GRAMMAR / *Ghalib grammar page*

Note: at present this is more of an inventory; eventually I hope to add more explanatory material.

 

'ALWAYS' construction == {60,1}; {60,3}; {736,8}; {1050,2}

APNA == {96,6}*; {183,13}*; {721,8}; {724,1}*; {1317,1}*; {1317,7}**; {1537,4}*

ATIYAN HAIN etc. (archaic present habitual, a few examples) == {60,4}; {60,6}; {320} refrain; {1199} refrain; {1120,1}, le;N hai;N ; also {320,2}, aa))iyaa;N hai;N for aa))ii hai;N

AVENGE for A'ENGE etc. == {15,5}; {129,2}; {667,11; {684,3}; {689,2}; {689,3}; {721,1}; {1088,9}; {1094,4}; {1111,2}, he;Nge ; {1341,2} (used with mod. form); {1548}

AY as an exclamation of praise == {1567,2}*

AYA as a general exclamation == {387,2}

BAAT omitted == {19,4}; {26,6}; {186,3}; {1582,1}

BHII as colloquially emphatic, 'after all' == {344,8}; {601,1}**; {1164,6}; {1818,9}

BIKHERE THII == {236,2}, noted in {1574,6}

CHAHIYEGI == {494,1}

COMPOUND VERBS used idiomatically == {722,10}**; {1781,1}

CONTRAFACTUAL == {19,1}*

DAKANI == {736,8}

DEVE == {15,5}

DIRECT DISCOURSE == {1313,7}

ENJAMBEMENT, a few examples == {324,4}

GENDER (DIS)AGREEMENT == {2,2}, rules more fluid in Mir's day; {17,8}; {66,7}

GENDER == Beloved (Laila) actually gets feminine gender: {1506,4}

HENGE == {273,1}, hegaa; {1112,2}; {1614,1}; {584,7}, hegii

HO == most perfect multivalence == {1243,1}

'ISHQ HAI as an exclamation of praise == {307,4}

-IYE as not real imperative, just general proposal == {471,7}; {1761,2}; {1762,9}; many more

IZAFAT omitted/reversed == see Terms page

JAB TAK with NAH == {401,3}

JAN'NA as not showing reliable knowledge == {1139,1}

JA'E HAI for JATA HAI, etc. == {3,8}*, karuu;N huu;N ; {15,9}; {20,2}; {60,3} (pl.); {69,4} (pl.); {89,12} (pl.); {99,4}; {108,10}; {213,2}, Firaq's misuses; {290,10}, a claim of further shortening to jaa hai ); {667,4}; {668,3} (pl.); {669,2}; {684,5} (pl.); {684,9}; {711,6}; {738,6}; {929,3}, duu;N huu;N ; {1088,9}, kaa;To ho ; {1102,1}; {1102,7}; {1313,1}; {1317,4}; {1328,3}; {1337,3}; {1337,5}; {1341,2}; {1350,2}, jaanuu;N huu;N ; {1450}, ole;N hai;N ; {1537,1}; {1548,1}; {1577,5}, puuchho ho ; {1791,1} ref. to {537,1} with rahe hai ; there are so many of these that I've mostly stopped linking them after the alifs

JO HAI for both people and things == {601,1}

KABHU for KABHI == {736,8}; {1067,5}; {1336,7} and many more

KAHE THA == {101,7}

KAHE TUU = GOYAA == {2,4}

KARIYE for KIJIYE == {1762,9}

KATIYEGA as Delhi-style future == {1723,6}

KE RANGON == {1333,1}; {1567,2}

KE TA'IN == {19,4}*; {69,4}**; {138,1}; {141,2}, tii;N ; {764,9}*; {777,5}; {1373,5}

KIH as 'or' == {472,1}

KIIDHAR == {745,1}; {1094,4}

KIJE/DIJE == *discussion (Ghalib)* == further discussion: {15,2}**; {412}, kiijo ; {921,6}, liije

KISU for KISII == {128,8}; {684,1}; {721,11}; {1059,2} (noun for a thing); {1341,4} and many more

KO as 'ghostposition' == {481,6}

KO as time indicator == {601,1}

KO for both direct and indirect == {138,1}

KUCHH as very flexible == {451,1}; {472,6}

KYA as omitted but absolutely required: {775,5} (cited in {544,6}; see also the KYA list on the SETS page

LIJIYO == {611,2}

MA'NI as always plural == {307,3}

NAH as 'isn't it?', etc. == {52,2}

NAH spelled as NE to make it long == {60,4}

NE omitted == {14,4}; {26,6}; {31,1}; {31,9}; {471,3}*; {667,4}; {686,1}; {770,5}; {777,3}; {817,4}; {1040,1}; {1256,1}; {1757,2}; {1916,5}

NEN for NE == {367}

NOUN COMPOUNDS (Persian) == {296,12}*, as izafat forms; {722,10}; {760,9}

NUUN, full or nasalized == {100,7}

'-O-' == {1477,3}

PA;RA as exclamation of praise == {20,2}

PARTICIPLE, PERFECT, adverbial == {66,7}; {689,1}, with par ;

PASSIVE of impossibility == {48,1}*; {66,1}*

PASSIVE with intransitives == {48,1}*

PERFECT-- skewed correlation with English, a few of the many examples == {48,7}*; {60,6}; {71,2}*; {97,2}; {99,4}* (reversed); {141,2}; {265,2}*; {673,7}; {736,3}; {743,2}*; {777,3}; {1101,5}; {1370,1}*; {1579,2}; {1624,1}, with hanuuz

PERFECT used for SUBJUNCTIVE == {20,1}; {85,7}; {686,5}; {1056,4}; {1102,2}; {1202,1}; {1328,1}; {1597,5}; {1781,12}* (SRF endorses)

PERFECT used for 'future affirmative' == {705,5}

PHIR in two senses == {1243,1}

POLITE IMPERATIVE with GA used flexibly == {1791,1}

POSSESSIVE-- ambiguity of reference == {745,1}

PRESUMPTIVE == {54,1}*; {80,7}; {89,12}; {183,16}; {1112,2}

PROGRESSIVE with thaa omitted == {64,12}

PRONUNCIATIONS == {69,2}

RAKHNA/RAHNA == {74,9}

SAN for SA == {1221,6}

SE used for ambiguity == {668,3}

SINGULAR/PLURAL == {669,2}

SOTE SE == {183,14}

SPELLING CHANGES == {700,12}

SUBJUNCTIVE == {178,4} (multivalences)

TIDHAR == {70,4}

TIS == {757,2}

TO == {1449,7}

TUJH for 'your' == {745,4}

TUM HO == either indicative or subjunctive == {907,1}

UN NE == {1806,4}; but also unho;Nne : {1802,3}

UNHON KA/KI == {78,7}; {1807,2}

UN / US as interchangeable within a verse == {669,2}

VE verses VUH in same verse == (for plural vs. sing.) {1882,2}

VERB omission == {1650,1}

VOWEL shifted ones forced to rhyme == {546,1}*; {552,5}

VUH for 'such a' == {108,6}; {352,2}; {696,5}*; {774,4}

YAK constructions (Persian style) == {452,2}

YIH for 'such a' == {20,2}; {46,4}; {96,8}; {126,2}*; {777,1}

YUHIIN for YUUN HII == {696,5}

= = = = = = = = = = =

AWFUL OR OTHERWISE ANNOYING GRAMMAR: {254,3}; {1313,1}; {1328,1}; {1574,2}(?); {1577,3}

= = = = = = = = = = =

METRICAL doublings: {20,2}

METRICAL oddities: rah from rahnaa scanned as short: {220,3}

METRICAL spelling changes in refrain: {60,1}; {84,1}; {711,1}; {777,9} (syllabification only); {1079,6}

METRICAL oddities: pahu;Nchaa as long long: {254,1} and many other examples

METRICAL oddities: {956,6}, ga))ii;N as one syllable; {1102,2}; {1328,3}; {1554,6}

METRICAL oddities: ne as long form of nah : {853,7}

METRICAL oddities: unhe;N as short short: {1658,1}

METRICAL oddities: dekho as short long in a verse of Abru's: {313,8}

METRICAL oddities: de;Nge as short short: {276,3}

METRICAL oddities: vohii;N as long long: {615,1}

METRICAL oddities: too many syllables in 'Hindi meter': {1219,5}