1934 (Schenker to Jonas)

OC 44/9, October 27, 1934 (Jonas to Schenker)

(Sources: Federhofer, Nach Tagebüchern; NGDM2, and documents on this website)

July 10, 2006

Tonkunst, Die

Die Tonkunst. Provisional title of a monthly periodical (Monatsschrift), to be devoted to Schenker’s theory, which never came to fruition. The plan was devised in late 1927 by Schenker’s pupil Hans Weisse, the periodical to be edited by Felix Salzer and Oswald Jonas and published by Saturn-Verlag, Vienna, with the involvement of Anthony van Hoboken. At one point Schenker describes its purpose as "to serve as a vehicle for my theory ... and to take up the struggle with opponents"; at a later point as "the cultivation and application of my theories." After initial enthusiasm, he expressed doubts, as did Hoboken.

The idea of a periodical devoted to Schenker’s theory was, however, revived after Schenker's death, and in April 1937 the first issue of Der Dreiklang: Monatsschrift für Musik, jointly edited by Jonas and Salzer, was published Krystall-Verlag, Vienna. It ran for seven months, April–October, as a monthly periodical, but appearance of the seventh and final issue was long delayed (Heft 8/9: November 1937/February 1938).

The project is mentioned:-

OJ 4/1, pp. 3147–3148, December 9, 1927 (diary entry)

OJ 4/1, p. 3148, December 10, 1927 (diary entry)

OJ 4/1, pp. 3148–3150, December 11, 1927 (diary entry: initial plan laid out)

OJ 4/1, pp. 3150-3152, December 12, 1927 (diary entry)

OJ 4/1, pp. 3152–3153, December 13, 1927 (diary entry)

OJ 4/1, pp. 3153, December 16, 1927 (diary entry)

OJ 12/6, [1], February 1, 1928 (Jonas to Schenker)

OJ 5/18, [F], February 5, 1928 (Schenker to Jonas)

OJ 4/1, p. 3174, February 5, 1928 (diary entry)

OJ 4/1, pp. 3175–3176, February 8, 1928 (diary entry)

OJ 4/1, p. 3177, February 10, 1928 (diary entry)

vC 13, February 12, 1928 (Schenker to Cube)

OJ 5/18, [G], February 14, 1928 (Schenker to Jonas)

OJ 12/6, [3], March 3, 1928 (Jonas to Schenker)

OJ 9/34, [11], April 24, 1928 (Cube to Schenker)

July 12, 2006

Einstein, Alfred

Alfred Einstein (1880–1952). German musicologist (cousin of Albert Einstein). His doctoral dissertation (Munich U., 1903; pubd Leipzig 1905) was on 16th- and 17th-century music for the viola da gamba. In the years following, he wrote articles on quattrocento and renaissance vocal music. As founding editor of the Zeitschrift für Musikwissenschaft 1918–33, he occupied a European-wide position of great influence. He was also music critic of the Münchner Post (–1927) and the Berliner Tagblatt (1927–33), where again he exerted much influence. In 1933, he left Germany for England and Italy, moving to the USA in 1939, where he continued his scholarly work, teaching at Smith College and elsewhere.

His major publications include Geschichte der Musik (Leipzig: Teubner, 1917), later translated as the widely used A Short History of Music (1948); his studies Heinrich Schütz (Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1928); Gluck (London: Dent, 1936); Mozart: His Character, His Work (London & Toronto: Cassell, 1945); Schubert: A Musical Portrait (New York & London: Cassel, 1951); Music in the Romantic Era, Norton History of Music Series (New York: W. W. Norton, 1947); and above all his highly influential The Italian Madrigal (Princeton: Princeton UP, 1949). He also edited the 9th–11th editions of Riemann’s Musik-Lexikon (1919–29: a typewritten copy of the article on Schenker in the 11th edition is preserved in Schenker’s scrapbook OC 2/p.79), and Köchel’s catalogue of Mozart’s works (1937). He was also active as editor of a wide range of music from the 14th to 18th centuries, notably his edition W. A. Mozart: The Ten Celebrated String Quartets (1945).

Schenker’s contact with Einstein probably arose out of the latter’s position at the Drei-Masken-Verlag at the time Das Meisterwerk in der Musik was being published by that company (1925–30). In this capacity, Einstein wrote eleven of the day-to-day letters, including one that threatened Schenker with legal action over the costs of Mw2 (December 11, 1926).

Most of the correspondence between Schenker and Einstein survives in the Oster Collection as part of the Drei-Masken-Verlag correspondence, OC 54 (1924–27), but there are also OC B/139 (1930) and OC 50/15 (1931), and in the Jonas Collection OJ 10/17 (undated) and OJ 36/117 (1939) (all Einstein to Schenker). The whereabouts of any letters from Schenker to Einstein are unkown.

Einstein published Oswald Jonas’s article “Das Autograph von Beethovens Violinkonzert,” in the Zeitschrift für Musikwissenschaft 13 (May 1931), 443-450, and also his review of Das Meisterwerk in der Musik vol.3 (November 1932: OC 2/p.88).

Einstein is mentioned elsewhere in the correspondence:

vC 14, April 29, 1928 (Schenker to Cube)

OJ 5/18, 4, March 16, 1931 (Schenker to Jonas)

OJ 5/18, 6, April 1, 1931 (Schenker to Jonas)

OJ 5/18, 5, April 19, 1931 (Schenker to Jonas)

OJ 12/6, [11], March 24, 1932 (Jonas to Schenker)

OJ 5/18, 9, April 9, 1932 (Schenker to Jonas)

OJ 12/6, [13], July 14, 1932 (Jonas to Schenker)

OJ 12/6, [15], September 5, 1932 (Jonas to Schenker)

OJ 12/6, [38], September 25, [1932] (Jonas to Schenker)

OJ 12/6, [16], October 1, 1932 (Jonas to Schenker)

OC 44/22, November 10, 1932 (Jonas to Schenker)

OC 5/18, 17, Nov/Dec 1932 (Schenker to Jonas)

OJ 12/6, [18], December 15, 1932 (Jonas to Schenker)

OJ 12/6, [20], March 20, 1933 (Jonas to Schenker)

OJ 5/18, 24, March 22, 1933 (Schenker to Jonas)

OJ 12/6, [24], October 25, 1933 (Jonas to Schenker)

OJ 12/6, [26], December 10, 1933 (Jonas to Schenker)

OJ 12/6, [27], December 18, 1933 (Jonas to Schenker)

OJ 5/18, 33, December 21, 1933 (Schenker to Jonas)

(Sources: NGDM2; Baker’s1971; Oster Finding List; Jonas Checklist )

July 16, 2006

Vrieslander, Otto

Otto Vrieslander (1880–1950). German composer, notably of Lieder (including a setting of poems from Giraud’s Pierrot lunaire in O. E. Hartleben’s translation, dating from 1904—eight years before Schoenberg’s melodrama cycle: both settings were commissioned by Albertine Zehme, but whereas Zehme performed Schoenberg's setting, she was dissatisfied by that of Vrieslander and never performed it). Resident in and around Munich for much of his life, he moved permanently to Switzerland in 1929.

Vrieslander was a pupil of Schenker only during the 1911/12 season: records survive only for January 5 to March 5, 1912, and Vrieslander took lessons twice a week (Mondays and Thursdays) between January 15 and February 29. He remained in contact with Schenker for the rest of the latter’s life as a member of the inner circle of long-time friends, former students, and supporters (others include, e.g., Robert Brünauer, Walter Dahms (a pupil of Vrieslander), Herman Roth, Hans Weisse, Viktor Zuckerkandl, and Reinhard Oppel).

Vrieslander advocated several projects (all ultimately abortive): in 1915, a second edition of Schenker’s Harmonielehre (which he used in his own teaching, and on which he wrote three unpublished commentaries between 1910 and 1925 and compiled a list of typographical errors), and adding exercises and assignments (which Schenker resisted); in 1918, a Festschrift for Schenker’s 50th birthday; in 1919–20, the founding of a Schenker Institute in Munich; in 1921, with Hoboken, the publishing of inexpensive Urtext editions and a periodical; in 1926–27, a Festschrift for Schenker’s 60th birthday; in 1927–28 a monthly Schenker periodical planned by Weisse, Salzer, and Jonas; around 1927, a Schenker monograph-cum-anthology; and in 1932 a student edition (Schulausgabe) of Harmonielehre (of which he was then making a “concentrated” version) for use by Josef Marx at the Vienna Hochschule für Musik (=Conservatory) . After Schenker’s death, Jeanette Schenker wished Vrieslander to produce a new edition of the Harmonielehre, gave him Schenker’s personal annotated copy for this purpose from which he copied out Schenker’s numerous additions, and in 1938 signed a contract with him at UE for which he was paid an advance—but the annexation of Austria intervened.

It was Vrieslander who apparently recommended Victor Hammer, certainly Herman Roth, and Anthony van Hoboken to Schenker. He also advised Hoboken in the building up of the latter’s collection of first editions. In 1920, Vrieslander served as intermediary with the publisher J. G. Cotta of Stuttgart by delivering the manuscript of Kontrapunkt II to them; and more importantly in 1924 as an intermediary with the Drei-Masken-Verlag of Munich in dealings that resulted in the publication of Schenker’s Das Meisterwerk in der Musik (1925, 1926, 1930), the proofs of which he assisted in correcting.

After encountering Schenker’s Hamonielehre, Vriselander underwent a sharp break with his previous compositional style (even destroying copies wherever possible), his new beginning occurring in 1916. Schenker thought highly of Vrieslander’s work from that time on, describing his Lieder as “the best since the death of [Hugo] Wolf,” and “among the best that the Lieder repertory has to offer from the post-Brahms era.” Schenker states in 1917 that he commissioned a work from Vrieslander and subsequently paid him money from the stipend fund created by Sofie Deutsch. Under Schenker’s influence, Vrieslander made a “critical edition with elucidatory appendix” (dedicated to Schenker) of C. P. E. Bach’s Kurze und leichte Clavierstücke: Neue kritische Ausgabe mit erläuterndem Nachwort [Short and easy keyboard pieces: new critical edition with elucidatory afterword] (Vienna: UE, 1914), which the cover title significantly characterized as: Erläuterungsausgabe (elucidatory edition: the term that Schenker himself used for his publications on the late Beethoven piano sonatas); he also wrote the monographs C. P. E. Bach Lieder und Gesänge (Munich: Drei-Masken-Verlag, 1922) and Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach (Munich, 1923), and contributed the article “Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach als Theoretiker” to Von neuer Musik (Cologne 1925). Vrieslander also wrote articles about Schenker and his work: Musikblätter des Anbruch, February/March 1923; Die Musik, 19/1 October 1926, 33–38; Deutsche Tonkünstler-Zeitung, March 5, 1928; and Der Kunstwart, 43 (1930), 181-189.

The majority of the correspondence between Schenker and Vrieslander forms part of the Vrieslander Nachlaß, which is privately owned by Heribert Esser (the letters from Vrieslander to Schenker having been mostly returned by Jeanette Schenker). There are 18 letters from Vrieslander to Schenker in the Oster Collection (OC 18/5–22 passim; OC 54/11–140 passim (Cotta-Verlag); OC 69/2–3: 1925–26, 1932–33); 2 letters from Schenker to Vrieslander and 12 from Otto and Helene Vrieslander to Schenker in the Jonas Collection (OJ 5/42 and OJ 15/4: 1912, 1917–20, 1935–39), and 5 from the Vrieslanders and Herman Roth to Schenker (OJ 13/30: undated); 1 from Vrieslander to Violin (OJ 70/43: 1912), 1 from Vrieslander to Robert Brünauer (OJ 71/37: undated), 1 from Hans Weisse to Vrieslander (OJ 71/40: [1918], concerning the 50th birthday Festschrift), and a portrait of Vrieslander and Roth (OJ 72/13). The Vrieslander correspondence is an invaluable repository of biographical information about Schenker himself, his pupils, and contemporaries.

Vrieslander’s list of errors in, and his copy of Schenker’s additions to, Harmonielehre survive as OJ 18/6; his three commentaries (72pp, 468pp, 472pp), are in the possession of Mr. Esser.

Vrieslander is mentioned countless times in other correspondence with Schenker, including the following:

WSLB 73, December 17, 1910 (Schenker to Hertzka (UE))

WSLB 118, June 4, 1912 (Schenker to Hertzka)

WSLB 197, January 4, 1914 (Schenker to Hertzka (UE))

OC 52/138, January 5, 1914 (Herztka (UE) to Schenker)

WSLB 202, April 1, 1914 (Schenker to Hertzka (UE))

OC 52/142, April 2, 1914 (Hertzka (UE) to Schenker)

WSLB 236, January 18, 1915 (Schenker to Hertzka)

WSLB 244, March 29, 1915 (Schenker to Hertzka)

OC 52/170, April 2, 1915 (Hertzka to Schenker)

WSLB 264, November 26, 1915 (Schenker to Hertzka)

OJ 1/16, pp. 647-648, April 11, 1917 (diary re: Elias gift)

OC 1/34r, February 24, 1918 (Schenker to Türkel: award of Sofie Deutsch stipend)

CA 174 = OJ 5/6, [1], August 21, 1920 (Schenker to Cotta)

CA 177, September 22, 1920 (Schenker to Cotta)

CA 178, September 25, 1920 (Vrieslander to Cotta)

CA 179 = OJ 9/32, [44], September 27, 1920 (Cotta to Schenker)

CA 180, October 4, 1920 (Cotta: receipt for MS of Kontrapunkt II)

CA 181–182 = OJ 9/31, [45], October 5, 1920 (Cotta to Schenker)

CA 183, November 6, 1920 (Schenker to Cotta)

CA 185–187, November 16, 1920 (Cotta to Schenker)

CA 189–190 = OJ 9/31, [46], February 5, 1921 (Cotta to Schenker)

OC 52/573, February 16, 1923 (Hertzka to Schenker: Bekker, Kretzschmar)

OC 52/574, February 20, 1923 (Hertzka to Schenker)

OC 52/366, January 30, 1924 (Hertzka to Schenker: biography)

vC 5, October ??, 1926, (Schenker to Cube)

vC 10, June 1, 1927 (Schenker to Cube)

OJ 9/34, [9], October 29, 1927 (Cube to Schenker)

vC 12, November 9, 1927 (Schenker to Cube: monograph)

OJ 9/34, [10] January 30, 1928 (Cube to Schenker)

OJ 12/6, [1], February 1, 1928 (Jonas to Schenker

OJ 12/6, [2], February 9, 1928 (Jonas to Schenker)

vC 13, February 12, 1928 (Schenker to Cube)

OJ 5/18, G, February 14, 1928 (Schenker to Jonas: periodical)

OJ 12/6, [3], March 3, 1928 (Jonas to Schenker)

OJ 9/34, [11], April 24, 1928 (Cube to Schenker)

vC 14, April 29, 1928 (Schenker to Cube)

OJ 10/18, [3], July 11, 1928 (Elias to Schenker: monograph)

vC 21, November 20, 1928 (Schenker to Cube)

vC 28, January 12, 1930 (Schenker to Cube)

vC 29, June 9, 1930 (Schenker to Cube)

OJ 9/34, [21], June 25, 1930 (Cube to Schenker)

vC 30, June 10, 1930 (Schenker to Cube: Vrieslander's character)

OJ 5/18, 1, October 7, 1930 (Schenker to Jonas)

OJ 5/18, 12, August 28, 1932 (Schenker to Jonas)

OJ 12/6, [14], August 30, 1932 (Jonas to Schenker)

OJ 5/18, 14, September 23, 1932 (Schenker to Jonas)

OJ 12/6, [38], September 25, 1932 (Jonas to Schenker)

OJ 12/6, [16], October 1, 1932 (Jonas to Schenker)

OJ 12/6, [17], November 27, 1932 (Jonas to Schenker)

OJ 5/18, 24, March 22, 1933 (Schenker to Jonas: Harmonielehre revision)

OJ 5/18, 48, July 29, 1934 (Schenker to Jonas)

OJ 5/18, 50, August 7, 1934 (Schenker to Jonas)

OC 44/43, September 24, 1934 (Jonas to Schenker)

OJ 10/18, [10], February 17, 1935 (Elias to Jeanette Schenker)


NGDM2 "Vrieslander"
Baker’s1972 "Vrieslander"
personal communication from Heribert Esser
Federhofer, Nach Tagebüchern
Oster Collection, Finding List
Jonas Collection, Checklist
R. Wason, „From Harmonielehre to Harmony ...,“ Fourth International Schenker Symposium, 2006
personal communication from Prof. Wason

August 2, 2006


Photogrammarchiv (full original name: Archiv für Photogramme musikalischer Meisterhandschriften (Archive for Photographic Images of Musical Master Manuscripts, but customarily abbreviated to Photogrammarchiv or to Meister-Archiv). An archive of photographic images (negatives; photostatic prints at original size) of “the most important manuscripts of the great composers,” housed in the Music Department of the Austrian National Library from 1927, and donated to that Library in 1957.

The archive was founded in August 1927 (NGDM2) and launched publicly in November of that year in the form of an “Appeal” (Aufruf) issued by a curatorial board comprising Anthony van Hoboken, Heinrich Schenker, and Robert Haas (Director of the Music Division), and officially opened on November 25, 1928 (vC 21). The archive was assembled by Anthony van Hoboken at the instigation of his teacher, Heinrich Schenker. Its initial target repertory comprised: “the most important works of J. S. Bach, Handel, Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, Schubert and Chopin, as well as of Domenico Scarlatti, C. P. E. Bach, Brahms and perhaps also of François Couperin.” Already by 1934, the collection numbered over 30,000 pages. The “Appeal” was directed at public and private collections, individual collectors, and antiquarian dealers to make the manuscripts in their possession available for photography. The primary purpose of the Photogrammarchiv was to place on public record the original autograph intentions of composers as a bulwark against faulty and wilfully altered editions. The Photogrammarchiv was to be accessible to scholars and devotees of music for study.

From early in his career, Schenker upheld the consultation of autograph manuscripts and early editions as essential not only for the editing of a work but also for its study and analysis. His study-editions of Chromatic Fantasy & Fugue of J. S. Bach and the late piano sonatas of Beethoven are exemplary of this principle. His belief in the need for a photographic archive long predates the founding of the Photogrammarchiv; alluding to the sound archives founded by Sigmund Exner at the Austrian Academy Sciences in Vienna in 1899, and perhaps also that founded by Carl Stumpf in Berlin in 1900, for ethnographic materials, both called “Phonogrammarchiv,” Schenker wrote a memorandum to the Austrian Ministry of Culture on July 19, 1913 stating:

"... that it is high time to preserve the originals from destruction, and to take official action [to this end]. If there are sound archives [Phonogrammarchive] in the Academy of Sciences or Arts, which preserve those things worthy of being remembered, why not archives of autographs?" (letter to Emil Hertzka: WSLB 167, p.9)

The value of the Photogrammarchiv was enhanced by the fact that the original manuscripts of many of its photographic copies were lost or destroyed during World War II.

The Photogrammarchiv is mentioned in the following letters among others:

OJ 5/18, [G], February 14, 1928 (Schenker to Jonas)

OJ 9/34, [13], July 6, 1928 (Cube to Schenker)

vC 21, November 20, 1928 (Schenker to Cube)

OJ 12/6, [13], July 14, 1932 (Jonas to Schenker)

OJ 12/6, [38], September 25, 1932 (Jonas to Schenker)

OJ 12/6, [16], October 1, 1932 (Jonas to Schenker)

OJ 12/9, [19], January 28, 1933 (Jonas to Schenker)

OJ 12/6, [20], March 20, 1933 (Jonas to Schenker)

OJ 12/6, [22], May 9, 1933 (Jonas to Schenker)

OJ 12/6, [46], October 31, [1933] (Jonas to Schenker)

OJ 12/6, [23], September 12, 1933 (Jonas to Schenker)

OJ 12/6, [30], March 16, 1934 (Jonas to Schenker)

OJ 12/6, [32], June 11, 1934 (Jonas to Schenker)

OJ 12/6, [33], June 29, 1934 (Jonas to Schenker)

OJ 5/18, 59, October 16, 1934 (Schenker to Jonas)

OJ 5/18, 60, October 25, 1934 (Schenker to Jonas)


NGMD2: “Hoboken”; “Libraries:" Berlin, Vienna; "Sound Archives": History, Europe-Austria

Oswald Jonas: “Schenker’s Editorial Work and the Vienna Photostat Archive,” Appendix B of Das Wesen des musikalischen Kunstwerks: Einführung in die Lehre Heinrich Schenkers (Vienna; Saturn-Verlag, 1934; Eng. trans. John Rothgeb, New York: Longman, 1982, repr. Musicalia Press, 2006)

September 3, 2006

Breisach, Paul

Paul Breisach (1896–1952). Austrian conductor. Numerous recordings of his conducting exist, including opera arias with Melchior in 1924 and 1925; in the early 1930s he was a conductor at the Städtische Oper in Berlin: a recording exists of his conducting Hans Gál’s ballet Scaramouche there in 1931, and he conducted the first performance of Schreker’s Der Schmied von Gent (disrupted by anti-Semitic riots) in 1932. He emigrated later in the 1930s. His debut at the Metropolitan Opera House in New York was of Aida in 1941 and his last performance there of Die Walküre in 1946; recordings exist of him conducting The Marriage of Figaro and Don Giovanni at the Met in 1943 (GHCD 2203/4/5; GHCD 2236/37), and also works by Debussy, Duparc and others.

He was a pupil of Schenker’s from October 1913 for some years, and his lessons are recorded in Schenker’s Lesson Books (OC 3)—it is noticeable that Schenker devoted time in lessons with him to the orchestral repertory. He was also apparently a pupil of Schreker.

One postcard from him to Schenker survives (OC 44/14), and one letter to Jonas (OJ 36/99).

He is mentioned in other letters as follows:

OJ 5/18, 43, June 24, 1934 (Schenker to Jonas)

OJ 5/18, 59, October 16, 1934 (Schenker to Jonas)

(Sources: New Grove 2 ; Oster Collection Finding List; Oswald Jonas Memorial Collection Checklist; various websites)

September 9, 2006

Verein zur Speisung und Bekleidung hungernder Schulkinder in Wien

Verein zur Speisung und Bekleidung hungernder Schulkinder in Wien (Association for Feeding and Clothing Schoolchildren in Vienna). Organization founded in 1912 by Betty Kolm:

On the basis of lists from teachers, the children in question were fed lunches for a small payment; during the wartime honorary presidency of Anka Bienerth, it was transformed into the Schwarz-Gelbe Kreuz [Black-and-Yellow Cross] [website:]

A „Verein zur Speisung hungernder Schulkinder in Wien“ was discussed three years before this founding date, in the Zentralblatt des Bundes österreichischer Frauenvereine, 4/2 (1909) [website:].

S was himself indirectly involved with this organization through his association with his pupil and benefactress Sophie Deutsch. Deutsch died in 1917, and evidently left a large legacy to the Verein with the stipulation that a portion of the annual yield be dedicated to the creation of two stipends a year for impecunious skilled composers and composition pupils, the choice of recipients to be made exclusively by Schenker: see OJ 12/31, [1] and [2], December 7, 1917 and July 1, 1924 (Ernst Lamberg to S), and mentioned also as the “Verein zur Ausspeisung armer Schulkinder” in OJ 5/25, [1], S to Josef Marx, October/December 1924.

(Schenker mentions Anka Bienerth in his letter to Hertzka (UE), WSLB 233, December 20, 1914.)

This organization is mentioned in the following letters:

WSLB 233, December 20, 1914 (Schenker to Hertzka)

OJ 12/31, [1], December 7, 1923 (Lamberg to Schenker)

OJ 15/31, [1], January 31, 1924 (Wunsch to Schenker)

OJ 12/31, [2], July 1, 1924 (Lamberg to Schenker)

OJ 5/24, July 8, 1924 (Schenker to Lamberg, draft

OJ 12/31, [3], July 11, 1924 (Lamberg to Schenker)

OJ 5/25, [1], October/December 1924 (Schenker to Marx)

October 1, 2006

Bienenfeld, Elsa

Elsa Bienenfeld (1877–1942) studierte 1898–1903 Musikwissenschaft bei Guido Adler, weiters Komposition bei Robert Fuchs, Alexander von Zemlinsky und Arnold Schönberg. Sie dissertierte als erste weibliche Absolventin des Fachs Musikwissenschaft in Österreich 1903 an der Universität Wien über „W. Schmeltzl und sein Liederbuch (1544)“. Im Jahr darauf wurde sie zum wirkenden Mitglied der DTÖ ernannt.

Sie unterrichtete an dem von Eugenie Schwarzwald geleiteten Lyzeum für Mädchen in Wien und organisierte dort 1904/05 einen Kurs für Musikinteressierte (hauptsächlich Studenten Guido Adlers), in dem sie selbst zusammen mit Schönberg und Zemlinsky musiktheoretische und historische Fächer anbot. Bienenfeld setzte sich wiederholt publizistisch für die Zweite Wiener Schule ein. Sie schrieb von ca. 1906 bis in die 1930er Jahre Musikkritiken für das Neue Wiener Journal. Nach dem „Anschluss“ Österreichs an Nazideutschland 1938 wurde sie als Jüdin aus ihrer Geburtsstadt Wien deportiert. Sie starb im Konzentrationslager Klein Trostinetz bei Minsk.

Die Korrespondenz mit Schenker beschränkt sich auf die Jahre 1931–1933 (siehe OJ 9/15 und OC 50/14). Briefe Schenkers an sie sind nicht erhalten.

Bienenfeld wird auch in anderer Korrespondenz Schenkers erwähnt, siehe etwa

CA 171, 20. Juni 1920 (Schenker an Cotta) (Rezension).

In Schenkers Tagebuch wird sie ebenfalls genannt, so in

OJ 1/9, p. 119b, November 27, 1910.

Continue reading "Bienenfeld, Elsa" »

October 26, 2006

Schoenberg, Arnold

Arnold Schoenberg [Schönberg] (1874–1951). Austrian composer, earliest representative of Viennese musical modernism, creator of the twelve-tone method of composition, teacher of Alban Berg, Anton von Webern, and other composers in Vienna, Berlin, and, from 1934 on, in the U.S.A. Although Schoenberg’s musical style had its origins partly in Brahms and the Viennese Classical composers, Schenker became increasingly antagonist toward him from around 1910 because he saw him as advancing the stylistic innovations of Richard Strauss and Gustav Mahler, abandoning the Classical tonal tradition, and in the realm of theory espousing developing variation over repetition.

Relations between Schoenberg and Schenker
Contact between Schenker and Schoenberg was made first by the latter on September 12, 1903, after he had been engaged by Busoni to orchestrate Schenker’s Syrische Tänze für Pianoforte zu 4 Händen (Vienna: Weinberger, c.1899). The orchestration was not to Schenker’s taste because it “suggests the style of Richard Strauss,” but he evidently approved it, for the resulting performance took place on November 5, 1903. Schoenberg subsequently tried between November 10, 1903 and early 1904 to enlist Schenker’s participation in forming his Vereinigung schaffender Tonkünstler. Communications between the two continued into 1907, when Schoenberg drew Schenker’s attention to two concerts of his music (both of which Schenker attended and reported in his diary) and invited him to one of music by his pupils. The two evidently met several times, and were apparently on cordial terms until around 1910, when their relationship deteriorated.

The break-down was perhaps impelled by Hertzka’s contracting Schoenberg for Universal Edition in 1909 along with Mahler, Schreker, and Foerster; the issuing of UE’s 1910 catalogue containing Schoenberg’s Second String Quartet and Drei Klavierstücke, Op. 11 may have been the catalyst to Schenker’s antagonism. First private signs of this were Schenker’s allusion to “a publisher that places its main emphasis these days on anti-musical music” in his letter to Emil Hertzka of February 7, 1910, WSLB 52, which conveys Schenker’s disillusionment with Hertzka’s break from UE’s original 1901 commitment to an Austrian edition of the “classics.” His resentment at what he saw as Hertzka’s promotion of Schoenberg’s Harmonielehre over his own works emerges in WSLB 75, May 17, 1911, and three years later he suggests that UE should use its profits from Mahler’s and Schoenberg’s music to subsidize its publication of his own writings, OJ 5/16, [2], May 1914 (draft).

The first step in the public confrontation between the two, Schoenberg’s response to Schenker’s diatribes against Strauss and Reger in Harmonielehre (1906) and the Foreword to Kontrapunkt I (1910), was delivered in his own Harmonielehre (1911 and lengthened in the 1921 edition). Schenker first publicly named Schoenberg in his Erläuterungsausgabe of Beethoven’s Piano Sonata, Op.111 (1915), and his most sustained, personalised critique, of the chordal treatment of passing-tones in Schoenberg’s Harmonielehre, appeared in Das Meisterwerk in der Musik II (1926), pp. 30–37 (Eng. trans., II, 12–16).

The surviving correspondence
Correspondence between the two men comprises twelve personal letters from Schoenberg to Schenker, which survive only in photocopies in OJ 14/15 (see also OJ 60/2), plus one circular letter from Zemlinsky, Gutheil, and Schoenberg, and two invitations; none are known to have survived from Schenker to Schoenberg.

References to Schoenberg in Schenker’s correspondence include the following:

WSLB 75, May 17, 1911 (Schenker to Hertzka)

WSLB 120, June 9, 1912 (Schenker to Hertzka)

WSLB 200, February 19, 1914 (Schenker to Hertzka)

OJ 5/16, [2], May 1914 (Schenker to Hertzka, draft)

WSLB 211, May 5, 1914 (Schenker to Hertzka)

DLA 69.930/10, December 21, 1922 (Schenker Halm)

vC 10, June 1, 1927 (Schenker to Cube)

DLA 69.930/15, July 11, 1927 (Schenker to Halm)

vC 28, January 12, 1930 (Schenker to Cube)

OJ 5/18, 33, December 21, 1933 (Schenker to Jonas)

OJ 9/34, [42], October 4, 1934 (Cube to Schenker)

OJ 12/6, [39], November 28, 1934 (Jonas to Schenker)

OJ 12/6, [40], December 19, 1934 (Jonas to Schenker)

See especially:

Carl Dahlhaus, “Schoenberg and Schenker,” Proceedings of the Royal Musical Association 100 (1973–74), 209–15; reprinted in Schoenberg and the New Music: Essays by Carl Dahlhaus, ed. Derrick Puffett and Alfred Clayton (Cambridge: CUP, 1987), pp. 134–40

Bryan R. Simms, “New Documents in the Schoenberg–Schenker Polemic,” Perspectives of New Music, XVI (1977), 110–24

Charlotte E. Erwin and Bryan R. Simms, “Schoenberg’s Correspondence with Heinrich Schenker,” Journal of the Arnold Schoenberg Institute V (1981), 23–43

Hellmut Federhofer, “Heinrich Schenkers Verhältnis zu Arnold Schönberg,” in Mitteilungen der Kommission für Musikforschung, No. 33 (1981), 369–90

Ian Bent, “’That Bright New Light’: Schenker, Universal Edition, and the Origins of the Erläuterung Series, 1901–1910’, Journal of the American Musicological Society 58/1 (Spring 2005), 69–138.

November 9, 2006

Wolf, Hans

Hans Wolf (1912-2005), German conductor and educator, pupil of Schenker’s in the 1934/35 season. Wolf was also a student at the University of Vienna, where he wrote a PhD dissertation on the concepts of musical motion in 18th-century theory. His article in Der Dreiklang (1937) describes vividly Schenker’s manner of teaching in private lessons. In September 1934, Wolf traveled to Hamburg and was (as a Jew) prevented from returning to Austria by the Nazi authorities; Furtwängler, at Jonas’s and Schenker’s request, intervened to facilitate his return. — Wolf emigrated to the USA in the late 1930s, teaching in Iowa then serving with the US Army in World War II; from 1969 on, he worked for Seattle Opera; from 1981 to 1996, he directed Tacoma Opera.

His correspondence to Schenker survives in OC (5 items and 2 joint items) and OJ (15/26: 4 items).

In addition, Wolf is also mentioned in the following items:

OJ 9/34, [40], June 2, 1934 (Cube to Schenker)

OJ 5/18, 57, September 28, 1934 (Schenker to Jonas)

OJ 5/18, 59. October 16, 1934 (Schenker to Jonas)

OJ 5/18, 60, October 25, 1934 (Schenker to Jonas)

OJ 12/6, [39], November 28, 1934 (Jonas to Schenker)

OJ 12/6, [40], December 19, 1934 (Jonas to Schenker)

Wolf’s writings before emigration:

—“Die musikalischen Bewegungsbegriffe in den Generalbaß- und Kompositionslehren des 18. Jahrhunderts als Fortsetzung der Lehre vom Kontrapunkt” (PhD diss., U. of Vienna, 1936 or 1937).

—“Schenkers Persönlichkeit im Unterricht,” Der Dreiklang 7 (1937), 176–84.

November 14, 2006

Messchaert, Johannes

Johannes Messchaert (1857-1922), Dutch baritone. After studies in Cologne and Munich, Messchaert returned to Holland in 1881, where he taught at the Amsterdam Conservatory. A frequent collaborator with pianist Julius Röntgen, Messchaert toured prolifically, establishing a reputation as one of Europe’s most sought-after singers of Lieder and oratorio. He moved to Germany (Wiesbaden) in 1900, and thereafter held various conservatory appointments, ultimately attaining the post of professor at the Berlin Hochschule für Musik.

Schenker first reported, with great enthusiasm, on Messchaert’s singing in the Berlin weekly Die Zeit (1896; repr. in Federhofer 1990). A mutually admiring relationship developed, and Messchaert engaged Schenker as his accompanist during a tour of the Habsburg Empire in January and February 1899.

Correspondence between Messchaert and Schenker survives as OJ 12/54. Other materials survive as OJ 35/5 (concert programs and tour itineraries), OJ 59/11, 70/27 (Messchaert/Violin correspondence), and 72/10 (portrait).

Elsewhere in the correspondence, Messchaert is mentioned in:

NMI V 176-02, March 15, 1901 (Schenker to Röntgen)

OJ 13/27, [1], March 18, 1901 (Röntgen to Schenker)

NMI C 176-01, April 13, 1901 (Schenker to Röntgen)

OJ 13/27, [2], April 22, 1901 (Röntgen to Schenker)

OJ 13/27, [4], October 14, 1901 (Röntgen to Schenker)

vC 14, April 29, 1928 (Schenker to Cube)

vC 17, July 13, 1928 (Schenker to Cube)


Hellmut Federhofer, Heinrich Schenker nach Tagebüchern ... (Hildesheim: Olms, 1985), 18-19, 178-80;

Hellmut Federhofer, Heinrich Schenker als Essayist und Kritiker. Gesammelte Aufsätze, Rezensionen und kleinere Berichte aus den Jahren 1891-1901, ed. Hellmut Federhofer [Hildesheim: Georg Olms, 1990], 318-19

Elizabeth Forbes, “Johannes Messchaert,” in The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 2d ed., ed. Stanley Sadie (London: Macmillan, 2001), vol. 16, 490-91;

Thomas Seedorf, “Johannes Meschaert,” in Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart. Allgemeine Enzyklopädie der Musik, 2d ed., ed. Ludwig Finscher (Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1994–), Personenteil, vol. 12, cols. 61-62.)

(Author: Kevin Karnes, 2006)

November 23, 2006

Schenker Institute, Hamburg : Prospectus

Prospectus of the Schenker Institute, Hamburg, undated [1931-34]

Source: OJ 58/41


Private / höhere Lehr- und Forschungsanstalt / für Musik

Gegründet 1931

Die Ausbildungsstätte für höchste / künstlerische und wissenschaftliche Ansprüche

Direktion: Felix-Eberhard v. Cube

Hamburg 13, Louisenallee 2, I. Stock, Fernsprecher 44 27 70
Sprechstunden: Mo., Mi., Fr. von 12-13 Uhr

In einem Privatinstitut
wird die individuelle Ausbildung, welche die spezifischen Anlagen jedes einzelnen Studierenden sorgfältig entwickelt, in Verbindung mit der Universalität der zur Wahl gestellten Lehrfächer besonders gepflegt.

Das Schenker-Institut ist die einzige Lehranstalt auf dem Kontinent, welche neben der Unterweisung in allen klassischen und modernen Tonsatzlehren ihren Studienplan auf den neuzeitlichen Forschungsergebnissen und Lehrmethoden des Wiener Musikgelehrten und - Pädagogen Prof. Dr. Heinrich Schenker aufbaut.

Das Institut umfaßt folgende Abteilungen:

A. Konservatorium der Musik für Laien, Anfänger und Liebhaber der Musik.

B. Vorbereitung auf die staatl. Privatmusiklehrerprüfung für alle Studierenden, welche die Berechtigung zur Erteilung von berufsbildendem Musikunterricht anstreben.

C. Meisterschule für Komponisten und Instrumentalsolisten für alle diejenigen, welche die höchste z. Zt. erreichbare Qualifikation als Tonsetzer, Solisten oder Pädagogen erlangen wollen.

D. Institut für Musiklehrerfortbildung.

Für die Aufnahme in die Abteilung B und C ist Mittelschulreife bzw. Abitur erforderlich. Aufnahme in D nur nach Ablegung der staatl. Privatmusiklehrerprüfung.

Absolventen des Instituts erhalten ein Abgangszeugnis. Die am Institut absolvierten Semester werden von auswärtigen Hochschulen auf Antrag in Anrechnung gebracht.


HistoricumProf. Dr. Wilhelm Heinitz
Hist. RepetitoriumIngrid Nottebohm
Psychol. Pädag., PhilosophicumDr. Wilhelm Schmidt-Scherf
MathematicumDr. Helmut Baumann
Komposition, Theoreticum I, II, IIIFelix-Eberhard v. Cube
Theor. RepetitoriumHans Wingert
Musik. ElementarlehreUrsula Bosch
ChorklasseHerbert Langhans
KammermusikklasseHannele Semann-Osbahr
OpernkorrepetitionKapellmst. Friedrich Buck
Dramat. UnterrichtGertrud Buck-Möllnitz
OrchesternachwuchsJohannes Lorenz
Labor für ElektromusikHerbert Weigelt

Das Institut übernimmt auch die theoretische Ausbildung von Schülern externer Privatlehrkräfte. Für jedes Solohauptfach stehen einige Hamburger Solisten zur Verfügung.

Honorarbedingungen :

Instrumental-Einzelunterricht:jährlich DM
Theoretische Fächer - (Klassenunterricht)480.-
Vollstudium pauschal720.-

Eintritt: 1. April und 1. Oktober: für Laien jederzeit
Kündigung: 1. Januar, 1. April, 1. Oktober jeweils 4 Wochen vorher schriftlich

Zahlung monatlich oder quartalsweise voraus

Freiplätze in beschränkter Anzahl nach Prüfung durch die Sozialbehörde

(Änderungen vorbehalten)

Schacht & Westerlich

November 24, 2006

Rosé, Arnold (Rosé Quartet)

Arnold Josef Rosé (1863-1946), Austrian violinist. One of the leading violinists of his age, Rosé began his career with studies at the Vienna Conservatory under Carl Heißler (1874–77). After four years spent on tour as a soloist, Rosé was appointed concertmaster of the Vienna Hofoper (where he worked closely with Mahler, to whom he was related by marriage, during the latter’s directorship) and Vienna Philharmonic orchestras in 1881, remaining until 1938, and was also concertmaster at Bayreuth 1888–96. In 1882, he founded the Rosé Quartet with his brother Eduard, a cellist. Later, Rosé taught violin at the Vienna Conservatory from 1893 to 1901 (when he left in protest against the introduction of the Meisterklassen) and 1908–18 (Tittel; MGG: 1908–1924). In 1938 he moved to England.

The Rosé String Quartet was one of the leading chamber ensembles in Europe. It gave many first performances, notably of works by Brahms, Pfitzner, Korngold, Reger, Schoenberg, and Webern. These included the premières of Schoenberg’s First String Quartet, Op.7 (February 5, 1907) and First Chamber Symphony, Op.9 (February 8, 1907), both of which Schenker attended (Schoenberg having drawn his attention to them), commenting caustically in his diary, and his Second String Quartet, Op.10 (December 1908).

Rosé’s and his quartet’s commitment to the German/Austrian Classical repertory and its personal association with Brahms disposed Schenker favorably to them in the 1890s (see early reviews); however, their increasing advocacy of new music aroused his disapproval. In 1908, he described Rosé’s playing as “oppressed by the dark and somber power of school pedantry, ungainly and monotonous, lacking color and warmth, like a nag in harness that sits and broods, waiting dully for the coachman’s signal.” (diary February 28, 1908).

There is no known correspondence between Schenker and Rosé. Elsewhere in the correspondence, Rosé is mentioned:

OJ 13/27, [4], October 14, 1901 (Roentgen to Schenker)

WSLB 200, February 19, 1914 (Schenker to Hertzka)

Mentions in diary entries include:

OJ 1/6, p. 33, February 5, 1907 (Schoenberg First Quartet première) (Fed., 211)
OJ 1/6, p. 34, February 8, 1907 (Schoenberg Chamber Symphony I première)
OJ 1/7, p. 80, February 28, 1908 (Fed., 248)
OJ 3/5, p. ?, March 28, 1926 (Fed., 248)
OJ 4/1, p. ?, October 18, 1927 (Fed., 217, 249)
OJ 4/8, p. ?, February 15, 1933 (Fed., 249)


Federhofer, Hellmut, ed., Heinrich Schenker als Essayist und Kritiker (Hildesheim: Olms, 1990), passim
Federhofer, Hellmut, Heinrich Schenker nach Tagebüchern ... (Hildesheim: Olms, 1985), pp. 248–49
NGDM1 & 2
Tittel, Ernst, Die Wiener Musikhochschule ... (Vienna: Lafite, 1967)

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